Improving students’ skill in writing procedure text through picture sequences: a classroom action research at the ninth grade of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang

IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SKILL IN WRITING PROCEDURE
TEXT THROUGH PICTURE SEQUENCES
(A Classroom Action Research at the Ninth Grade of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2
Pamulang)

By
Suaeni
1110014000115

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2015

ABSTRACT

Suaeni (1110014000115). Improving Students’ Skill in Writing Procedure
Text through Picture Sequences; A Classroom Action Research in the Ninth
Grade of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang. Skripsi of English Education at
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training of State Islamic University Syarif
Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2015.
Key words: Picture Sequences, Procedure Writing, MTsN Tangerang 2 Pamulang

This study was conducted in order to know whether picture sequences
improve the students’ skill in writing procedure text in the ninth grade of 9.3
class of MTsN Tangerang 2 Pamulang academic year 2014/2015. The subject of
this study was consisted of 32 students’ 9.3 class.
In conducting this study, the writer used Classroom Action Research
(CAR) as the method of the study. The writer used the Kurt Lewins’ model
design. Then, the writer and the English teacher of MTsN Tangerang 2 Pamulang
were collaborated in conducting this study. The writer was as a teacher and the
English teacher was an observer and a collaborator. The writer taught procedure
writing through picture sequences. This study was conducted following
procedures of the action research: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The
study was carried out in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of three meetings. The
data was gathered in this study through observation sheet, interview guideline,
and test.
The results of the study showed that there was improvement of the
students’ skill in writing procedure text through piture sequences. Most of the
students gradually gained good scores at the second cycle. The score of Minimum
Master Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) of English lesson was 75.
The students’ mean score in the preliminary study was 60.72. The mean score in
the first cycle was 75.34. The mean score in the second cycle was 81.53. Besides,
it showed that there were 56.25 % students passed the KKM in the first cycle and
81.25 % students achieved the KKM in the second cycle. It meant that this study
had been reached the criteria of success; 75 % students could pass the KKM.
Moreover, the class condition during teaching learning process was also better in
every cycle. In addition, there was a positive response from the English teacher
and the students about implementing the action. So, It could be concluded that
picture sequences improve students’ skill in writing procedure text.

iii

ABSTRAK

Suaeni (1110014000115). Improving Students’ Skill in Writing Procedure
Text through Picture Sequences; A Classroom Action Research in the Ninth
Grade of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang. Skripsi Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa
Inggris Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta,
2015.
Kata Kunci: Picture Sequences, Procedure Writing, MTsN Tangerang 2 Pamulang

Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui apakah picture sequences
meningkatkan kemampuan siswa dalam menulis teks prosedur pada siswa kelas
tiga (9.3) MTsN Tangerang 2 Pamulang tahun akademik 2014/2015. Subjek
penelitian ini terdiri dari 32 siswa kelas 9.3.
Dalam pelaksanaan penelitian ini, peneliti menggunakan Penelitian
Tindakan Kelas (PTK) sebagai metode penelitian. Penulis menggunakan model
Kurt Lewin. Peneliti dan guru bahasa Inggris MTsN Tangerang 2 Pamulang
berkolaborasi dalam penelitian ini. Peneliti sebagai guru dan guru bahasa inggris
bertindak sebagai pengamat. Peneliti mengajarkan prosedur melalui picture
sequeces.. penelitian ini dilaksanakan berdasarkan prosedur penelitian tindakan
yaitu perencanaan, tindakan, observasi, dan pengamatan. Penelitian ini terdiri dari
dua sikluss. Satu siklus terdiri dari tiga pertemuan. Data diperoleh melalui lembar
observasi, interview, dan tes.
Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa ada peningkatan kemampuan siswa
dalam menulis prosedur teks melalui picture sequences. Sebagian besar siswa
secara bertahap memperoleh nilai yang bagus pada siklus kedua. Kriteria
Ketuntasan Minimum (KKM) mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris adalah 75. Nilai ratarata pada penelitian awal adalah 60.72. niai rata-rata pada siklus pertama adalah
75.34. nilai rata-rata pada siklus kedua adalah 81.53. Disamping itu, ini
menunjukan bahwa 56.25 % siswa yang mencapai nilai KKM pada siklus pertama
dan 81.25 % siswa yang mencapai nilai KKM. Ini berarti penelitian sudah
mencapai kriteria kesuksesan; yaitu 75 % siswa dapat mencapai nilai KKM.
Selain itu, kondisi di kelas selama proses belajar mengajar lebih baik di setiap
siklus dan adanya repson positif dari guru dan siswa mengenai pelaksanaan
tindakan ini. Sehingga, dapat disimpulkan bahwa picture sequences meningkatkan
kemampuan siswa dalam menulis prosedur teks.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. All praises be to Allah,
the Lord of the world who has given His Mercy and Blessing upon the writer in
completing this Skripsi. Peace and salutation always be upon the prophet
Muhammad Shallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam, his family, his relatives, and his
faithful followers.
In this occasion, the writer would like to express her greatest appreciation,
honour and gratitude to her beloved parents (Rohadi and Dayu), for all their
valuable supports and moral encouragement in motivating the writer to finish her
study. Then, the writer thanks to her beloved younger sisters (Fitri Kurniasih and
Siti Khamidah) for his love and support to the writer in writing this Skripsi.
The writer also would like to express her deepest gratitude to her advisors,
Drs. Syauki, M. Pd. and Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M. Pd., for their advices, guidances,
corrections, and suggestions in finishing this Skripsi.
Her gratitude also goes to:
1. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Thib Raya, MA., the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and
Teachers’ Training.
2. Drs. Syauki, M. Pd., the Head of the Department of English Education.
3. Zaharil Anasy, M. Hum., the Secretary of the Department of English
Education.
4. Her academic advisor, Dr. Fahriany, M. Pd., for her advices, guidances,
suggestions, and supports.
5. All lecturers of the Department of English Education who have taught and
educated the writer during her study at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
6. Suhardi, M. Pd., the Headmaster of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang,
who has allowed the writer to conduct the research in his school.
7. All teachers and staff of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang. Especially,
Dra. Iriastuti, the English teacher of Class 9.3 MTs Negeri Tangerang 2
v

Pamulang who has given her ideas, time, guidances, advices, and supports
to the writer in the process of conducting the research.
8. Her beloved best friends, Rinda Nuraini, Nurdina Mecca, Dede Iros
Rosmawati, Ilfa Hidayah, Erma Velanda, Uswatun Khasanah, M, Iqbal Al
Muzaeni, M. Sukron Awaludin, for sharing knowledge, cares, motivation,
time, supports, laugh and happiness.
9. Her beloved friends in English Education Department Academic Year
2010, especially EED class C, for giving cares and supports.
10. All of her dorm-mates, Atsna Dziroyyah, Tatu Hilaliyah, and Sa’diyyatul
Qurroh, for sharing their happiness and support.
11. Any other person who cannot be mentioned one by one for their
contribution to the writer during finishing her Skripsi. The words are not
enough to say any appreciations for their help.

May Allah bless them for all of what they have done.

Finally, the writer feels that it is really pleasure for her to receive
criticisms and suggestions to make this Skripsi better. She also hopes that this
Skripsi would be beneficial, particularly for her and for those who are interested in
it.

Jakarta, March 2015

The writer

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ENDORSEMENT SHEET .................................................................................... i
SURAT PERNYATAAN ...................................................................................... ii
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... iii
ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................ iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... vii
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................... xi
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................ xii
LIST OF APENDICES ...................................................................................... xiii

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study...................................................... vii
B. Identification of the Problem ................................................. 4
C. Limitation of the Study .......................................................... 4
D. Formulation of the Study ....................................................... 4
E. Objective of the Study............................................................ 5
F. Significance of the Study ....................................................... 5

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Writing
1.

The Definition of Writing ............................................... 6

2.

The Writing Process ........................................................ 6

3.

The Purpose of Writing ................................................... 8

B. Procedure Text
1.

The Definition of Text .................................................. 10

vii

2.

The Definition of Procedure Text ................................. 11

3.

Language Feature of Procedure Text ............................ 11

4.

Structure of Procedure Text ......................................... 12

5.

The Example of Procedure Text ................................... 14

C. Picture
1.

The Definition of Picture .............................................. 15

2.

Kinds of Picture ............................................................ 16

3.

Function of Picture ........................................................ 17

4.

The Criteria of Good Picture......................................... 18

5.

The Resources of Picture .............................................. 19

6.

Picture Sequence ........................................................... 20

7.

The Example of Picture Sequence ................................ 21

D. Previous Study ..................................................................... 22
E. Conceptual Framework ....................................................... 23
F. Action Hyphotesis ................................................................ 23
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Time and Place of the Study ................................................ 24
B. Subject of the Study ............................................................ 24
C. Writer’s Role on the Study................................................... 24
D. Design of the Study .............................................................. 24
E. Procedure of the Study ......................................................... 28
F. Instrument of the Study ........................................................ 30
G. Technique of Data Collection .............................................. 31
H. Technique of Data Analysis ................................................. 35
I.

The Validity of Data ............................................................ 36

viii

J.

The Criteria of Action Success ............................................ 37

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS
A. The Data Description ........................................................... 38
1.

2.

Before Implementing the Action .................................. 38
a.

The Result of Pre Observation ............................... 38

b.

The Result of Pre Interview ................................... 39

c.

The Result of Pre Test ........................................... 41

The Implementation of Classroom Action Research .... 42
a.

Cycle 1 ................................................................... 42
1) Planning .......................................................... 42
2) Acting ............................................................. 43
3) Observing ........................................................ 45
4) Reflecting ........................................................ 46

b.

Cycle 2 ................................................................... 47
1) Planning .......................................................... 47
2) Acting ............................................................. 47
3) Observing ........................................................ 48
4) Reflecting ........................................................ 49

3.

After Implementing Classroom Action Research ......... 50
a.

The Result of Post Interview.................................. 50

b.

The Result of Post Test .......................................... 51

B. Data Interpretation ............................................................... 59
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion ........................................................................... 62
B. Suggestion ............................................................................ 63

ix

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 64
APPENDICES ..................................................................................................... 66

x

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1

Analytical Scoring Rubric adapted from Arthur Huge ......................... 32

Table 4.1

The Students’ Writing Score of Pre-test, Post-test 1 and Post-test 2 .. 52

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1

The Example of Procedure Text ...................................................... 14

Figure 2.2

Five Senses in Learning Acquisition ............................................... 16

Figure 2.3

The Example of Picture Sequence ................................................... 21

Figure 3.1

Kurt Lewin’s Action Research Design ............................................ 26

Figure 3.2

The Phases of Classroom Action Research Modified by the Writer 27

Figure 4.1

The Result of Students’ Score before Implementation .................... 54

Figure 4.2

The Result of Students’ Score in Post Test 1 .................................. 56

Figure 4.3

The Result of Students’ Score in Post Test 2 .................................. 58

Figure 4.4

The Result of Students’ Score Improvement from Pre Test, Post Test
1, and Post Test 2 ............................................................................. 59

xii

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Schedule of Classroom Action Research ...................................... 66
Appendix 2 Observation Sheets ........................................................................ 67
Appendix 3 Students’ Interview before CAR ................................................... 70
Appendix 4 The Result of Students’ Interview before CAR ............................ 71
Appendix 5 Teacher’s Interview before CAR................................................... 73
Appendix 6 The Result of Teacher’s Interview before CAR ............................ 74
Appendix 7 Students’ Interview after CAR ...................................................... 77
Appendix 8 The Result of Students’ Interview after CAR ............................... 78
Appendix 9 Teacher’s Interview after CAR ..................................................... 79
Appendix 10 The Result of Teacher’s Interview after CAR ............................... 80
Appendix 11 The Instrument of Pre Test ............................................................ 82
Appendix 12 The Instrument of Post-Test 1 ....................................................... 83
Appendix 13 The Instrument of Post-Test 2 ....................................................... 84
Appendix 14 The Students’ Score in Pre-Test, Post-Test 1, and Post-Test 2 ..... 85
Appendix 15 Lesson Plans of Cycle 1 ................................................................ 87
Appendix 16 Lesson Plans of Cycle 2 ................................................................ 88
Appendix 17 The Profil of MTs N Tangerang II Pamulang ............................... 89
Appendix 18 Surat Permohonan Izin Observasi ................................................. 90
Appendix 19 Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian ................................................. 91
Appendix 20 Surat Keterangan Penelitian .......................................................... 92

xiii

xiv

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study
There are many kinds of language in our life. One of them is English.
Nowadays, English has become a very prominent language in the world. It
becomes a lingua franca or a language that used as a medium of communication
among people who do not share common language, either in oral or written
communication. As an international language, English plays an important role in
many fields. Such as education, technology, politic, economy, art, etc. Therefore,
both developed and developing countries likely have the same idea that English is
one of international languages that needs to be learnt and mastered.
Realizing the importance of English, Indonesia as one of developing
countries puts English as a compulsory subject matter in its education curriculum.
The government hopes by mastering English, Indonesian human and natural
resources can be developed. This is based on the fact that science and technology
are mostly transferred through foreign languages, primarily English. Therefore,
English becomes first foreign language that should be taught formally to all
Indonesian students, starting from Junior High School (SMP) up to university.
Based on real situation, learning English is not easy for Indonesian
students, because we know that Indonesian students are expected to be able to
master four language skills, they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Those are divided into productive skills and receptive skills as Harmer viewed
that “Speaking and writing involve language production and are therefore often
referred as productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, involve
receiving messages and are therefore referred to as receptive skills.”1

1

Jeremy Harmer, the practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman,
1991), p.16.

1

2

Among the four language skills taught in schools, writing is the most
difficult skill to be mastered by students.2 It needs specialized skills that include
the ability to express the writer’s opinions or thoughts clearly and efficiently.
These abilities can be achieved only if a learner masters some techniques of
writing such as how to obtain ideas about what she will write on, how to express
them in a sequence of sentences, how to organize them chronologically and
coherently, and how to review and then to revise the composition until the writing
is well-built.3
Considering the complexities of writing skill that were encountered by
students, learning writing is the most avoided subject among other skill subject in
English. In fact, learning writing has been proven to give advantages to the
students. Those are writing sharpens thinking skills, opens opportunities to learn,
nurtures personal development, helps to establish relationships, and writing
fosters success in college and the workplace.4
Having known the great gains of learning writing, the government of
Indonesia created many curriculums which determined writing is one of the
language skills that must be taught at Junior High School/Islamic Junior High
School (SMP/MTs). One of them is KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan
Pendidikan). It states that the students must be exposed and be able to write
different kinds of texts. One of them is writing procedure text. It is obviously
stated in the Basic competence - Kompetensi Dasar (KD) that “The ninth grade
students are expected to be able to express the meaning of functional text and
simply short essay in the form of procedure and report texts to interact on the
daily life context.”5

2

Jack C. Richard and Willy A Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching, (New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 303.
3
Halimatus Sa’diyah, Improving Students’ Ability in Writing Descriptive Texts through a
Picture Series - Aided Learning Strategy, The English Teacher, vol. XL, 2010, p.164.
4
Betty Mattrix Dietsch, Reasoning & Writing Well; A Rhetoric, Research Guide, Reader,
and Handbook, 4th ed, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 5.
5
http://downloads.ziddu.com/download/12329581/silabus3BingSMP9.doc.html/eng

3

Based on the writer’s experiences as a private teacher and a teacher during
PPKT at the ninth grade of Junior High School’s students, the writer often found
difficulties are faced by many students in learning writing procedure text. They
often find difficulties to generate their ideas based on their imagination and
experiences only when they wrote a procedure text. Consequently, they just
copied the materials from internet. They could not arrange the procedure text in a
good order. Besides that, the student of Junior High School lack of knowledge of
vocabulary and grammar pattern. Some of the students were not interested in
writing procedure text and they did not pay attention to learn it. This situation
might happen because the teaching method/technique/media was not interesting.
Regarding to those problems which are usually found in learning of
writing procedure text, the writer intends to use picture sequences as media to
improve the students’ capability in writing procedure text. As Wright stated that
pictures have some benefits such as pictures can motivate students and make them
want to pay attention and want to take part. Pictures contribute to the context in
which the language is being used. They bring the world into the classroom.6
Pictures also can prompt students into writing story, attract the students to focus in
writing and give more their attention in seeing pictures than reading the text.
Pictures also help the students to understand and generate their idea visually in
writing sentence, so they can write a story based on the pictures they see because
pictures give a true, concrete, and realistic concept. By seeing pictures, the
students are able to imagine what they want to write.
Besides the reason as mentioned above, other consideration why the
picture sequences was applied was the English Teacher had never tried the picture
sequences yet as media for teaching writing. In addition, the use of picture
sequences was believed to be able to motivate students’ participation in writing
class.

6

Andrew Wright, Picture for Language Learning, (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1989), p. 17.

4

Based on the explanations above, the writer has motivation to do a
classroom action research about “Improving students’ skill in writing procedure
text through picture sequences (A Classroom Action Research at the Ninth Grade
of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang)”.

B. Identification of The Problem
Based on the background above, the problem that covers the research can
be identified as follows:
a.

Writing procedure text is one of English text types that Junior High School
students should be mastered.

b.

The students often find difficulty to generate their ideas based on their
imagination and experiences only when they wrote a procedure text.

c.

They could not arrange the procedure text in a good order.

d.

The student of Junior High School lack of knowledge of vocabulary and
grammar pattern.

e.

Some of the students were not interested and did not pay attention to learn it
because the teaching method/technique/media was not interesting.

f.

The use of picture sequence is an aid that the writer wants to apply in this
research.

g.

Picture sequences help the students to understand and generate their idea

h.

Picture sequences attract students’ attention and motivation towards students’
writing procedure text.

C. Limitation of The Problem
Based on the identification of the problem above, the writer will limit the
problem to: The improvement of students’ skill in writing procedure text through
picture sequences.

D. Formulation of The Problem
Based on the background presented above, the writer plans to solve the
problem through picture sequences in improving students’ writing skill of
procedure text at the ninth grade of MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang. The
formulation of the problem in this study is “How are picture sequences improve

5

the ninth grade students’ skill in writing procedure text at MTs Negeri Tangerang
2 Pamulang?”

E. The objective of the Study
In line with the formulation of the problem above. The objective of this
study is to know whether picture sequences improve the ninth grade students’ skill
in writing procedure text at MTs Negeri Tangerang 2 Pamulang.

F. The significance of the Study
The result of this study is expected to be useful for the writer herself, so it
will broaden her knowledge in teaching writing procedure text. The teacher will
know more whether using picture sequence can be applied to teach writing
procedure text. The English teacher can stimulate his/her students to write
procedure text by using picture sequences. For the students, hopefully it can help
them to build their understanding of the sequence events in procedure text by
having images of procedure text. Therefore, they can get a better improvement on
their skill in writing procedure text

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Writing
1. Definition of Writing
Writing is a way of expressing our thoughts in order the reader can
understand what we have in our mind in the written form. This statement is
supported by Baker who stated, “Writing is a way of thinking. Writing
actually creates a thought, and generates your ability to think; you discover
thoughts you hardly knew you had, and come to know what you know.”1
Another expert, Nunan said that, “Writing is both physical and
mental work”2. It means that writing is the physical act of committing words
or ideas to some medium, and is mental work of inventing ideas, thinking
about how to express them into statements and paragraphs well. Meanwhile,
Brown explained that “Writing is, in fact, a transaction with words whereby
you free yourself from what you presently think, feel, and perceive.3
All of the definitions above explain clearly that writing is a process
of showing or expressing ideas, opinions, experiences, or information in the
mind of the writer in the form of written language. The writer succed to
express his/her ideas, opinions, experiences, and etc if she/he clearly knows
what the purpose she/he writes.

2. The Writing Process
Writing process is the several actions which have to be done by a
writer if he/she wants to write. For some experts, writing is a process that
1

Sheridan Baker, The Practical Stylist, Sixth Edition, (New York: Harper & Row Publishers,
1987), p. 2.
2
David Nunan, Language Teaching Method: A Textbook for Teacher, (New York: Prentice
Hall, 1991). P. 4.
3
H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy, 2nd Ed., (New York: Pearson Education, 2001), p. 337

6

7

involves some steps. Jack C. Richards and Willy explained four main stages
in the writing process, namely planning, drafting, revising, and editing.4
a.

Planning (Free-writing) is any activities in the classroom that
encourages students to write, such as: group brainstorming, clustering,
rapid free writing, WH_Questions and so on.

b.

Drafting (Writing) is a stage where the writers are focussed on the
fluency of writing and are not preoccupied with grammatical accuracy
or the neatness.

c.

Revising is an activity to review the text on the basis of the feedback
given in the responding stage and to reexamine what was written to see
how effectively the writer communicates the meanings to the reader

d.

Editing is the stage where the students are engaged in tidying up their
texts as they prepare the final draft for evaluation by the teacher; they
edit their own or their peer’s work for grammar, spelling, punctuation,
diction, sentence structure, etc.
Meanwhile, Grenville stated that writing is a process that involves the

following steps:
a. Getting ideas (in no particular order).
b. Choosing (selecting the ideas you think will be most useful).
c. Outlining (putting these ideas into the best order - making a plan).
d. Drafting (doing a first draft from beginnin to end, without going back).
e. Revising (cutting, adding, or moving parts of this draft where
necessary).
f. Editing (proofreading for grammar, spelling, and paragraphs).5
From the statements above, the writer inferred that those two
theorists argued differently about writing process, they however have the
4

Jack C. Richard and Willy A Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching, (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 315.
5
Kate Grenville, Writing From Start to Finish: a six-step guide, (Australia: Allen & Unwin,
2001), p. 8.

8

same purpose; that is the writing process provides the students with a series
of planned learning experiences to help them understand the nature of
writing at every point. Therefore, the process of writing is important to
produce a better writing and it can develop positive attitudes toward writing.

3. The purpose of Writing
The purpose of writing based on Penny Ur is the expression of ideas,
the conveying of a message to the reader; so the ideas themselves should
arguably be seen as the most important aspect of the writing.
Miller said some purposes of writing, they are writing to understand
experience, to inform, to explain, to persuade, to amuse, and to inspire
others.6
a. Writing to understand experience
The writers who have this motive of writing draw upon to help them
undertand who they are, how they become that way, what they like, or
what they want. Eventhough, the writers are writing about themselves,
they are not writing for themselves alone. They are also writing to share
their experience to the readers.7
b. Writing to inform
In much of writing, it will intend simply to inform the reader about a
subject. To inform means to transmit necessary information about a
subject to the readers, and usually this also means telling the readers
what the facts are or what happened.8
c. Writing to explain
Writing to explain means to take what is unclear and make it clear. In
explanatory writing, a writer who understands a complex topic must

Robert Keith Miller, Motives for Writing, 5th ed, (New York: The MCGraw-Hill Comp,
2006), p. 47.
7
Ibid., p. 47.
8
Ibid., p. 97.
6

9

make sure that the readers understand it as well. The task in explaining is
to clarify a subjet to the readers. The important thing to keep in mind is
that the relationship between the writers and the readers. It is needed to
consider how much the readers already know about the subject and how
much still need explanations9
d. Writing to persuade
Persuassion is very important things in human's life. You will use
persuassion an attempt to get someone to do something you want for
yourself, to achieve benefits for others, or to solve the problem. For
instance, when you apply for job, try to borrow money, persuade the
government to protect an endangered species. So, it can be assumed that
writing to persuade others has an aim which is the need to change
someone's mind.10
e. Writing to inspire others
Writing to inspire others means being able to elevate the human spirit by
reminding people of what is most important in life and what it is possible
to achieve. Fulfilling this motive of writing involves drawing on widely
held values and evoking feelings that need to be reinforced.11
f. Writing to amuse
Writing to amuse requires the writers to focus on the readers rather than
himself or herself. The writers may enjoy the experience and take pride
in what you accomplish, but she or he cannot settle for amusing alone.
Writing to amuse gives an opportunity to bring pleasure to others. Seize
the opportunity and make the most of it.12

9

Ibid., p. 451.
Ibid.
11
Ibid., p. 521
12
Ibid., p. 569
10

10

Meanwhile, according to Dietsch, writing has four general purposes:
to inform, to persuade, to express, and to entertain.13 Based on those two
statements above, the writer concluded that every writing has a purpose; that
is the writer wants to convey to the readers. Miller and Dietsch have the
same opinion that purpose of writing might be giving information,
persuading, entertaining or amusing readers. However, Miller added some
purposes of writing such as gives explanation, inspiration and understands
experience. Meanwhile, Dietsch added writing to express as a purpose of
writing.

B. Procedure Text
1. Definition of Text
Before going to the definition of procedure text, it is better to know
definition of the text itself. Hornby defined “Text is the main written or
printed part of a book or page, contrasted with notes.”14 And Jack C. Richard
on his book “Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics” stated that “Text
is a segment of spoken or written langugae. It has some characteristics: it is
noramally made up of several sentences, has distinctive structure and, has a
particular comminicative function or purpose, and often can be understood in
relation to the context ”.15
Moreover, Anderson argued that “Texts are pieces of spoken or
written language created for a particular purpose. It means when we write or

13

Betty Mattrix Dietsch, Reasoning & Writing Well; A Rhetoric, Research Guide, Reader,
and Handbook 4th ed, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 7.
14
A. S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’ Dictionary, 6th ed, (NY: Oxford University Press,
2000), p.1397.
15
Jack C. Richards and friends, Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied
Linguistics 4th ed, (England: Pearson Education Limited, 2010), p. 594.

11

speak, we create texts. When we listen, read, or view texts, we interpret them
for meaning.16
Thus from the definitions above, the researcher inferred that text is
everything we hear or say in spoken language, and what we read or write in
written language that has structure and function.

2. Definition of Procedure Text
We usually find many kinds of texts in our daily life. One of those
text is procedure text which is an instructional text that describes how to
make something or how a series of sequenced steps or phases. Mark and
Kathy Anderson through their book Text Types in English 3 defined a
procedure text as a piece of text that tells the readers or listeners how to do
something. Its purpose is to provide instructions for making something,
doing something, or getting somewhere.17 In addition, Professional
Development Service for Teachers stated that a procedure text has a social
function to explain how something is done, in a series of sequenced steps.18
The examples of procedure text are directions, Instruction manual, receipes,
and itineraries.
As it can be seen above, procedure text is defined as a text that
explains, tells or shows someone how to do something, to make something
and to get someplace, that have to be done in a series of sequenced steps.

3. Language Features of Procedure Text
According to Anderson, procedure text usually includes the
following language features:

16

Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 3. (South Yarra: Mcmillan
Education Ltd, 1998), p.28.
17
Ibid., p. 28.
18
http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/Writing%20Booklet%20to%20circulate.pdf

12



Sentences begun with action verb (imperative sentences). e.g., pour
hot water into the cup.



Sequence words or temporal conjunctions (e.g. firstly, next, then)
and numbers (e.g. 123) that show the order for carrying out the
procedure.



Adverbs of manner to describe how the actions should be
performed. e.g. quickly, firmly.



Precise terms and technical language. e.g. ml, grams, etc.19
In addition, the other sources added some of language features of

procedure text which are not included in Anderson’s book. They are:


Nouns or noun groups are used in the listed material or equipment.



The person following the instructions may not be referred to or may
be referred to in a general way as one or you. There is little use of
personal pronouns.



Words related to direction and specific locations are found. e.g. left,
north, Jamison street.



Adjectives add details relating to size, shape, color, and amount.



Present tense is generally used.20
To sum up, all of the points of language features of procedure

text above are usually used in writing procedure text.

4. Structure of Procedure Text
Generally, a procedure text is arranged of three main parts; Aim or
Goal of the procedure, List of materials which needed to complete the
procedure, and sequence of steps in correct order that need to be taken to
accomplish the task.
a.
19

An introductory statement giving the aim or goal

Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, loc. cit.
(http://assets.readingeggsassets.com/teacher_resources/rex/writing/pdfs/middle/procedure_te
xts_introduction_and_overview-fp-9569b444.pdf
20

13

This part can be the little of the procedure text, it is also may include an
introductory paragraph.
b.

List of materials needed for completing the procedure
This part usually takes form in kind of list, though sometimes it also can
be in form of paragraph. In certain proccedure text this part sometime is
omitted or left out.

c.

A sequence of steps in the correct order
This is the last part of procedure text which shows a sequence of steps
that need to be taken by readers to complete the task. The sequence
usually is shown by numbers (1,2,3 ...) or by using words such as first,
second, third, etc. Words such as now, next, and after this sometimes are
used as well. Commonly, the steps usually begin with a command such
as add, strir, or push.21
Thus from the explanation above, it can be concluded that there are

three points of generic structure of procedure text. Nevertheless, the
structure above is sometimes not found in certain types of procedure texts.
For example, in procedure text that tells the readers direction of how to get
to certain place or procedure text of rules of behavior, there is no list of
materials needed. In a procedure text of how to operate something,
sometimes list of materials needed is not included.

21

Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, op.cit., p. 31.

14

5. The Example of Procedure Text
Figure 2.1
Procedure Writing for Junior Classes
(Adapted from Writing Genre-A Structured Approach)22
How to Make Jelly

Ingredients : Jelly, Water
Utensils

: Kettle, Littre Jug, Spoon, Bowl,

Steps/method:
1.

Fill the kettle with water and bring to the boil

2.

Break up the jelly into small pieces

3.

Put the jelly pieces into the jug

4.

Pour the boiling water over the jelly in the jug

5.

Stir well until all the jelly has dissolved

6.

Pour into the bowl

7.

Leave in a cold place to set

8.

Put in a dish, add cream or ice cream. Taste

Thus, from example above, everybody know how to write procedure
text. First, they must write a goal. Second, they write a list of materials that
will be needed for completing the procedure, such as kind of ingredients and
utensils. Last, they need steps to achieve the goal with the purpose: to tell the
making process of jelly to the reader.
22

http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/Writing%20Booklet%20to%20circulate.pdf.

15

C. Picture
1. Definition of Picture
A picture is one of visual media that is very useful in teaching,
especially for English teaching. As stated before, English is a foreign
language for Indonesian students, so they have to know the English words
when they want to use it. Pictures can help the learners to ease them in
understanding the meaning of a word, a sentence or even a paragraph. By
using pictures, the learner can get the imagination about the objects or
situations that happens.
There are some definitions of a picture. Stone stated “A picture is
worth a thousand words.”23 It means pictures are able to say many words so
that people can understand many things by seeing them. Another definition
from Wright, he defined “Pictures are not just an aspect of method, but
through their representation of places, objects and people are an essential
part of the overall experiences we must help our students to cope with.24
This statement tells the picture can help the students to understand
something or somebody through its representation. It gives the students
easier way in learning their material. Furthermore, pictures can clarify the
material being taught and make learning more permanent.25 It can be known
that students can understand the material clearly and can remember it much
longer by seeing. It is clarified in the figure below.

23

Randi Stone, Best Practices for Teaching Writing, (California, Corwin Press Inc, 2007), p.

24

Andrew Wright, op. cit., p. 2
http://children.cccm.com/assets/Uploads/TrainingMaterial/VisualAndObjectLessons.pdf

89.
25

16

Figure 2.2
Five senses in the learning Acquisition
(Adapted from Using Visual Aids in The Classroom)26
80
70
60
50
40

30
20
10
0
Taste

Smell

Touch

Hear

See

The graphic showed that in normal day-to-day living people learn:
3% through taste, 3% through smell, 6% through touch, 13% through
hearing, and 75% through seeing.

2. Kinds of Picture
Andrew Wright explained in his book Picture for Language
Learning, said that there are 21 kinds of picture can be found, they are:

26

-

Pictures of a single objects

- Pictures of one person

-

Pictures of famous people

- Pictures of several people

-

Pictures of people in action

- Pictures from history

-

Pictures with a lot of information

- Pictures of the news

-

Pictures of fantasies

- Bizarre Pictures

-

Pairs of pictures

- Pictures and Texts

Ibid.

17

-

Sequences of pictures

- Related pictures

-

Single stimulating pictures

- Ambiguous pictures

-

Student and Teacher Drawing

- Explanatory pictures.27

-

Pictures of Map and Symbols
According to Finiocchiaro, there are three types of pictures.
a.

Pictures of individual persons and individual objects

b.

Pictures of situation
The pictures show people are “Doing something” with objects and
show the relationship of objects and/or people can be seen.

c.

A series of pictures (six to ten) on one chart.
For example: picture of count nouns, mass nouns, etc.28
According two theorists above, the writer found out that picture

sequence is one of kinds of picture that can be used as a teaching media.

3. The Function of Picture
After discussing the definition and kinds of picture, we need to know
the functions of picture in teaching-learning process. According to Raimes,
there are several functions of pictures, such as:
a.

Pictures provide a shared experience for students in the classroom.
Pictures can emerge the students’ needs of the appropriate vocabulary,
idiom and sentence structure to discuss what they see.

b.

Pictures provide for the used of a common vocabulary and common
language forms in the classroom.

c.

Pictures provide a variety of tasks, for example, sentence-combining
exercise, sequencing of sentences to the writing of original dialogs, etc.

d.

Pictures provide a focus of interest for students. Pictures bring the
outside world into the classroom in a vividly concrete way.29

27

Andrew Wright, op. cit., p. 193-202.
Marry Finocchiaro and Michael Bonomo, The Foreign Language Learner: A Guide for
Teacher, (New York: Regents Publishing Company, 1973), p. 164.
28

18

In supporting the statement above, Harmer strengthened that pictures
are often used to present situations for grammar and vocabulary and can be
used to incite students to creative flights of fancy.30 It means pictures help
students work with grammar and vocabulary and encourage the students to
have creative imagination because pictures have the ability to transport the
students to different worlds. Meanwhile, Wright explained that pictures
contribute to interest and motivation, a sense of the context of the language,
a specific reference point or stimulus.31
From those explanations, the writer can conclude that pictures offer
many functions in learning English. They can motivate students to take a
part in the classroom, grab students’ attention and interest, provide them a
variety of task, stimulus them to learn English, especially learning writing,
etc.

4. The Criteria of Good Picture
In order to make the teaching learning activities optimal, the pictures
which are used must be has good criteria. Wright said that there are some
criteria for selecting good pictures for the students, such as:
a.

The aid must be easy to prepare and organize by the teacher.

b.

The aid must be interesting for students.

c.

The aid must be meaningful and authentic.

d.

The aid must be sufficient amount language.32
Wright gave further explanation about the statement above that

picture must be meaningful and sufficient for the students in order the
students can get value from the teacher’s explanation. It also should be
interesting, so the students could be more interested and motivated to see it.
29

Ann Raimes, Techniques in Teaching writing, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983),

p. 330
30

Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach Writing, (England: Pearson Education Limited, 2004), p. 67.
Andrew Wright, op. cit., p. 3.
32
Ibid., p. 3.
31

19

Therefore, teaching learning process will be easier to handle. Furthermore,
Ramirez said that the use of pictures must be relevant with the subject which
related to the teaching objective. It is aimed to catch the idea of presentation
easily from their teacher.
To sum up, good pictures must have some criteria, such as pictures
must be efficient, interesting, relevant and meaningful in teaching learning
process, the students can get better understanding about materials given by
teachers. As a result, teaching learning process will work well.

5. The Resource of Picture
According to Stone in his book Best Practices for Teaching Writing.
He mentioned that, “Image/ picture can be found easily in the traditional
resource such as magazines and books, but they also can be found
efforthlessly on the Internet.”33 It implied that pictures are very easy to be
found because they can come from many sources.
According to Wright, the source of pictures can be found in:
“Newspaper, magazines, advertisements, holiday brochures, business
brochures, catalogues, calendars, greeting cards, postcards,
reproduction of arts, posters, wall charts, instructions, old books,
comics and cartoon strips, family photograph, stamps, playing cards,
wrapping paper, course book, the teacher’s and student’s own
drawing, photocopying.”34
Those statements above prove that it is not difficult to find pictures
because they are around human daily life. However, to find a suitable picture
for teaching is not easy if a teacher does not pay attention of the criteria for
selecting a good picture.

33
34

Randi Stone, loc. cit.
Andrew Wright, op. cit., p. 182-187.

20

5. Picture Sequence
From the previous section, it can be known that picture sequence is a
kind of picture. As Finochiaro defined, “Sequence picture is (six to ten) on
chart as a number of related composite pictures linked to form a series or
sequences.”35 On the other words, picture sequence consists of several
pictures which have a relation each other in a chronological order. It is
presented to tell a story in some events. It usually tells experiences,
instructions, stories, etc. From this picture sequence, learners will be easier
to understand the meaning of a word, a sentence or event a paragraph after
they saw the picture itself.
Furthermore, according to Wright, “Pictures sequences tend to range
from four to eight pictures.”36 They show some events in a chronological
order. They usually tell short of stories, but they may also be used to depict a
process how to make something. In addition, Wright stated that, ”Picture
sequence can highlight certain langugae features and it can illustrate a story
or a process”.37 On the other source defined “A picture sequence is a series
of photographs dealing with one subject. It may tell a story, reveal a person,
or show how to do something.”38
All of the statements above imply that a picture sequence is a kind of
pictures that has a series of an object or a situation is explained by some
pictures. These pictures usually tell about a story, or a process how to do
something. The sequence must be in chronologically order.

35

Mary Finochiaro, English as a Second/ Foreign Language from Theory to Practice, (New
York: Prentice Hall Regents, 1986), p.137.
36
Andrew Wright, op. cit., p. 182-187.
37
Ibid., p. 182-187.
38
(http://assets.readingeggsassets.com/teacher_resources/rex/writing/pdfs/middle/procedure_te
xts_introduction_and_overview-fp-9569b444.pdf

21

6. The Example of Picture Sequence.
Figure 2.3
Picture Sequence
(Adapted from http://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page)39

39

http://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page

22

D. Previous Study
The writer has found three previous studies which were related to this
study. The first study was taken from Astuti (2011) who did the study entitled
“Improving Students’ Ability in Writing Recount Text Through Pictur

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