Wiley Radio Network Planning And Optimisation For UMTS 2nd Edition Feb 2006 ISBN 0470015756 pdf


Radio Network Planning

and Optimisation for UMTS Second Edition Edited by Jaana Laiho and Achim Wacker

  Both of Nokia Networks, Nokia Group, Finland

  Toma´sˇ Novosad

  Nokia Networks, Nokia Group, USA


Radio Network Planning and

Optimisation for UMTS


Radio Network Planning

and Optimisation for UMTS Second Edition Edited by Jaana Laiho and Achim Wacker

  Both of Nokia Networks, Nokia Group, Finland

  Toma´sˇ Novosad

  Nokia Networks, Nokia Group, USA Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Telephone (þ44) 1243 779777 Email (for orders and customer service enquiries): cs-books@wiley.co.uk

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John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada M9W 1L1 Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Radio network planning and optimisation for UMTS / edited by

  Jaana Laiho, Achim Wacker, Toma´s˘ Novosad p. cm.

  ISBN-13: 978-0-470-01575-9 (alk. paper)

  ISBN-10: 0-470-01575-6 (alk. paper) 1. Global system for mobile communications.

  2. Radio – Transmitters and transmission.

  3. Code division multiple access.

  I. Laiho, Jaana.

  II. Wacker, Achim.

  III. Novosad, Toma´s˘.

  IV. Title: Radio network planning and optimization for UMTS. TK5103.483.R34 2005 621.384 – dc22 2005018248 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN-13 978-0-470-01575-9 (HB)

  ISBN-10 0-470-01575-6 (HB) Project management by Originator, Gt Yarmouth, Norfolk (typeset in 10/12pt Times). Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire. This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry


  2.2.1 Modulation Example

  2.1.1 Multiple Access


  2.1.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation


  2.1.3 Tolerance of Narrowband Interference


  2.2 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum System



  2.1 Mathematical Background of Spread Spectrum CDMA Systems

  2.2.2 Tolerance of Wideband Interference


  2.2.3 Operation in Multi-path Environment


  2.3 CDMA in Cellular Radio Networks


  2.3.1 Universal Frequency Reuse


  2.3.2 Soft Handover


  19 Toma´sˇ Novosad, David Soldani, Kari Sipila¨, Tero Kola and Achim Wacker

  Preface xiii

  1.3 Introduction to Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS

  Acknowledgements xvii

  Abbreviations xix

  1 Introduction

  1 Jaana Laiho, Achim Wacker, Toma´s˘ Novosad, Peter Muszynski, Petri Jolma and Roman Pichna

  1.1 A Brief Look at Cellular History


  1.2 Evolution of Radio Network Planning



  2 Introduction to WCDMA for UMTS

  1.4 Future Trends


  1.4.1 Towards a Service-driven Network Management


  1.4.2 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)


  1.4.3 Next-generation Mobile Communication

  15 References



  2.4 WCDMA Logical, Transport and Physical Channels

  3.2.1 General Requirements for a Radio Network Planning Tool 110

  3.1.1 WCDMA-specific Issues in Radio Link Budgets


  3.1.2 Receiver Sensitivity Estimation


  3.1.3 Shadowing Margin and Soft Handover Gain Estimation


  3.1.4 Cell Range and Cell Coverage Area Estimation 100

  3.1.5 Capacity and Coverage Analysis in the Initial Planning Phase 100

  3.1.6 Dimensioning of WCDMA Networks with HSDPA 102

  3.1.7 RNC Dimensioning 105

  3.2 Detailed Planning 109

  3.2.2 Initialisation: Defining the Radio Network Layout 124

  3.1 Dimensioning

  3.2.3 Detailed Uplink and Downlink Iterations 129

  3.2.4 Adjacent Channel Interference Calculations 137

  3.2.5 Post-processing: Network Coverage Prediction and Common Channel Analysis 139

  3.3 Verification of Dimensioning with Static Simulations 142

  3.3.1 Macro-cellular Network Layout 143

  3.3.2 Introduction to the Simulation Parameters 144

  3.4 Verification of Static Simulator with Dynamic Simulations 149

  3.4.1 Introduction to the Dynamic Simulator 149

  3.4.2 Comparison of the Results 151

  3.5 Optimisation of the Radio Network Plan 154

  3.5.1 Ideal Case 154


  93 Achim Wacker, Jaana Laiho, Toma´sˇ Novosad, Terhi Rautiainen and Kimmo Tera¨va¨



  2.4.1 High-level UMTS Architecture Model


  2.4.2 Radio Interface Protocol Architecture and Logical Channels


  2.4.3 Transport Channels


  2.4.4 Physical Channels and Mapping of Transport Channels (FDD)


  2.4.5 High-speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)


  2.4.6 Timing and Synchronisation in UTRAN (FDD)

  2.4.7 Spreading, Scrambling and Channelisation Concepts

  3 WCDMA Radio Network Planning


  2.5 WCDMA Radio Link Performance Indicators


  2.5.1 Definitions


  2.5.2 Classification according to Multi-path Channel Conditions and Services


  2.5.3 Link-level Simulation Principles


  2.5.4 Physical-layer Measurements Supporting the Measurement of Link-level Performance in a Live Network

  89 References



  3.6 Interference in WCDMA Multi-operator Environment 162

  4.4.2 Admission Control 235

  4.3.2 Intra-system–Intra-frequency Hard Handover 213

  4.3.3 Intra-system–Inter-frequency Handover 213

  4.3.4 Inter-system Handover 214

  4.3.5 Handover Measurement Reporting 214

  4.3.6 Compressed Mode 223

  4.3.7 Inter-system Handover Procedure 224

  4.4 Congestion Control 233

  4.4.1 Definition of Air Interface Load 233

  4.4.3 Packet Scheduling 237

  4.3 Handover Control 211

  4.4.4 Load Control 242

  4.5 Resource Management 244

  4.5.1 The Tree of Orthogonal Channelisation Codes in Downlink 244

  4.5.2 Code Management 245

  4.6 RRU for High-speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 250

  4.6.1 Power Control for High-speed Downlink Packet Access 250

  4.6.2 Congestion Control for High-speed Downlink Packet Access 252

  4.6.3 Handover Control and Mobility Management for High-speed Downlink Packet Access 253

  4.3.1 Intra-system–Intra-frequency Soft Handover 212

  4.2.7 Fast Power Control and User Equipment Speed 210

  3.6.1 Sources of Adjacent Channel Interference 163

  4 Radio Resource Utilisation 197

  3.6.2 Minimum Coupling Loss 164

  3.6.3 Dead Zones 166

  3.6.4 ACI Simulation Cases 166

  3.6.5 Guidelines for Radio Network Planning to Avoid ACI 174

  3.7 Cell Deployment Strategies 175

  3.7.1 Rollout 176

  3.7.2 Hierarchical Cell Structures in WCDMA Networks 177 References


  Achim Wacker, Jaana Laiho, Toma´sˇ Novosad, David Soldani, Chris Johnson, Tero Kola and Ted Buot


  4.1 Introduction to Radio Resource Management 197

  4.2 Power Control 198

  4.2.1 Open-loop Power Control 198

  4.2.2 Power Control on Downlink Common Channels 200

  4.2.3 Inner-loop Power Control 201

  4.2.4 Outer-loop Power Control 207

  4.2.5 Power Control during Compressed Mode 209

  4.2.6 Power Control with Transmit Power Control Command Errors


  4.7 Impact of Radio Resource Utilisation on Network Performance 256


  5.4 Narrowband and WCDMA System Operation in Adjacent Frequency Bands


  5.4.1 Interference Mechanisms 305

  5.4.2 Worst Case Analysis 308

  5.4.3 Simulation Case Study with a Static Simulator 310

  5.4.4 Capacity Reduction 323

  5.4.5 Summary and Radio Network Planning Guidelines 327 References

  6 Coverage and Capacity Enhancement Methods 331 Chris Johnson, Achim Wacker, Juha Ylitalo and Jyri Ha¨ma¨la¨inen

  5.3.4 Tight Usage of Frequency Spectrum by Different Technologies

  6.1 Introduction 331

  6.2 Techniques for Improving Coverage 332

  6.2.1 Uplink and Downlink Coverage Limited Scenarios 332

  6.2.2 Link Budget Analysis 333

  6.3 Techniques for Improving Capacity 335

  6.3.1 Uplink and Downlink Capacity Limited Scenarios 335

  6.3.2 Load Equation Analysis 336


  5.3.3 Perception of Different Technologies by the End-user 302

  4.7.1 Impact of Fast Power Control and Soft Handover on Network Performance 256

  5.1.2 Man-made Noise 281

  4.7.2 Radio Resource Management Optimisation Examples 267

  4.7.3 Call Setup Delay 275 References


  5 WCDMA–GSM Co-planning Issues 279

  Kari Heiska, Toma´s˘ Novosad, Pauli Aikio, Chris Johnson and Josef Fuhl

  5.1 Radio Frequency Issues 279

  5.1.1 Thermal Noise 279

  5.1.3 Interference Scenarios 281

  5.3.2 Transmission Planning 301

  5.1.4 Interference Reduction Methods 282

  5.2 Noise Measurements 285

  5.2.1 Acceptable Radio Frequency Environment 285

  5.2.2 Conducting Measurements in a Real Environment 287

  5.2.3 Measurement Results 289

  5.2.4 Conclusions 292

  5.3 Radio Network Planning Issues 293

  5.3.1 Co-planning Process 294


  6.4 Uplink Cell Load and Base Station Transmit Power 338

  6.12.2 Practical Considerations 376

  6.10.5 MIMO in UTRA FDD Uplink 367

  6.11 Beamforming 367

  6.11.1 Mathematical Background 368

  6.11.2 Impact of Beamforming 369

  6.11.3 Practical Considerations 370

  6.11.4 Impact of Fixed Beam Approach upon Radio Resource Management Algorithms 372

  6.12 Rollout Optimised Configuration 373

  6.12.1 Impact of Rollout Optimised Configuration 374

  6.13 Sectorisation 376

  6.10.3 Practical Considerations 362

  6.13.1 Impact of Sectorisation 377

  6.13.2 Practical Considerations 379

  6.14 Repeaters 380

  6.14.1 Impact of Repeaters 382

  6.14.2 Practical Considerations 383

  6.15 Micro-cell Deployment 383

  6.15.1 Impact of Micro-cells 384

  6.16 Capacity Upgrade Process 387

  6.17 Summary of Coverage and Capacity Enhancement Methods 389

  6.10.4 Candidate MIMO Algorithms in 3GPP Standardisation 364

  6.10.2 Impact of MIMO 362

  6.4.1 Impact of Uplink Cell Load 339

  6.7 Remote RF Head Amplifiers 349

  6.4.2 Impact of Base Station Transmit Power 339

  6.5 Additional Carriers and Scrambling Codes 342

  6.5.1 Impact of Additional Carriers 342

  6.5.2 Impact of Additional Scrambling Codes 344

  6.6 Mast Head Amplifiers and Active Antennas 346

  6.6.1 Mathematical Background 346

  6.6.2 Impact of Mast Head Amplifiers and Active Antennas 347

  6.6.3 Practical Considerations 349

  6.7.1 Mathematical Background 351

  6.10.1 Mathematical Background 360

  6.7.2 Impact of Remote RF Head Amplifiers 351

  6.7.3 Practical Considerations 352

  6.8 Higher Order Receive Diversity 352

  6.8.1 Impact of Higher Order Receive Diversity 353

  6.8.2 Practical Considerations 354

  6.9 Transmit Diversity 355

  6.9.1 Impact of Transmit Diversity 357

  6.9.2 Practical Considerations 359

  6.10 Multiple Input Multiple Output in UTRA FDD 360


  7 Radio Network Optimisation Process 395


  8.3.6 Conferencing Media 461


  3GPP Bearer Concept 461

  8.4.1 Architectural Entities 462

  8.4.2 Bearer Layers 463

  8.4.3 Packet Data Protocol Context Characterisation 463

  8.4.4 Comments about 3GPP Bearers 464

  8.5 Overview of 3GPP Quality of Service Architecture 465

  3GPP Quality of Service Architecture 465

  8.3.4 Messaging 460

  8.5.2 Support for the IP Multimedia Sub-system 467

  8.5.3 External Bearer Service 469

  8.6 Quality of Service Management in UMTS 469

  8.6.1 Introduction to Quality of Service Management Challenges


  8.6.2 Radio Bearer Mapping of UMTS Traffic Classes 473

  8.6.3 Utilisation of Quality of Service in the UMTS Domain 474

  8.7 Concluding Remarks 501

  8.3.5 Streaming 460

  8.3.3 Interactive Data Transfer 459

  Jaana Laiho, Markus Djupsund, Anneli Korteniemi, Jochen Grandell and Mikko Toivonen

  7.3.4 Measurement Applications in Network Elements and in the Network Management System 437

  7.1 Introduction to Radio Network Optimisation Requirements 395

  7.1.1 The Operations System’s Role in the Optimisation Process 398

  7.2 Introduction to the Telecom Management Network Model 410

  7.3 Tools in Optimisation 414

  7.3.1 Planning Tool Level Optimisation 415

  7.3.2 Configuration Management in a Network Management System


  7.3.3 Performance Management in Network Elements and in the Operations System 422

  7.3.5 Optimisation Using Operations System Tools 446

  8.3.2 Data Transfer 458

  7.3.6 Field Measurement Tool 447

  7.4 Summary 452

  References 454

  8 UMTS Quality of Service 455

  Jaana Laiho, Vilho Ra¨isa¨nen and Nilmini Lokuge

  8.1 Definition of Quality of Service 455

  8.2 End-user Service Classification 456

  8.3 Characteristics and Requirements of Services 457

  8.3.1 Generic Issues 458


  9 Advanced Analysis Methods and Radio Access Network Autotuning 505

  10.1.2 Modulation and Coding Schemes 574

  9.4 Summary 569

  References 569

  10 Other 3G Radio Access Technologies 573

  Jussi Reunanen, Simon Browne, Pauliina Era¨tuuli, Ann-Louise Johansson, Martin Kristensson, Jaana Laiho, Mats Larsson, Toma´sˇ Novosad and Jussi Sipola

  10.1 GSM Packet Data Services 573

  10.1.1 Introduction 574

  10.1.3 EDGE Radio Link Performance 577

  9.3.5 Autotuning in the Call Admission Control Sub-system 552

  10.1.4 GPRS Radio Link Performance 582

  10.1.5 Coverage 583

  10.1.6 Capacity Planning 586

  10.1.7 Mobility Management 594

  10.1.8 Frequency Hopping Techniques 598

  10.1.9 Conclusion 600

  10.1.10 EDGE Performance Assessment 600

  9.3.6 Capacity Optimisation and Traffic Balancing 561

  9.3.4 Autotuning in the Mobility Management Sub-system 543

  Jaana Laiho, Pekko Vehvila¨inen, Albert Ho¨glund, Mikko Kylva¨ja¨, Kimmo Valkealahti and Ted Buot

  9.2.6 Performance Monitoring Using the Self-Organising Map: GSM Network

  9.1 Introduction 505

  9.2 Advanced Analysis Methods for Cellular Networks 506

  9.2.1 Introduction to Data Mining 506

  9.2.2 Knowledge Discovery in Databases and Data Mining 507

  9.2.3 Classification Trees 511

  9.2.4 Anomaly (Outlier) Detection with Classification Tree 513

  9.2.5 Self-Organising Map 513


  9.3.3 Measurements and Costs Used in Algorithms 540

  9.2.7 Performance Monitoring Using the Self-Organising Map: UMTS Network


  9.2.8 High Level Performance Analysis by Clustering Network Performance Data: Case Study 528

  9.3 Automatic Optimisation 536

  9.3.1 Examples of Automated Optimisation 539

  9.3.2 Network Scenario and Data Used in Algorithms with Cost Function



  10.2 Time Division Duplex Mode of WCDMA (UTRA TDD) 606

  10.2.9 Radio Performance 614

  Index 621

  References 619

  10.2.13 Summary 618

  10.2.12 Some Other Important Parameters and their Effect on the Radio Link Budget 618

  10.2.11 Time Division Duplex Link Budget Examples 615

  10.2.10 Time Division Duplex and Frequency Division Duplex Processing Gains 615

  10.2.8 Co-located and Close Proximity Local Area Base Station System (BSS) 614

  10.2.1 Some Time Division Duplex Specific Properties 606

  10.2.7 Co-existing Time Division Duplex and Frequency Division Duplex Networks 612

  10.2.6 Erlang Capacity for Time Division Duplex Networks: A Simple Way of Estimating Capacity per Cell 612

  10.2.5 Synchronisation in Multi-operator Time Division Duplex Networks 611

  10.2.4 Single-operator Time Division Duplex Networks 610

  10.2.3 Synchronisation of Cells 610

  10.2.2 System Scenarios 607

  Contents Preface

  Second-generation (2G) mobile communication systems have enabled voice traffic to go wireless. More important, however, have been the accompanying standardisation, compatibility and international transparency that were simply not available to tele- communications equipment of the previous analogue generation. These features have helped 2G systems to spread rapidly around the world, with very high cellular phone penetration rates in many countries. Cellular networks have enabled certain types of communication to take place on a massive scale that previously were not possible or were at least severely limited. In the field of network building and expansion the main advances have been in planning the radio and transmission part of the network and in optimising the processes and activities necessary to run existing operational networks.

  The third-generation (3G) system known as the Universal Mobile Telecommunica- tions System (UMTS) introduces very variable data rates on the air interface, as well as the independence of the radio access infrastructure and the service platform. For users this makes available a wide spectrum of circuit-switched or packet data services through the newly developed high bit rate radio technology named Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). The variable bit rate and variety of traffic on the air interface have presented completely new possibilities for both operators and users, but also new challenges to network planning and optimisation.

  This book gives detailed descriptions of the radio network planning and optimisation of UMTS networks based on Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) WCDMA technology up to Release 5 of the 3GPP standardisation work – i.e., one main enhancement of this second edition is the inclusion of High-speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). One

  chapter is dedicated to the General Packet Radio System (GPRS) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) access mode of WCDMA. The optimisation and Quality of Service (QoS) aspects have, however, a wider scope, than in (W)CDMA radio technology only. Chapter 1 introduces the history of cellular telecommunication and the changes in planning and operation of such networks. The challenges of network planning, optimisation and operation the operators and the wireless industry are facing on the way to 3G systems are introduced together with an outlook on future developments in the area towards fourth-generation (4G) systems.

  Chapter 2 is in three sections. The first introduces the general background of Spread Spectrum Systems. This is followed by a section related to the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), giving a panoramic view of the UMTS architecture, interfaces and functions that impact directly upon radio network planning. HSDPA physical layer properties are added as a new content in 3GPP Release 5. The third section discusses WCDMA-specific link performance indicators relevant for radio network dimensioning and planning.

  Chapter 3 treats WCDMA radio network planning as a wider process that includes network dimensioning with a special section for HSDPA, detailed planning, re- quirements for planning tools, algorithms used for calculations in WCDMA and optimisation of the radio network plan. The relationship between network dimension- ing, detailed network planning and dynamic network simulation is also discussed. The chapter closes with a discussion on cell deployment strategies with respect to the number of frequencies and the network structure. This topic is presented as a case study.

  Chapter 4 covers Radio Resource Management (RRM) from the point of view of radio resource utilisation, including power control, handover control, congestion control (admission control, load control and packet scheduling), resource management and certain impacts of those functions upon network performance. A separate new section is devoted to RRM for HSPDA.

  In Chapter 5, first the background noise measurement along with measured results are introduced. This part is followed by co-planning issues involving WCDMA and the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), eventually other technologies. The third part of the chapter describes the effects of intersystem interference, together with dynamic mobile station receiver properties on network performance. The application of these methods and results is not, however, limited to the GSM–WCDMA scenario.

  Chapter 6 treats various coverage and capacity enhancement techniques (beam- forming, higher order receive diversity, transmit diversity, MIMO technology, mast head amplifiers, repeaters, rollout optimised configuration, sectorisation, etc.). The

  chapter is based on an extensive set of case studies and contains practical examples and conclusions. Chapter 7 introduces the concept of statistical optimisation and discusses 3GPP Release 5 contributions in the management area including configuration and per- formance management issues. Furthermore, the TeleManagement Forum enhanced Telecom Operations Map (TMF eTOM) model is briefly introduced. A 3GPP management model for the multi-vendor environment is addressed. The management system’s role in optimisation is presented and examples of management level products and their capabilities are provided.

  Chapter 8 focuses on UMTS QoS mechanisms according to 3GPP Release 5 and examples of practical realisations of the QoS capabilities in network elements are introduced. Furthermore, QoS as a differentiation enabler for operators is demon- strated and differentiation possibilities with the QoS concept are presented. The optimisation loop expansion from the network layer to the service layer is described.

  Chapter 9 is devoted to advanced analysis methods and automated optimisation. Several new analysis methods for network performance analysis are introduced. In the area of automated optimisation examples of optimisation logic are provided for the mobility management area, admission decision optimisation and capacity optimisation in UMTS networks.

  Finally, Chapter 10 deals with two technologies that are different from the FDD mode of WCDMA. The first is the GPRS branch in GSM technology. This has brought single data rate service-oriented technology. The second, the Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode of WCDMA, represents an interesting technology for high data rate indoor users. Therefore, the radio performance properties of TDD mode are introduced.

  On the CD accompanying the first edition of this book we included a static radio 1 network simulator implemented in Matlab together with detailed descriptions of the algorithms used. Most of the simulated scenarios are added, but not all the values presented can be reproduced exactly, since simulations have been done partly by using earlier versions of the tool, which used slightly different strategies. The tool is delivered in its current version and state, and the authors do not give any warranty concerning the correctness of the code. In addition, some coloured figures – in PDF format – are included. The simulator, its description and the figures can now be found at www.wiley.com/go/laiho.

  The book is targeted at wireless operators, network and terminal manufacturers, university students, frequency regulation bodies and all those interested in radio network planning and optimisation, especially network systems RF engineering professionals. This book represents the views and opinions of the authors, which are not necessarily those of their employers.


  The editors would like to acknowledge the effort and time invested by colleagues, both from Nokia and outside, who have contributed to this book. Apart from the editors, the contributors were Pauli Aikio, Simon Browne, Ted Buot, Markus Djupsund, Pauliina Era¨tuuli, Josef Fuhl, Jochen Grandell, Kari Heiska, Jyri Ha¨ma¨la¨inen, Albert Ho¨glund, Ann-Louise Johansson, Chris Johnson, Petri Jolma, Tero Kola, Anneli Korteniemi, Martin Kristensson, Mikko Kylva¨ja¨, Mats Larsson, Nilmini Lokuge, Peter Muszynski, Roman Pichna, Terhi Rautiainen, Jussi Reunanen, Vilho Ra¨isa¨nen, Kari Sipila¨, Jussi Sipola, David Soldani, Kimmo Tera¨va¨, Mikko Toivonen, Kimmo Valkealahti, Pekko Vehvila¨inen and Juha Ylitalo.

  The editors would like to thank Tero Ojanpera¨ and Peter Muszynski for initial review of the first edition. During the development of the second edition many of our colleagues from various Nokia sites offered support and help in suggesting improve- ments, finding errors or providing figures or editorial advice. The editors would like to express their gratitude especially to Kati Ahvonen, Erkka Ala-Tauriala, Renaud Cuny, Outi Hiironniemi, Zhi-Chun Honkasalo, Salla Huttunen, Christian Joergensen, Janne Kera¨nen, Mika Kiikkila¨, Outi Keski-Oja, Pekka Kohonen, Thomas Lammert, Jani Lakkakorpi, Joni Lehtinen, Klaus Rasmussen, Mikko Rinne, Juha Ra¨sa¨nen, Anna Sillanpa¨a¨, Kristian Skinne, Antti Toskala and Werner Trapp.

  The publishing team at John Wiley & Sons, Ltd led by Mark Hammond, has done an outstanding job in the production of this book. We are especially grateful to Sarah Hinton for her patience, guidance and assistance.

  We would like to express special thanks to our employer, Nokia Networks, for general permission, support and encouragement, and for providing some of the illustrations.

  We also wish to acknowledge the effort of our colleagues from the Optimizer and Network System Research teams as well as from planning services, for their practical work in 3G planning studies conducted in a number of cities and environments around the world and for their valuable input from the field.

  Last, but not least, we would like to say a big thank-you to our families and friends, as well as those of all the authors and reviewers, for their patience and support throughout this project.

  The editors and authors welcome any comments and suggestions for improvement or changes that could be implemented in possible future editions.

  Jaana Laiho, Achim Wacker and Toma´sˇ Novosad



  16 State Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

  2G 2nd Generation

  2.5G 2.5th Generation

  3G 3rd Generation

  3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project

  3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

  4G 4th Generation 8-PSK

  8 Phase Shift Keying AAL2 ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 Abis GSM Interface BTS–BSC AC Admission Control ACI Adjacent Channel Interference ACIR Adjacent Channel Interference power Ratio ACK ACKnowledgement ACLR Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio ACP Adjacent Channel Protection ACS Adjacent Channel Selectivity AGCH Access Grant CHannel AI Acquisition Indicator AICH Acquisition Indicator CHannel ALCAP Access Link Control Application Part AM Acknowledged Mode AMC Adaptive Modulation and Coding AMPS Advance Mobile Phone Service AMR Adaptive Multi Rate AP Access Point; Access Preamble AP-AICH Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator CHannel API Application Programming Interface APN Access Point Name APP APPlication specific functions ARP Allocation Retention Priority ARQ Automatic Repeat reQuest AS Access Slot; Access Stratum ASC Access Service Class ASU Active Set Update ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode AVI Actual Value Interface AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise AXC ATM Cross Connect B(T)S Base (Transceiver) Station BA BCCH Allocation BB BaseBand BCC Base station Colour Code BCCH Broadcast Control CHannel BCH Broadcast CHannel BCS Binary Coded Signalling BEP Bit Error Probability BER Bit Error Rate BFN Node B Frame Number BLER BLock Error Rate BM Business Management BMC Broadcast/Multicast Control BMU Best Matching Unit BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying BSC Base Station Controller BSIC Base Station Identity Code BSS Base Station Subsystem BSSMAP Base Station System Management Application Part BTFD Blind Transport Format Detection BYE Session termination C/I Carrier-to-Interference ratio C_ID Cell IDentification C450 Analogue second-generation system in Germany CAPEX CAPital EXpenditure CART Classification And Regression Tree CB Cell Broadcast CBR Call Block Ratio CC Call Control; Convolutional Coding; Cumulative Counter CCCH Common Control CHannel CCH Control CHannel CCPCH Common Control Physical CHannel CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport CHannel CD Collision Detection CD/CA-ICH Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator CHannel CD-DSMA Collision Detection-Digital Sense Multiple Access CDF Cumulative Distribution/Density Function CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CFN Connection Frame Number CGI Cell Global Identification

  Abbreviations CIO Cell Individual Offset CM Compressed Mode; Configuration Management CMIP Common Management Information Protocol CN Core Network CNAME Canonical NAME CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture COST European COoperation in the field of Scientific and Technical research C-plane Control plane CPCH Common Packet CHannel CPICH Common PIlot CHannel CQI Channel Quality Indicator CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check CRMS Common Resource Management Server CRNC Controlling RNC CRRR Capacity Request Rejection Ratio CRS Cell Resource Server CS Coding Scheme; Circuit Switched CSI Channel State Information CSICH CPCH Status Indicator CHannel CSSR Call Setup Success Ratio CSW Circuit SWitched (GPRS terminology) CTCH Common Traffic CHannel CWND Congestion WiNDow D-AMPS Digital AMPS DCA Dynamic Channel Allocation DCCH Dedicated Control CHannel DCH Dedicated CHannel DCN Data Communication Network DCR Drop Call Ratio DCS1800 Digital Cellular System (GSM) at 1800 MHz band DER Discrete Event Registration DGPS Differential GPS DHCP Dynamic Host Client Protocol DHO Diversity HandOver DiffServ Differentiated Services DL DownLink DN Distinguished Name DNS Domain Name Server DoA Direction of Arrival DOFF Default OFFset DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control CHannel DPCH Dedicated Physical CHannel DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data CHannel DQPSK Differential QPSK

  Abbreviations DRX Discontinuous Reception DS Direct Sequence DSCH Downlink Shared CHannel DSCP DiffServ Code Point DSL Digital Subscriber Line DSMA-CD Digital Sense Multiple Access–Collision Detection DSTTD-SGRC Double STTD with Sub-Group Rate Control DTCH Dedicated Traffic CHannel DTX Discontinuous Transmission D-TxAA Double Transmit Antenna Array DVB Digital Video Broadcasting E1 Standard 2 Mbps transmission line E3G Enhanced 3G EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution EFR Enhanced Full Rate EGPRS Enhanced GPRS EIA Electronic Industry Alliance EIRP Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power EM Element Manager ERC European Radiocommunications Committee ES Enterprise Systems eTOM Enhanced TOM ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute FACH Forward Access CHannel FAUSCH FAst Uplink Signalling CHannel FBI FeedBack Information FCC Federal Communications Commission FCS Frame Check Sequence FDD Frequency Division Duplex FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access FEC Forward Error Correction; Forwarding Equivalence Class FER Frame Erasure Rate FH Frequency Hopping FIFO First In First Out FM Fault Management FN Frame Number FP Frame Protocol FTP File Transfer Protocol FW Firmware G Geometry factor GAUGE (Dynamic variable), used when data being measured can vary up or down during the period of measurement GB Guaranteed Bit rate Gbps Giga bits per seconds GERAN GSM EDGE RAN

  Abbreviations GIS Geographical Information System GMM GPRS MM GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GP Guard Period GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus GPRS General Packet Radio Service GPS Global Positioning System GRX GPRS Roaming Exchange GSM Global System for Mobile communication GSM1900 GSM at 1900 MHz band GTP GPRS Tunnel Protocol GUI Graphical User Interface GW GateWay H-ARQ Hybrid ARQ HC Handover Control HCS Hierarchical Cell Structure HD Harmonic Distortion HDTV High Definition TeleVision HHO Hard HO HLR Home Location Register HLS Higher Layer Scheduling HO HandOver HSCSD High-speed Circuit Switched Data HSDPA High-speed Downlink Packet Access HS-DPCCH High-speed Dedicated Physical Control CHannel (UL) HS-DSCH High-speed DSCH HS-PDSCH High-speed Physical DSCH HS-SCCH High-speed Shared Control CHannel (DL) HSUPA High-speed Uplink Packet Access HTML Hyper Text Markup Language HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol HW HardWare



  IE Information Element

  IEE The Institution of Electrical Engineers

  IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  IETF Internet Engineering Task Force

  IF-HO Inter-Frequency HO

  IIP Input Intercept Point

  IM Information Management

  IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol

  IMD Inter-Modulation Distortion

  IMEI International Mobile station Equipment Identity


  IP Multimedia Sub-system

  IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity

  Abbreviations IntServ Integrated Services

  IOC Information Object Class

  ISCP Interference Signal Code Power

  Iu Interconnection point between an RNC and a core network Iub Interface between an RNC and a Node B Iur Logical interface between two RNCs JTACS Japan TACS kbps Kilo bits per second KDD Knowledge Discovery in Database KPI Key Performance Indicator KQI Key Quality Indicator ksps Kilo symbols per second L1 OSI Layer 1: Physical Layer L2 OSI Layer 2: Radio Data Link Layer L3 OSI Layer 3: Radio Network Layer LA Link Adaptation; Location Area LAC Location Area Code LAN Local Area Network LC Load Control LCS LoCation-based Services LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LF Load Factor LLC Logical Link Control LLOS Link LOSs LNA Low-Noise Amplifier LoCH Logical CHannel LOS Line Of Sight

  ITU-T International Telecommunication Union, Telecommunication Standardisation Sector

  IT Information Technology Itf-N Interface-N

  ISP Internet Service Provider

  ISO International Organisation for Standardisation

  ISM Industrial, Science, Medical (free RF band, at 2.4 GHz)

  IS-HO Inter-system HO

  ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

  IS-95 North American Version of the CDMA Standard

  IP Internet Protocol

  IS-54 North American TDMA Digital Cellular

  IS-136 North American TDMA

  IS Interim Standard (US)

  IRP Interface Reference Point

  IR Incremental Redundancy

  IP version 6


  IP version 4


  Abbreviations MAB Minimum Allowed Bitrate MAC Medium Access Control Mbps Mega bits per second MCC Mobile Country Code MCL Minimum Coupling Loss Mcps Mega chips per second MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme MDC Macro Diversity Combining ME Managed Element MEHO Mobile-Evaluated HO MHA Mast Head Amplifier MIB Management Information Base MIM Management Information Model MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output MISO Multiple Input Single Output MM Mobility Management MMS Multimedia Message Service MMUSIC Multiparty MUltimedia SessIon Control MNC Mobile Network Code MOC Managed Object Class MOI Managed Object Instance MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching MRC Maximal Ratio Combining MS Mobile Station MSC Mobile Switching Centre MT Mobile Terminal MTU Maximum Transfer Unit MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator N/A Not Available; Not Applicable N_PDU Network Level PDU NACK Negative ACK NAS Non-Access Stratum NB NarrowBand NBAP Node B Application Part NCC Network Colour Code NCx Network Control (NC0, NC1, NC2) NE Network Element NEHO Network Evaluated HO NF Noise Figure NGB Non-GB NLOS Non-LOS NM Network Management; Network Manager NMS Network Management System NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone Node B WCDMA BS

  Abbreviations NR Noise Rise; Network Resource NRM Network Resource Model NRT Non-Real Time NSS Networking Sub-System NW NetWork OCNS Other Cell Noise Source OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OH Okumura–Hata OMC Operations and Maintenance Centre OMG Object Management Group OPEX OPerating EXpenditure OS Operations System OSF Operations System Functions OSI Open Systems Interconnection OSS Operations Support System OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor PACCH Packet Associate Control CHannel PAGCH Packet Access Grant CHannel PARC Per-Antenna Rate Control PBCCH Packet Broadcast Control CHannel PC Power Control PCCCH Packet Common Control CHannel PCCH Paging Control CHannel P-CCPCH Primary CCPCH PCH Paging CHannel PCMCIA PC Modular Computer Interface Adapter card PCPCH Physical CPCH P-CPICH Primary CPICH PCS Personal Communications Systems P-CSCF Proxy Call State Control Function PCU Packet Control Unit PDC Pacific Digital Cellular PDCH Packet Data Channel PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol PDF Policy Decision Function; Probability Density Function PDP Packet Data Protocol PDSCH Physical DSCH PDTCH Packet Data Traffic CHannel PDU Protocol Data Unit PG Processing Gain PHB Per-Hop Behaviour PHY PHYsical layer PI Paging Indicator; Performance Indicator PICH Paging Indicator CHannel PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

  Abbreviations PN PseudoNoise PO Power Offset PoC Push (to talk) over Cellular PPCH Packet Paging CHannel PPP Point-to-Point Protocol PQ Packet Queuing PRACH Physical RACH PS Packet Switched; Packet Scheduler PSC Primary Synchronisation Code P-SCH Primary Synchronisation CHannel PSK Phase Shift Keying PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network PTT Push To Talk PU Payload Units PU

  QM Quality Manager; Quality Management QoE Quality of end-user Experience QoS Quality of Service QPSK Quadrature/Quaternary Phase Shift Keying R Refresh timer RA Routing Area RAB Radio Access Bearer RAC Routing Area Code RACH Random Access CHannel RAI Routing Area Identifier RAKE special receiver type used in CDMA RAM Radio Access Mode RAN Radio Access Network RANAP Radio Access Network Application Part RAT Radio Access Technique RAU Routing Area Update RB Radio Bearer RC-MPD Rate Control Multi-Path Diversity RDN Relative Distinguished Name RF Radio Frequency RFC (IETF) Request For Comments RFN RNC Frame Number RL Radio Link RLC Radio Link Control RLCP Radio Link Control Protocol RM Resource Manager RMSS Receiver Maximum Segment Size RN Radio Network RNAS RAN Access Server RNC Radio Network Controller


2 RC Per-User Unitary Rate Control

  RNS Radio Network Subsystem RNSAP Radio Network Subsystem Application Part RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identity ROC Rollout Optimised Configuration RR Radio Resource; Receiver Report; Resource Request RRC Radio Resource Control; Route Raised Cosine RRI Radio Resource Indicator RRM Radio Resource Management RRP Radio Resource Priority RRU Radio Resource Utilisation RSCP Received Signal Code Power RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator RSVP Resource ReSerVation Protocol RT Real-Time RTCP Real-Time Control Protocol RTO Roundtrip Time Out RTP Real-time Transport Protocol RTT Round-Trip Time RTTVAR Round-Trip Time VARiation RTVS Real Time Video Streaming RU Resource Unit RWND Receiver WiNDow Rx Receive RxD Receive Diversity SA Spectrum Analyser; Service Area SACK Selective ACK SAI Service Area Identifier SAP Service Access Point SBLP Service-Based Local Policy S-CCPCH Secondary CCPCH SCH Synchronisation CHannel S-CPICH Secondary CPICH SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control CHannel SDES Sender DEScription items SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SDP Session Description Protocol SDU Service Data Unit SF Spreading Factor SFN System Frame Number SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node SHO Soft HO SI Status Inspection SIGTRAN SIGnalling TRANsport SIM Subscriber Identity Module

  Abbreviations SINR Signal-to-Interference and Noise Ratio SIP Session Initiation Protocol SIR Signal to Interference Ratio SLA Service Level Agreement SLP Service Logic Program SM Session Management; Service Management SMG Special Mobile Group SMS Short Message Services SMSS Sender Maximum Segment Size SMTP Simple Message Transfer Protocol SNDCP Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SOM Self-Organising Map S-PARC Selective PARC SQM Service Quality Manager SR Sender Report SRB Signalling RB SRNC Serving RNC SRNS Serving RNS SRTT Smoothed Round-Trip Time SS Spread Spectrum; Supplementary Services SSC Secondary Synchronisation Code S-SCH Secondary SCH SSDT Site Selection Diversity Technique SSRC Synchronisation SouRCe (identifier) SSTRESH Slow Start ThRESHold STm-1 Synchronous Transport Module-1: An ITU-T-defined SDH physical interface for digital transmission in ATM at the rate of 155.52 Mbps

  STTD Space Time Transmit Diversity SW SoftWare SWIS See What I See T1 1.544 Mbps Transmission Link TACS Total Access Communication System TB Transport Block TBF Temporary Block Flow TBS Transport Block Set TC Transmission Convergence TCH Traffic CHannel TCP Transmission Control Protocol TDD Time Division Duplex TDM Time Division Multiplex TDMA Time Division Multiple Access TE Terminal Equipment TF Transport Format