Shelley's Prometheus Unbound Free ebook download

  Shelley's Prometheus

  Unbound A










EDITED Zillman

  BY Lawrence John



Press of

  University Washington


  Copyright 1959

  by the University of Wanhington !**

  Second printing, with corrections, 1960

  Library of Congress Catalog Card

  Number* 50-90M






I IT WAS EAULY in work on volume that read the comment

  the present


  of S. Hillard to the


  (1345) with respect

  George 1805 Henry James

  edition called

  is what is a variorum

  of Spenser's works; "This technically , . . of all editors. edition, containing a reprint the labours of the previous

  is in There

  trouble is often wasted a great deal of learned rubbish it; much in what is and really difficult elucidating plain, points are frequently in


  silence" (Hillard, passed by Spenser* v-vi).


  soon became evident that was not his without Shelley, like 9 ' Spenser, tribute

  which have led to

  of "learned rubbish,

  may Douglas Bush suggest is

  that "one the effect on his

  about he has

  of the worst things Shelley

  all to

  of them are reduced a common admirers; nearly denominator, of

  is which the outward evidence the

  perhaps a wild glitter in

  eye" (My-

  in at

  But the case of Pronmtlieus least,

  thology, p. 156) Unbound* the judg- of Kenneth Neil in and

  ment Cameron is, the main, both true

  pertinent; views it should

  "The on Prometheus

  [the results, divergence of Unbound]


from critical but from

be emphasized, not difficulty.

  caprice genuine


is one of the

Pmmethem Unbound


  most profound and

  difference in its

  and And

  subtle of the great English poems. divergence at first from


  interpretation are might appear- leading us farther


  closer to it"

  but 100).

  ("Shelley Scholarship/' p

  and in Too

  divergence" frequently, however, the "difference interpreta- tion to student are those of a to available the names and

  few major only,

  as does that for critical comment on Prometheus

  Bennett Weaver,


  must for articles Unbound we "follow the of the books there are few way

  to written on this is overlook a fertile


  (Rom&ntic Poets, p. 187), of brief smaller, but not comments always minor, studies or

  body certainly

  of the

  changing whose impact on our understanding of the poem, and is

  in- attitudes toward it, negligible only because they are in large part accessible, full of these

  A treatment of the comprehensive variorum range would to to this situation. be the corrective

  writings appear For, although viii i

  not a in classic,

  Matthew Arnold 1888 "Shelby

  could argue that to no p, be ted with earnest attention" ("Shelley*" 206), various readings are for treatment was evident to the need such a

  Swinburne some twenty

  wrote: earlier. He years


It is the of a scholiast is <> noon wanted <** it

  seldom that work

  an in Shell** y*n

  works error** has been. first collected edition of his had and The

  many gapn patent serious reader. text is far debute mid

  and to Hia palpable any ulntad) matter

  as classic unearthed. tain

  he were a Or comment, pawtgr?* l*gm though newly

  for the to be as crucial and

  famous emendation; muster singer of our subjects

  leant <*f his own masters and models the modem

  enviable proof poets shares with 3 diverse fame and comme.utarieH {"Note*/* p. that given by corrupt readings


  certainly, only the would deny the detnibiltty

  Today, prejudiced

  be a of the that can thrown on an and fullest possible light

  jmem complex* and Prormtlieus a

  subtle, significant as Unbound, even though part of that be from sources dimmed time,

  now somewhat

  light by final should to nrlttrttoii

  word A

  be said with respect the requirements of condensation well

  and in variorum au thorn Some editing. may object that

  their work has its abbreviated,

  been unhappily

  general significance largely lost in is details. It that, the segregation of

  my hope, however, fHjweially

  in fair the broader view indication of of ha* the Introduction, a



  if and much

  that, been given, of the supporting evidence haw MixwHHortly sacrificed to the demands a fair limitation, fttatomont of the of space attitude be and the of acknowledged, desirability


  for tiny

  pewpi^ttve one in the total

  critical be udmittm), interpretation pattern of thought



  University of Washington

  A cknowledgments is

  IT to record hero for

  PLEASANT thanks my the help so cheerfully given

and so essential to this at the to

same time work; and

  the completion of


all share in as

  absolve such the

  work concerned from any shortcomings evidence. may

  the on

  To have borne

  the University of

  many Washington campus who with Professors A. R.


  me, for special help, to Benham,

  Charles Goggio, late the Curtis C.

  D. Mrs.

  Vail; to Ruth


Linden Mander, and Kirk, In-


  terlibrary Librarian, for diligence in locating seemingly inaccessible to Research the Committee of the Graduate School for in items;

  funds and to

  the Fund

  Committee Agnes Anderson Research

  support of research; for in aid of a grant publication,


  To San

  the Bodleian Library; the Marino,,

  Huntington Library,

  fornia 2176 and and the



  (for HM 2177); University for to use microfilms and

  Library, permission photostats of

  manuscript materials in their collections.


  To the Keats Memorial Association to

  • Shelley permission



  now Memorial

  Joseph Severn's posthumous portrait* the Keats-Shelley in

  House Rome*


  To Unwin

  the following holders of copyrighted material; &


  Classical Ltd. A* K. Thomson's The for J

  Literature; English

  Background of

  for for

  Edward Arnold Ltd, Oliver The Atlantic

  Elton's Shelley; Monthly

  Warren Beach for his The Arthur Symons'

  Concept ShcUey; Joseph of


  Benn Ltd, for the

  in Ninetee.nth~Gertiury English Poetry; Ernest Basil Black-

  Julian Edition of Shelley's Works;

  Roger Ingpen-Waltar Peck

  welt for and


  the Principle of Association**

  Ralph Houston's "Shelley

  for Nineteenth

  William R. Rutland's Swinburne, a The



  British Council for Spender's Shelley;

  Stephen Calcutta University Press

  for for Sen's Studies in University Press

  Amiyakumar Shdky; Cambridge

  Literature and for S. J. Suddard's History English

  The Cambridge of Mary The Catholic World Mer- and for Sister Anna


  Sfaetttty Shakespeare;



  arid St. Gwtto & cedes'

  "Two Paths from Augutine";

  Plato: Shelley for Herbert JL C.

  and Oxford Press, New York, Windus, Ltd., University

  Critical /'win; The


  C. Smith's A Grierson J. History Knglisti of for The letters* for

  Clarendon Press, Oxford, John Bailey's (smtinuity

  of I).

  A. M,

  Mental Ihi^hwls Shelln

  Bald's Progress, for Shelley's


  for B.

  Published in "The


Poems 1820, Rajan's Motivation of Shelley^


  Some and

  for Walter Authors*

  Prometheus Unbound," Raleigh's Columbia for

  in Shelley; University Prrsn Archibald Strong's Three Studies for B.

  Rnww Edward Qmtempomry

  Hungerford's Shores of Darkness; Classical

  Elizabeth Meldrum's "The

  Background of Shelley,"

  for Gerald Duckworth Co, Ltd.

  Also to: & Stopford Brooke's Studies for 7%<* Plutonium

  James Duke

  A, Notopoulow' in Poetry; University Press

I. Ifatrth; Kdin-

  for White's The

  and Newman

  Shelley Unextinguislwl of thr for P.

  H. Butter's Idols C/nv;

  Shelley's of University Press


  Inc. for Demon

  Arthur Wormhoudt's The &

  Exposition Press /xwr; Kyrc for Leslie Hours in a Fa her


  Library: Stephens* Spottiswoode Ltd. for for hin

  Faber Ltd. Leone Vivante's Englisli Poetry; K.

  JL Fogle "(mage


  Limited of

  and A Prometheus Unbound"; Gambit

  Imagelessness: Reading for The for

  Co. Ltd. Cousin's Work Promethean; Dr. II HaltsWhitc

  James W. Hale-White and Amelia

H. Kfhir;

  Sterling's translation of Spinoxa*

  and Barnes Inc. for

  G. Co. Ltd. & Noble A. K.

  KoilwayV George Harrap&

  the for Lorli

  Godwin and Transition; Harvard Pnwn the


  Age of

  Classical for


  individual William (see editors);

  Library Bibliography for Edition of

  Ltd. the Bonchurch The


  Qmtplete Works of Al^rnon ton Mifflin for

  II* *Sr/#^'W

  G. GarJwV Charles Swinburne;

  Company Hough


  Poems and


  George WoodbetrryV l*tiIiri<Ige

  of Percy Bysshe Edition of Poetical

  Hutchin- The Complete Percy /tyssfw Shelley;


Works of

  son Co. Ltd. for Graham Pw*t$; The



  Hough's The Romantic of

  Aesthetics Criticism for

  and Art Charles (X "Whtteltfsitcfit

  Hoffman'* (J.

  Nature and Romantic for hit!

  Philosophy of Poetry**; Wilson Knight 1 The Christian Renaissance and The Starlit Alfred In* for


  Dome; * Knopf

I. White's


Newman Green Co. ami Koiwrt

& Ltd



  for executrix Robert


  The Mac miUttti

  Bridges' The. Spirit of Afrm; for Solomon in, the for

  Kwnantir hutn* Company Gingerich's Essays

  Alfred Science

  North Whitehead's and the Modern for ami WiHtnin

  JfWrf, Co. Ltd. for 01 won Ware}

  Butler Yeats's Essays; Methuen &

  CnmplwlPH and the

  D. for C. Ix)eock^s The. tivxithe

  Shelley Unromantics, PIMMS



  and for

A. Glutton- Brock's I/if

  Shelley, Man A** mil! Shelley the and his Introduction to the


  edition; fur


  University of Ellsworth Barnard's


  Shelley's Modern Religion (1937); Ixutgttaga Association of America for K, N.

  Cameron's "The Political

  SymtxtltMm of Prometheus Unbound" and for


  Weaver's "Pwmrthcua Bound and

  Prometheus North Carolina

  Unbound"; for

  University of Frew Carl Graho'* Prometheus

  Unbound: An

  Mrs. Viola Notanello Interpretation; xi


  for J. millari Macmillan Brown's The

  Prometheus Unbound




  Shelley: Study,

  Also to: Hodder ion Ltd., and J. P.


  Alfred Noycs, Messrs. S tough for

  Alfred Modern

  No Some

  Lippineott (Company yes's Aspects of Poetry;

  Press for Ellsworth Barnard's


The Odyssey Shelley; Selected Poems, Essays*

Oxford for

and letters; Press, New Kurtz's

  University York,

  Benjamin The Pursuit Death; A Oxford


  of Study of Shells Poetry; University


  IX New York, Ltd, the Sinclair

  John and John Lane The Bodley Bead

  translation of Dante's Divine Press,

  London, Comedy; Oxford University


  H. N. BrailsfonFs Their and for

  and Circle,

  Slwtt&y, Godtvin, the poets in the Oxford Standard Authors

  Princeton Univer- represented series; for

  Press Carlos Baker's Fabric


  sity Shelley's Major Vision; Poetry; ofa for Paul G. P* Putnam's Sons Elmer Mora's Shelburne.

  Essays, Seventh Series for his

  M. Hader of Evil Mis-

  (1910); Melvin "Shelley's Theory

  Sir Herbert Read for his Phil- understood";

  "Shelley the Optimistic Rinehart& for N.

  Inc. K. Cameron's Rinehart Edition osopher"; Company of for

  and Prose; & Ltd,

  Shelky\*t Selected Poetry

  Routledge Kegan Paul

  f^ord G. Wilson and for F.

  A. Lea's Knight's Byron; Christian Firtues the

  and Romantic Revolution; Authors for The Col-

  Shelley The Society of lected

  Inc. for

  Bermrd The Edmund

  George Shaw;

  Works of Viking Press Blunders

  SfieUty. a word of thanks for and far assistance

  Finally, special patience beyond


  the either vows to her to this book is


  of duty or of marital dedicated.













  A* Drafts of Prometheus Unbound 631

  Shelley's Translations of Prometheus

B. Shelley*s Italian

  677 Unbound

  Passages Mrs.

  (1 Note on Prometheus Unbound Shelley's for Her Edition of 682

  Written 1839


  689 Contemporary Reviews The Prometheus


  Story before Shelley

  F. Basic to

  A Values"

  the "Representative


  in Prometheus

  732 Unbound

  G. of the

  The Time Scheme Poem 741

  II* *s in the E 744

  Shelley Lyric Indention

  Manuscript 747 BIBLIOGRAPHY







  Portrait of Shelley writing Prometheus in the Baths of Caracalla 140

  V Bodleian Folio 18 lines of I 141 MS E.l , Act

  Shelley opening 172

  Bodleian MS c.4, draft of

  II.iii.28-42 Folio 6,

  Shelley Additions

  from Bodleian 3 173 Debatable MSS E.1, 2,

  Shelley readings The This Edition

  Plan of



THE edition of to

  Prometheus Unbound of the present bring 1


  of the and textual critical, that together

  important published material,

can in assist reader of the this

  the Of significant


any way poem. necessity

  certain of selection on editor,

  I tried to

  the have choose

  imposes problems from that extensive to

  the of writing that has accrued wisely body


its first in and to correlate in

  since the material such a

  1820, publication that critical discernible. trends be

  way emphases and may is it


The basic text and has with verbal

  that of 1820,

  been reproduced

  It exactness* wa to decide between necessary this relatively imperfect text in

  was and the

  (printed England while Shelley in Italy)


  decision left the was based on

  by poet* the following considerations, My

  historical: The is not the one from which


mainly manuscript the play

was was revised after had made

  significantly Shelley printed, but by Mary


it, is

  the itself

  (2) The


  copy from manuscript imperfect, especially its literal as

  in and a basic text could have little punctuation, reproduction detailed in

  more than The treatment

  curiosity value* descriptive possible

  and fuller and much more

  ray textual notes variant readings permitted a best on

  this, than

  Shelley's 1820,

  adequate presentation of commentary it. have been base text abstracted from

would had a been The




full evidence for "final" text is before

  the Shelley's debatable question of

  an ab-

  the reader without the prejudice of assumed judgment through l been for some have made only certain theses that have, in significant

  Kiptkm studies. effort to read

  has been mad amplified published portions of the Every way*

  nil the* to in in

  of references the written and those languages English, foreign poem of this material that have

  (much been generally recognized a of inde{>emlent value of a

  k and American Lack criticism)*

  largely a reworking of English comprehensive

  it is

  but that no Shelley bibliography hat increased the possibility of oversight, hoped 1820 and 1955 has been missed. The work between exigencies of publi- of importance



  cation the have have of the book, of items that prevented detailed treatment, body



  but have come to

  latter data,

  appeared following the pertinent studies that my have in the


  been included (preceded by an attention before actual press time


in footnote references.

  and where Bibliography feambla,

  The. xviii

  Plan of This use of the straction. in 1839 made manu- relatively slight

  (4) Mrs. Shelley

  to scholars her it did not become available until IH93, edition; script for 1 Histori- as to a critical edition until (3)

  and was not used corrective Wk 1820 corrected rvpresrntcil

  slightly by Mrs. Shellry) cally, (or that edition editors. for most nineteenth-century the point of departure draft lines of text on variants the

  Immediately below each page, selected

  A), as we!! an de- (the drafts fully in are given are reproduced Appendix 8 to be in the and tailed found K variant readings manuscript in repre- editions Of the edition* of the sentative

  many of importance. subsequent

  hold serious interest for textual KdJtors have


  study, only a

  poem and the detailed variant

  to rest on a editions,


  heavily few key


work have been limited

  largely to these, anil to readings of the present as have sufficient such others interest to justify their inclusion. independent late release

  But the

  the history of the text, especially in of the manuscript,



  editions have therefore treated thorn these unusual significance, gives

  is to in


  more than

  fully customary, notably with respect punctuation characteristics verse. of


  general other representative edition* are in the Introduction. given as throw on textual


  light these readings are such notes may

  These include of the E

  Shelley's alterations manuHcript, wdleeied problems. differences of to the


  draft readings, opinion with respect


  be etc. Here also will found such variant** in other than the conjectures,

  fall into

  editions as editorial do not imitation*

  key the pattern of

  avoid an awkward critical

  To not*


  page makeup, pertain-

  to scenes and lines have been the ing specific interpretation of plueeit nt

  end of the unless stems from textual conniibrii-

  such interpretation



  which case a reference will direct to

  tions, in the Textual Note*, Trait- of draft as well as the Italian translation scriptions passages* by Shelby, to

  have been Introduction The deals with

  relegated appendixes. more


  historical, textual, critical interest general matters of



  whatever nature have

  relevant manuscripts, textual variants of

  it been the reader to

  given, making possible for reconstruct completely any of these items. For Mrs. of nht?

  1839 OH

  Shelley's editions wa* (inaftmuch in at least


from , all

  textual variant* for


working part Shelley's errata) the


  verse the Preface have as well as cif been indicated, in

  any importance

  directions. Minor the stage the latter not stylistic differences in have hmt included. For the other all essential principal editions variant* have noted.

  been It must is

  a relative and be granted that "essential" there be term,


  a reader of this to

  book it is whom to know that one editor u*w important


  t have

  instead of double quotation marks, or spells labor, labour,

  assumed that no real can be served at

  purpose by minh 2 indicating length


  MSS and E,3 E.I, E.2, have referred to

  as B formerly been (for !hc!l*tnn). but recent

  acquisitions make a

  by the Library clearer distinction The. This



  Plan of

  matters of individual of them mannerisms.

  For the editorial style,

  many editions other than those of Mrs. key Shelley, therefore,

  the following

  have been

  items omitted or treated as indicated: errors. Obvious errors

  have not been

  Typographical typographical given in These have included or erroneous the variant readings. clearly

  dropped broken to lines,

  type, failure punctuation, capitalize at beginnings of failures, accidental hyphenation, spacing omission of closing quotation

  and mis-

  letters, marks, transposed misplaced apostrophes or accents,


  if the error in a

  the latter instance, has resulted spellings. however,


  different has word, been included.

  i/.e, and have in the

  not been Type. Type style, spacing noted, except italics for case of emphasis.

  Some editors have used some

  Quotation marks* single quotation marks,

  some at and end of

  double; quotes, others quotes the beginning


  the These differences have not been passage only. indicated, but,


where marks have for in


  quotation been supplied passages not so 1820, this fact has been noted*

  move- have been admitted when the

  Spelling, only (1) Spelling variants of the line the case of a


ment has been when

  altered (as in dieresis), (2) in assonance in altered

  (as in chant,

  change pronunciation has resulted


  (3) when some has attached the variant*

  chaunt)) or special interest will

  The variations be indicated

  spelling principal types of the following

  by list:

  aereal; aerial, aggrandisement, aggrandizement; amphisbenic, amphis-


  latter as


  hasnie; aye., bleat, clearly ay; blessed (where the pronounced burthen, burden; cameleon, syllable); chameleon, camelion; candour, can- dor; cloak, eloke; desert, desart; frenzying, development, developement; learnt, gulph, gulf; immoveably, immovably; phrerizying; gray* grey;


  learned; 'mid, Oh; oer,

  mid; might's mightst; 0, o*er; past, passed; rapt,



  siren, tho, the'; rapped; skiey, skyey; syren; though, in later

  Preface have editions some- Tides, Titles referred to in Shelley's in times in sometimes marks* These differ-


  quotation been given ences have not been noted


  Punctuation* In a work phrasing are of poetry* matters of rhythm in of

  Because this, by ahadings punctuation.

  strongly or subtly influenced in

  and because of the influence of W. Rossetti and the E



  for errors) punctuation variants (except this respect, obvious typographical verse. in editions have the For the Preface the fully for

  key been given and directions have

  they changed the stage been given only w}ien meaning be

  one mark

  results* In certain instances^ clearly, of punctuation may to

  it seemed desirable furnish

  has considered the equivalent of another, but to his the reader can determine satis- the exact evidence own

  by which

  in emphasis. faction the presence or absence of shadings to

  Inasmuch used

  are frequently suggest personifi- Capitals. as capitals have been admitted. cation, for etc,, these variants it ion



  7Hv xx

  Plan of

  is and

  If the line clear, accents. movement

  and apostrophes


  have not hwn

  to or accents indicate syllables

  pronounced nonpronounced is been

  debatable If the movement

  IV.367), the accent has (as at given. included. has use of has been indicated, as

  compound Hyphens, Hyphenation

  result in

  inasmuch as words, both frequently modified emphasis.

  to the


  It above not apply exceptions should be repeated that the former have to Mrs. of 1839. The been or

  Shelley's editions

  manuscripts and the Preface. and the latter in detail for the verse

  in detail,


  to admission or has been

  With the critical material,

  rejection respect will to which a better understanding of the poem

  determined by the degree

  at refer to result. It is a rare work on some point

  Shelley that does not

  is a contribution to

  too seldom there

  Prometheus Unbound, but positive

  can he found in


Mere course,

  or censure, of our understanding. praise any

  and of the rhetorical efforts to

  in some extreme, and, while period any

  and are offer outdo

  delightful to read, they predecessors blaze brightly in


little the of and would amount

  illumination, justifiable

  way require an

were more included* An

  than a representative exception of space sampling in the inclusion of the reviews of has

  been made, however, contemporary

  the first hold a and edition, which insofar special interest are given fully, as in

  on Prometheus D

  they bear Unbound,


  in critical In the Introduction the trends have


  principal thinking as for detailed consideration?! serve an orientation the more found traced, to in the Critical Notes. in

  More have bean treated the

  general subjects


  appendixes. Insofar as practicable, however, opinion has boon in Critical at it the where will be most

  Notes, the point pertinently useful

  It is to the reader.

  inevitable that


  over a period of time the


  of imitation* will recur, either independently or through the flattery tried in these to

  have instances credit to the first

  to occurrence, or give the first full idea, reasonably development, of the

  Where critical has to a

  reference been made possible source or analogue, without quotation of the been or, parallel material, quotation has supplied has

  where this been All summarized* from

  impracticable, quotation* classical or writers

  have been


  major modern aubtitutbii f by where necessary, of a single edition.


  is that the wider and more immediate of the hoped usefulness

  decision to

  work the all

  in will justify give foreign4anguage items


  I limitations tion,


  regret that space prevented the


  inclusion of the rather original texts for this of material large body

  Shelley's Prometheus

  Unbound A




AIM OF this Introduction is


THE twofold; to of


  outline the present


  text of Prometheus and the of

  Unbound nature knowledge concerning the

  the of the to the

  (2) broader outlines of

  principal editions poem; survey critical to of the opinion with respect the quality and meaning poem. De- tailed text notes on and will elsewhere in book.

  be found the





  interest in the Promethean will in

  Shelley's be considered early story the second division of this Introduction, interest at this

  Our major

  point centers on under date of

  by [5] -14,

  a journal entry Mrs. Shelley September "

  1818: Drama and on a letter

  "Mo writes his

  of 'Prometheus,' of Sep- to


tember from which he

  22, 1818, Shelley, in Padua, at Este, in


  her to will


  bring "the sheets of 'Prometheus Unbound,' which you find to

  numbered from one on , is first l twenty-six the table of the pavilion"

  This the evidence we have had (Julian,

  IX, 332) that the poet

  • *In all than that as or notes in the

    (other found

  the present million prose prefaces

  thorn Marian of the Poetical text

  Oxford Standard Au

  IForh) follows the of the Ingpen- data of this letter in as

  IVck Julian Edition of Jforks (the 22,

  Shulloy's given

  ?Septembcr but it to be in fact of that Short titles fre-


Mr. shown date). have

  Shdky'B journal

  in critical full identifica- bem references, for which

  quently employed or biographical can

  tion be consulting the Bibliography. cam'ly made by in

  Mrs. her note on Julian and Maddalo on the Poems of 1818

  Shelley, in (note site

  was a villa built on the of a Julian 21^1), wrote: "I [at Kate]

  [III, Cappuoeini it

  when the was convent, dotnoliHhed religious houses;

  French suppressed Capuchin

  hill the

  brow of a low at foot of Hitunted cm a range of higher ones. tha very overhanging

  as called

  The house vine-trellised it is in was cheerful and walk* a pergola, pleasant; a

  to a at end of the

  led from the halkbor summer -house the which



  made his and in which he tha Prometheus"

  Shelley study, began Un-

  to, to,

  Other or probably the composition of Prometheus pertinent references

  as follows: writes'*

  bound in and letters are

  Mr. Shelley's "Shelley m given journal

  1818 Reel ; ; "Write

  15, f 10] [22] -24) out Shelley's

  MSS, September (September Abmger



  begun the actual composition of the poem, and the sheets probably a

  are not extant. draft,

  is indicated That he wrote the dated

  steadily letter, next pertinent

  by October to Love Peacock: "I

  Este, 8, Thomas have ben 1818, writing


  indeed have first of a classical the act and just finished drama, lyrical

  " to be called Unbound'

  'Prometheus But on

  (IX, 24, 1810, 336).

  January from to act Peacock that the first wan

  Naples, Shelley could only repeat finished: I little "At write else and little of that. present but poetry,


  1st act of

  I likts Prometheus and think it"


  My you would

  failure to 21). The as as at first to

  (X, can be asoritwd progress rapidly distress the

  24, following the death of Clara Shelley 1818,

  on September and the to and

  Rome subsequent journey

  Naples, with aigh

  many tawing excursions to time.


  The however, was



  only temporary, f for to


  by April 1819, the poet could write Peacock from Rome:

  • My

  Prometheus Unbound is and in a

  I month or two shall

  just finished, wnd


  it" (X, 4&). the

  That drama was not sent as as is

  intended evident

  from promptly

  another letter to

  Peacock from Livorno

  1819; 1

  "As to Oilier,

  in July, don't know has or


what what at

  been published, has arrived hw hatuk


  do till


  not send know ,

  My Prometheus though ready,

  more** (X, 63)

  But other considerations have

  contributed to the William

  may delay. on June and

  7, was affected

  Shelley died the logs of the poet deeply hw

  by child. know

we that Prometfwus

  Indeed, although Unbound was "finfohwd** to

  6, Hunt from Livorno as late at*

  by April Shelley wrote

  15: Leigh



"Though surrounded by suffering

  almimt disquietude, and, latterly,




have not been idle. by our strange misfortune ProraetlieiiH

  My is 68).

  finished" (X,


  "Finish copying (December 19); "I painting

  • (December 18); his Poem*'

  is so

  that the

  Sfhelley] arte take all

  writing a our tiimT <i poem Me up

  (to Hunt, April

  "Read "

  1819); Shelley's Drama"


  25); Shelley'a Tromethniw' "Copy

  " 9xpt*!tnl*r

  1 5 ad R Trome theus

  Unbound"* 1820 (October , (the publiNhecl 17, ?] ptmm|); iwr" l the Goodness to at order

  Would you have your Stationers a doom bcmkn likr


  that the Prometheus was


(to Maria

  copied in" March UCJO Gisborne, February or

  MSS, Reel [Abinger 6]).

  "finished" would, at

  this time, to the first throe

  apply only Ant* Iniwiiiiirh



  Act had M


  not yet been Edward

  projected, that Hi*

  Hungerford'a suggestion Shf v must have been the names of punning on Prometheus and hi brother




  IV as

  referring to

  an "afterthought in (Shorn of Darkn***, p, 192) attnuttivr,


  but fcna no evidence that Shelley used the word.

  ^Charles and James Oilier were

  Shelley's publishers. !> wroti*

  Apparently Shelley

  of the to poem latter

  Leigh Hunt, or the learned of for

  it, he wrote to in this

  Shelfey same month:

  I long, to see Prometheus hnnidf.




  have no doubt


  have handled wearied virtue'


It is



  nobly. curious, had

  Hub white



  ago of writing a myself,


  Prometheus Throw*!; m which


  bttombfi to nave described as him

  • * having lately taken possession of

  Jupiter's seat. But thu mlmn


  is in better every account hands. I am

  rather the son of one of


  than of Atlas himself' (Correspondence, 1,


  5 thereafter,


  and James

  6, the poet wrote Charles f on September Oilier:

  is Prometheus/ which finished, now '"My

  being has been long

  and . . .

  will soon be to for transcribed, forwarded The f 1 you publication.

  will Prometheus be so you usual" (X, 79). good as to print, as Ap-

  to of


  parently Shelley intended forward the manuscript, by way to where it to be held for

  Gisborne, was England, Peacock,

  on Septem- by

  "I latter: have sent


  ber 21 the poet wrote the you


  I which do not wish to be sent Oilier for until I to

  to write publication that effect. Giaborne it"

  Mr. will

  83). And bring (X,

  on September 27



he Hunt; have sent to Peacock

'Prometheus Unbound'

  wrote Leigh



if ask for it him he will it show you (X, 87). you"

  Giflhorne's were arid he did to

  But John not

  changed, go plans England until the Gisbornes nevertheless interested