The use of authentic materials to teach descriptive

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

THE USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS TO TEACH
DESCRIPTIVE TEXT IN TOURISM VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN FINAL PAPER

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education

By
Priska Kristanti
Student Number: 101214037

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2017

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

THE USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS TO TEACH
DESCRIPTIVE TEXT IN TOURISM VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN FINAL PAPER

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education

By
Priska Kristanti
Student Number: 101214037

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2017
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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

“Ask and it will be given to you;
seek and you will find;
knock and the door will be opened to you.”
(Matthew 7:7)

I dedicate this Final Paper to
my sweet Jesus Christ, my beloved family, and my kind friends

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

ABSTRACT
Kristanti, Priska. (2017). The Use of Authentic Materials to Teach Descriptive
Text in Tourism Vocational School. Yogyakarta: English Language Education
Study Program, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma
University.
English is taught in tourism vocational school as a compulsory subject.
The tenth grade students there learn about descriptive texts. They learn it mainly
from a textbook chosen by the school. It is very comfortable for teachers to only
use the textbook in teaching descriptive texts. Nevertheless, the students will lack
exposure to language in real situation.
In order to give an alternative solution of that problem, this paper proposes
an objective. The objective of this paper is to discuss the benefits of using
authentic materials for tourism vocational school students.
To attain the objective, this paper uses library study as the research
method. All data like theory of reading, theory of authentic materials, and theory
of descriptive texts are gained by searching it from books and journals.
From the study, there are four advantages and one disadvantage found.
First advantage is the students are exposed to language in real situation. Second,
the students get their self-fulfilment. Third, the students’ motivation increases.
The last advantage is authentic materials bring cultural information for the
students. The disadvantage is teachers should make more effort in searching for
suitable authentic materials.
Keywords: reading, authentic materials, descriptive texts, tourism vocational
school

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ABSTRAK
Kristanti, Priska. (2017). The Use of Authentic Materials to Teach Descriptive
Text in Tourism Vocational School. Yogyakarta: English Language Education
Study Program, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma
University.
Bahasa Inggris diajarkan di sekolah kejuruan pariwisata sebagai salah
satu mata pelajaran wajib. Murid kelas sepuluh di sana belajar tentang teks
deskriptif. Mereka belajar hal tersebut dari sebuah buku pelajaran yang dipilih
oleh sekolah tersebut. Sangatlah nyaman bagi guru untuk hanya menggunakan
buku pelajaran dalam mengajarkan teks deskriptif. Namun demikian, muridmurid akan kekurangan pemaparan akan bahasa dalam situasi sehari-hari.
Untuk memberikan solusi alternatif kepada masalah tersebut, karya tulis
ini mengajukan sebuah tujuan. Tujuan karya tulis ini adalah untuk membahas
keuntungan memakai materi autentik bagi murid-murid sekolah kejuruan
pariwisata.
Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut, karya tulis ini memakai penelitian
pustaka sebagai metode penelitian. Semua bahan seperti teori membaca, teori
materi autentik, dan teori teks deskriptif didapatkan dengan mencarinya dari
buku-buku dan jurnal-jurnal.
Dari tinjauan tersebut, maka ditemukan empat keuntungan dan satu
kerugian. Keuntungan pertama adalah murid-murid mendapatkan pemaparan
tentang bahasa dalam situasi sehari-hari. Kedua, murid-murid mendapatkan
kepuasan akan apa yang mereka inginkan. Ketiga, motivasi murid-murid
meningkat. Keuntungan yang terakhir yaitu materi autentik memberi informasi
kebudayaan bagi murid-murid. Kerugiannya adalah guru harus berusaha lebih
keras dari biasanya untuk mencari materi autentik yang sesuai bagi murid-murid.
Kata kunci: reading, authentic materials, descriptive texts, tourism vocational
school

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank my Almighty Jesus Christ for His love, grace, favor
and guidance that He gives to me every day. He gives me extra strength whenever
I need it. His heart is so kind that He always gives the best to me.
I would like also to thank Yohana Veniranda, M.Hum., Ph.D. for saving
me when I was at the end of my rope . I also give my gratitude to my academic
advisor Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. and Drs. Barli Bram, M.Ed., Ph.D. for
their caring attention. My great thank goes to Pius Nurwidasa Prihatin, Ed.D. for
giving me guidance in academic and social aspect. I learned important lessons
about building relationship with others from him. I would like to address my
thanks to PBI staff and also USD library staff for giving me nice services.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, my
brother, and my big family who have given motivation and love to me, so that I
can get up again after sleeping for a long time.
My sincere gratitude goes to all my beloved sisters in Puri Nugraha, Ita, ka
Nana, Valent, Tya, ce Ayin, ce Lina, and mba Enggar. They have supported me
and given me advice, so that I would not give up finishing my paper. I thank Dian,
Olin, Decha, Siwi, cik Des, and all my classmates who always motivate, cherish,
and help me throughout this journey. I also thank Tita, mba Dinar, and my entire
cell group for their sincere prayers that give me extra strength and courage.

Priska Kristanti

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TITLE PAGE ........................................................................................................... i
APPROVAL PAGES ........................................................................................... ii
DEDICATION PAGE........................................................................................... iv
STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ........................................................v
PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ....................................................... vi
ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... vii
ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................. viii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................... ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS .........................................................................................x

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
A. Background ....................................................................................1
B. Research Method ............................................................................3

CHAPTER II. DISCUSSION
A. Authentic Materials ........................................................................4
B. Teaching Descriptive Text Using Authentic Materials ..................6
C. Advantage and Disadvantage Using Authentic Materials ...........12

CHAPTER III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Conclusions ..... ............................................................................15
B. Recommendations ........................................................................16

REFERENCES.......................................................................................................17

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter contains two parts. The first part of this chapter will convey
the background of this paper. The other part is the research method which
describes the method used in this paper.

A. Background
English is important for many people. Harmer (2001) said that almost a
quarter of the world’s population uses English as communication tool (p. 18). It
could be seen even more real in the tourism. Much travel and tourism in this
world use English (Harmer, 2001, p. 15). It also happens in Indonesia.
People could see that many travel agents in Indonesia have already
prepared their advertisement in Indonesian language and English. They do that
because they know that tourists can come from Indonesia or even abroad. They
are also aware that many people from abroad use English as their communication
tool. So, they also prepare their tour guides to be able to communicate in English
when give service to foreigners.
Knowing great potential of tourism in Indonesia, some vocational schools
open tourism program. It is also supported by Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan
Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia No. 70/2013 states that one of the vocational
school programs is tourism. So, students there learn about tourism. They also
learn English like any other vocational school students in Indonesia because

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English is a compulsory subject. They learn reading, listening, writing and
speaking English.
The students in the tenth grade of vocational school must learn about
several kinds of texts like recounts, narratives, announcements and descriptive
texts. By learning a descriptive text, students will get knowledge about how a
descriptive text looks like.
Teachers usually use a textbook as the material in their teaching process. A
textbook contains all ready materials that have to be learned by students in one
semester or even one year. It has been made by writers based on the curriculum
from government. So, it is very easy and comfortable for teachers to teach from
the textbook.
Besides a textbook, teachers can also use authentic materials to teach.
Authentic materials are very useful for students in learning English. Martinez
(2002) describes authentic materials as materials that are made by native speakers
for native speakers (as cited in Al Azri and Al Rashdi, 2014, p. 249). Authentic
materials can be found anywhere. It can be newspapers, magazines, restaurant
menus, travel brochures, manuals, bills, and clothing labels. For it relates to the
real world, students can learn how the language is used in the real world. The
writers of textbooks usually make the materials in the textbooks understandable
by students. Therefore, the writers really make the materials for the students by
considering students’ ability levels. It means that students will only be familiar
with the language used in the textbook not with the real language used by the
native speaker. Hence, the students should be given exposure to the real language

 

 

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in order to make them familiar with it, so that they will not be shocked when they
have to use English after they graduate from school. It is very important to
consider vocational school students, especially tourism program, who will interact
with foreigners when they work as a tour guide or ticketing staff in the airport.
Sometimes, materials in the course book have been made a little bit unrealistic or
have never been used by the native speakers. For example, one unrealistic
expression is found in teaching invitations “How do you fancy going to the
restaurant for dinner?” (Polio, 2014, p. 3). Moreover, Farrell (2009) mentions that
“most of textbooks used in school were boring” (p. 10).
This paper has the purpose to discuss the benefits of using authentic
materials to teach descriptive text for tourism vocational school students.

B. Research Method
This paper used library study as the research method. George (2008)
mentions that library study is conducting by searching and finding data like
personal or experts’ opinions on a research question from books or journals (p. 6).
To make searching information easier, the writer listed keywords related to
the paper like authentic materials, teaching reading, and descriptive texts. Some
books and journals were found in library and websites. The books and journals
that have been found were read afterwards in order to collect data like theory of
reading, theory of authentic materials, and descriptive texts. After that, the
collected information was organized according to the topic to make it structured
as a research paper.

 

 

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CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the writer will discuss about theories of authentic materials,
teaching descriptive text using authentic materials, and advantage and
disadvantage of using authentic materials.

A. Authentic Materials
Authentic materials are materials written by native speakers to other native
speakers with their own purposes such as persuading, giving information, or
entertaining (Tomlinson, 1998 & Wallace, 1992). From the perspective of the
native speakers, they do not make authentic materials to be only used in a
language classroom. They do not make it especially just for language learning
purpose. Though it is made without any thoughts of language learning purpose, it
can be used in the language learning process just like materials in the textbook. It
is because authentic materials represent how language is used in the real situation.
Teachers can find authentic materials easily because there are many available
authentic materials surround our environment. Authentic materials can be found in
international news like BBC or CNN, English language newspapers, fact sheets
about local culture, tourist brochures and newsletters (Gebhard, 2000, pp. 101).
Peacock (1997) states that authentic materials are more active, interesting,
and stimulating compared to text books (p. 144). So, teachers should consider
using authentic materials in the classroom. Teachers could integrate authentic
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materials with the textbook for example they could change a text in the textbook
with authentic text that is suitable with the theme or what to be learned at that
time or in other words, teachers could use material adaptation. It will make
students be more motivated when they have other materials than their textbooks.
Material adaptation is a process to make existing materials more suitable
for students to learn (Tomlinson & Masuhara, 2004, p. 10). To make the authentic
materials more suitable for students learning from it, teachers should do material
adaptation. Tomlinson says that there are three types of material adaptation which
are Plus, Minus, and Zero. In Plus category, there are addition and expansion
techniques. Minus category has three techniques, namely: deletion, subtraction,
and reduction. In Zero category, there are modification, replacement,
reorganization, resequencing, and conversion. This paper will suggest using
addition technique because we need the materials to be authentic. Addition
technique means that teachers can add different texts into the existing materials.
Tomlinson says that if teachers feel that there is something not quite right between
the existing materials like in the textbook and several things like teaching
environment, learners, preferences, and course objectives, it can be the reason for
adapting materials. To do material adaptation there are several steps that teachers
should do. It starts from analyzing teaching context, identifying reasons for
adaptation, evaluating, listing objectives, and then adapting.
In choosing authentic text to be used in learning reading, there are several
criteria that could be used by teachers. McGrath (2002) proposed eight criteria
which are relevance to course book and learners' needs, topic interest, cultural

 

 

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fitness, logistical considerations, cognitive demands, linguistic demands, quality
and exploitability (as cited in Al Azri, 2014, p. 251). So, teachers cannot choose
authentic text randomly. Teachers should consider whether the authentic text
related to the theme students learn at that time. If the students are on learning
descriptive text about tourist resort, teachers should not take procedural text about
diving.
Peacock (1997) also conveys some reasons why teachers should consider
using authentic materials in the classroom (as cited in Al Azri, 2014, p. 251).
Peacock found that authentic materials could prepare learners for real life. With
learning using authentic text, the students will be accustomed to how the language
used in real life. It means that authentic text can meet the students’ need in
knowing how the language used in the real life. Authentic materials can also
increase motivation of the students in learning English. Teachers will also be
encouraging to adopt for effective teaching methods and also be more creative in
preparing the lesson. Authentic materials also brings authentic information about
culture like a text about a castle in England, students will get information about
England culture.

B. Teaching Descriptive Text Using Authentic Materials
Tourism vocational school students in tenth grade must learn English as
stated in Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia No.
70/2013. In that policy also stated about standard competence and basic
competence for students in learning English as follow:

 

 

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3.

The standard competence is students understand, apply, and analyze factual,
conceptual, and procedural knowledge based on their curiosity in science,
technology, arts, culture, humanities, nationality, and civilization related to
the cause of phenomenon and event, and apply procedural knowledge on
specific field based on their interest and talent.

3.7 The basic competence is students analyze the social function, text structure,
and language features from descriptive text about people, tourist resorts, and
monuments contextually.
So, teachers need to facilitate the students in order to learn about descriptive text.
The generic structure of descriptive text is identification part and
description part. The identification part will convey the identity of things, people,
or places that will be described. In the description part, the things mentioned in
the identification part will be described in detail. Descriptive text uses present
tense for telling the facts of object descriptions and adjective for describing the
things in general for the language features.
Teachers can teach the students about descriptive text by using the
textbook. Students can learn about the social function, text structure, and language
features from it. For the supplement material, teachers can also give authentic
materials to the students. Students can learn how English is used in the real world
by reading the authentic materials.
Anthony, Pearson and Raphael (1993) describe reading as a process to
grasp the meaning from written texts by using a dynamic interaction between the
reader’s existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language,

 

 

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and the context of the reading situation (as cited in Farrell, 2009, p. 14). It means
that reading can help students in enriching their knowledge as the process of
grasping meaning from texts.
In teaching descriptive text, teachers should care for the learners, so that
there is a process of learning by the students. The purpose of teaching according
to Brown (2000) is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learners to learn,
and setting the condition for learning (p. 7). So, teachers need to be very creative
in facilitating students in learning descriptive text.
Farrell (2009) states there are three models of reading namely bottom-up
processing model, top-down processing model, and interactive processing model
(p. 18-19). The three models are described below:
1. Bottom-up processing model
The students process information starting from the words, move to phrases, and
then to full sentences with this model (Farrell, 2009, p. 18). From smallest unit of
the text then students start to make some sense to find the meaning from the texts.
2. Top-down processing model
The students have their own prior knowledge and experiences that influence the
way they understand and interpret a text (Farrell, 2009, p. 18). This process will
start immediately after students read the title and glance quickly through the text.
The students will bring their prior knowledge and experiences that they have
when they read along the text. When reading along the passage, the students also
search for confirmation about their understanding about the topic.

 

 

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3. Interactive processing model
Interactive processing model can be called as the combination between top-down
processing model and bottom-up processing model (Farrell, 2009, p. 19). This
model promotes a more balance process to the students in comprehending the
descriptive text. Thus, the students can extract meaning from the text itself and the
students’ prior knowledge. Farrell (2009) shows that in interactive processing
model, bottom-up processing model and top-down processing model occur
simultaneously when students read a text (p.19). In the bottom-up processing
model, students focus on the extracting meaning from the words by words. On the
contrary, using the top-down processing model, students focus on their prior
knowledge and experiences in comprehending the message of the text. Thus, the
combination of both bottom-up and top-down processing model or the interactive
processing model is really beneficial in comprehending the text better. Therefore,
teachers need to teach this processing model to students.
When teachers teach reading to students, they should remember that the
goal of it is to make the students be strategic readers. Strategic readers do
something before reading, during reading, and after reading (Farrell, 2009, p. 3738). Teachers can arrange these activities to help the students in reading the
descriptive text.
1. Before reading
Before starting to read the descriptive text, teachers could help the students recall
their background knowledge about the text. There are some activities can be done
to do it such as word association, direct experience, and prediction.

 

 

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a. Word association
By doing word association, students could decide which prior knowledge they
should take before they read the descriptive text. This word association activity is
very easy to do. First, teachers write a key word or phrase on the board. Teachers
ask the students to write down whatever words or phrases as many as possible that
come up in their mind after reading the key word in three minutes. The students
should not worry about grammar or spelling because this activity only focuses on
the content of students’ background knowledge.
b. Direct experience
This activity helps the students to get their background knowledge by
participating directly in activity related to the topic. Teachers should also prepare
the concepts and important vocabulary of the text. After students get the concepts
and vocabulary, teachers should present a lesson. This lesson should require
students participate directly in an activity that develops the concepts and uses the
vocabulary.
c. Prediction
Prediction activity makes students recall their previous experience they have
related to the topic of the text they will read. After the students recall it, they start
guessing what will happen in the descriptive text. One thing that good readers do
is making prediction about what they are going to read. Thus, this prediction
activity will train students to be good readers. This activity is also very simple.
First, teachers just need to show a part of the text to the students like the title or
picture, or first line. After that, teachers ask the students about what information

 

 

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they think that they will get from the text and also the reason why they think that
they will get that information. This prediction activity is repeated throughout the
reading process which is in prereading, during reading, and postreading.
2. During reading
During reading, there are some strategies that can be done by students which are
prediction, questioning, and summarizing.
a. Prediction
Prediction activity in this stage has intention which is to develop student’s ability
to read critically and reflectively. Teachers have a task to encourage their students
to make their own predictions about what they are going to read. When students
read the text, they think about whether their prior predictions were correct or not.
They need to make adjustment if their prior predictions were not correct.
b. Questioning
Teachers encourage students to make their own question about the text that can
help them to understand the text. This activity can be done individually or in
group. Teachers can divide the students into groups. Every group makes their own
questions with the answers also related to the text. After that, teachers ask the
groups to exchange the questions only. Every group should answer other groups’
questions then.
c. Summarizing
This activity trains students to be able to get main idea of a part of the text and
then paraphrase it in their own words. First, students should be shown how to
recognize a topic sentence of a paragraph. After founding all topic sentences,

 

 

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students should write it on their notes and then try to join them all with fewer
sentences. After finishing it, students could paraphrase it with their own words. It
will train their comprehension skills.
3. After reading
In this stage, students still do prediction activity. Students determine whether they
want to confirm or to adjust their prior prediction after they read the whole text.
Students can also note which part of the text that makes them surprise.

C. Advantage and Disadvantage Using Authentic Materials
When teachers decide to use authentic materials in classroom, they and
their students will get some advantages. There are four advantages that will be
discussed here. The first advantage is the students are exposed to real language.
Gebhard (2000) argues that authentic materials can become a bridge between the
students and the real world (p.102). The students will get a wide picture of how
English is used in the real world. It is necessary for them to be familiar with it so
that the students will not get shocked when they work in tourism field in the
future. It is very beneficial for them so they will work easier. The tourism students
are expected to be able to use English as communication tool with foreigners
naturally after they are graduated from their school and work in tourism field.
The second advantage is that authentic materials are more related to
learners’ needs. Teachers should plan what to teach in their classrooms based on
their students’ interests and needs (Davies & Pearse, 2000, p. 14). When tourism
students learn English with authentic texts, they will feel that their needs are

 

 

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fulfilled. It is because they need to know how English is used in real life. They
will work in tourism field or even have their own travel agent in the future and
they need to know how to use English in real world at that time. Therefore, they
need to be prepared from now. They also become more confident to deal with real
life situations. They will not get shocked and afraid of English in real life because
they have already encountered that when they learn it with authentic materials in
their classroom.
Another advantage is authentic materials can affect students’ motivation
positively. Davies and Pearse (2000) also mention that authentic materials can be
a solution for teachers to increase students’ motivation (p.14). It is related to
previous advantage. When the learners feel that their need is fulfilled, they will be
more enthusiastic in learning. It is very good to have positive feeling in learning
because it can boost learning process. The students will be able to comprehend the
materials faster. Therefore, they will not have to learn the same subject again and
again. Teachers and students will not want if they waste too much time for the
same theme.
The last advantage is authentic materials bring cultural information for the
students. Davies and Pearse (2000) confirm that when students read an authentic
text, they also get to know the culture of the writer of that text (p. 107). It will be
very beneficial for the students to learn about culture, especially for tourism
students. They will have to know culture from many countries. It will be very
good for them because they will meet foreigners from many countries when they
work in tourism field. Students can get the cultural information from the text by

 

 

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using interactive processing model in reading the text. If the students are given a
text about London city, they might grasp that many people there like to have cups
of tea. In the future when the students already work, when they meet with tourists
from London, they might have an idea to make an itinerary for the tourists to visit
tea garden because they know that people from London like tea.
Besides advantages, authentic materials also have a disadvantage. Gebhard
(2000) mentions that authentic materials add a burden on teachers as teachers
should make extra effort to search for suitable authentic materials (p. 101).
Teachers might need to spend more time than usual when they only use materials
from textbook. If teachers do not have time to travel around to search for brochure
from tourist resorts, they can always search it from the internet. Because of this
disadvantage, the writer suggests that teachers should not throw away the
textbook, but they should try to combine the textbook with authentic materials.
Teachers should use authentic materials as supplemented materials. In other
words, teachers could adapt the authentic materials like adding it when teachers
know that the materials from the textbook lack authentic materials.

 

 

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CHAPTER III
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the conclusions of the use of authentic materials to
teach descriptive text in tourism vocational school. Along with the conclusions
there are also recommendations for teachers and future researchers.

A. Conclusions
From the discussion, the writer can draw the conclusion in this chapter.
The authentic materials can be used in teaching descriptive text for tourism
vocational school students at tenth grade. It is because the benefits of using
authentic materials that can be gained by the students.
Teachers can apply authentic materials in their classrooms to teach
descriptive text by making supplement materials that contain authentic materials.
Teachers can use material adaptation in applying it in the learning process.
Teachers also need to train students to use interactive processing models in
reading the text. Besides that, teachers can arrange activities before, during, and
after reading. Those will help students in gaining benefits from reading authentic
materials.
There are four advantages of using authentic materials. First, authentic
materials can expose learners to the real language. The students will be familiar
with how English is used in real life. Second, the students get their self-fulfilment.
Third, authentic materials have a positive effect on learners' motivation. The last
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advantage

is

authentic

materials

bring

cultural

information

to

the

students‘attention. Besides advantages, using authentic materials can also give a
disadvantage. The teachers will have to make a big effort to search for suitable
authentic materials. Nevertheless, the advantages can overcome the disadvantage.
Thus, the teachers can use authentic materials as supplemented materials not
replace the whole textbook.

B. Recommendations
There are some suggestions for English teachers of Vocational School and
future researchers who are interested in authentic materials.
1. For English Teachers of Vocational School
Authentic materials are beneficial in language learning process. Therefore,
teachers can use authentic materials in their classrooms. They can try to make
reading activities that contain authentic materials for their students. Teachers can
make supplement materials that contain authentic materials for students.
2. For Future Researchers
This paper only focuses on the using authentic materials in reading. The
future researchers can try to apply authentic materials in integrated skills like
reading and writing, or listening and speaking with other suitable media such as
video, picture, or recording.

 

 

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI
 

REFERENCES
Al Azri, R. H. & Al-Rashdi, M. H. (2014). The effect of using authentic materials
in teaching [Electronic version]. International journal of scientific &
technology research 3(10), pp. 249-254.
Brown, D. H. (2000). Principles of language learning & teaching. New York:
Longman.
Davies, P. & Pearse, E. (2000). Success in English teaching. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Farrell, T. S. C. (2009). Teaching reading to English language learners.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Gebhard, J.G. (2000). Teaching English as a foreign or second language.
Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
George, M.W. (2008). The elements of library research. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. Essex, England:
Longman.
Peacock, M. (1997). The effect of authentic materials on the motivation of EFL
learners [Electronic version]. ELT journal 51(2), pp. 144-156.
Polio, C. (2014). Using authentic materials in the beginning language classroom
[Electronic version]. CLEAR News 18(1).
Tomlinson, B. (1998). Materials development in language teaching. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, B. & Masuhara, H. (2004). Developing language course materials.
Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
Wallace, C. (1992). Reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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