Study On Waste Wood As An Alternative Conservation Energy.

i

I/We * admit that this dissertation and in my/our* opinion this dissertation is the
satisfactory in the aspect of scope and quality for the bestowal of Bachelor of
Mechanical Engineering (Automotive)

Signature

:

Supervisor Name (I) :

PROFESSOR DR MD RAZALI BIN AYOB

Date

24TH MAY 2010

:

ii

“I verify that this report is my own word except summary and extract that every one of it
I have clarify the resource”

Signature

:

Author’s Name

:

KAMAL BIN MUHAMMAD RAINI

Date

:

24TH MAY 2010

iii

DEDICATION

For My Beloved Parents and My Family

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The writer would like thank first to my supervisor, Prof. Dr. Md. Razali bin Ayob for his
guidance and supports on the writer during the Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).
A thousand of appreciation is credited to Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) for
their full commitments toward accomplishing this project especially Mr. Puad and his
team members
The acknowledgment also dedicated to my parents and fellow colleagues and last but no
least all people who whether direct or indirectly support and involve in completing this
Projek Sarjana Muda 1.

v

ABSTRACT

In this paper project of Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM), the purpose is to study the method
or solution to waste wood that are currently increasing fast. This project starts with the
study of raw material of wood that are being used by industrial and construction site.
There are many types of wood in tropical rain forest like Malaysia. In this case, some
mechanical characteristic are being exposed in this project to understand more about
woods. Then, this project is narrowed down to rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis,), oil
palm trunk and rice stalks. Then, this paper is continued to review on the previous study
and theory that matters in this project. The innovations of these wastes into product that
can generate energy are elaborated in Methodology. After taking several studies on
theory, it is particularly are to analyze the product or subject. Some physical and
chemical tests are being conducted to indicate the effectiveness of this subject by
comparing to the commercials. Discussion is to enable the reasons of each of the tests
and last but not least conclusion with some suggestions for further studies.

vi

ABSTRAK

Tujuan projek ini dijalankan adalah untuk membuat kajian dan mencari penyelesaian
terhadap kayu dan hasil kayu buangan yang semakin bertambah sekarang ini. Penulisan
ini bermula dengan kajian tentang bahan mentah iaitu kayu dan bahagian kayu yang
dijadikan bahan dalam sector pembinaan dan industry lain. Terdapat banyak jenis kayu
yang terdapat dalam Malaysia dan kayu telah dikategorikan kepada beberapa kelas.
Dalam kajian ini, beberapa ciri mekanikal kayu perlu diambil perhatian untuk lebih
mengetaui tentang ciri kayu. Kemudian, projek ini dikecilkan skop kepada jeni kayu
lembut yang banyak digunakan dalam industri ssekunder seperti pembuatan perabot.
Kita juga akan mempelajari tentang kajian sebelum ini dari pengkaji lain. Kemudian,
inovasi terhadap buangan kayu akan dijalankan untuk menghasilkan jenis kayu yang
mampu menjana tenaga. Metodologi dalam dan prosedur kajian juga akan diterangkan
dalam kajian ini. Beberapa ujian juga telah dilakukan terhadap hasil kajian produk
tersebut. Analisis terhadap subjek yang telah siap ini akan dibandingkan dengan produk
komersial.

vii

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER

TOPIC

PAGE

CONFESSION

ii

DEDICATION

iii

ACKNOWLEDMENT

iv

ABSTRACT

v

TABLE OF CONTENT

vii

LIST OF TABLES

x

LIST OF FIGURES

xii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xiv

LIST OF APPENDICES

xv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 Background

1

1.2 Objectives

2

1.3 Scope

3

1.4 Problem Statement

3

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

5

2.1 Types of Wood in Malaysia

5

2.2 Rubberwood and Furniture Wood

6

2.3 Wood waste

8

viii
2.4 Oil Palm

9

2.4.1 Malaysia Palm Oil Industry

10

2.4.2 Oil Palm Biomass and Energy Content

11

2.4.3 Oil Palm Trunk

12

2.5 Rice Stalks

13

2.6 Previous Study

13

2.6.1 Firewood

14

2.6.2 Sawdust Briquette

15

2.6.3 Charcoal

17

2.6.4 Pellet technology

19

2.7 Relevant Theory

20

2.7.1 Wood Characteristics

20

2.7.2 Heat Reaction

30

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

32

3.1 The Making Of Fuel Solids

33

3.2 Pellet Analysis

34

3.2.1 Physical Properties Analysis

36

3.2.2 Heat Content (Bomb Calorimeter)

38

CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Physical Properties Analysis

41
41

4.1.1 Appearance and Dimension

41

4.1.2 Density

42

4.1.3 Bulk Density

42

4.1.4 Volatile Matter

42

4.1.5 Moisture Content

43

4.1.6 Carbon Content

44

4.1.7 Fix Carbon

45

4.1.8 Overall Percentage

45

4.2 Chemical Properties

46

ix
4.2.1 Heat Calorie Value
4.3 Discussion

46
47

4.3.1 Briquette Making

47

4.3.2 Pellet Making

49

4.3.3 Pellet Analysis

50

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

53

5.1 Background

53

5.2 Conclusion

53

5.3 Suggestion

54

REFERENCE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

56

APPENDICES

60

x

LIST OF TABLES

NO

TITLE

PAGE

1.

The Strength properties of some Malaysian Timber

5

(Source: Lee at al, 1979)
2.

Characteristic of Rubberwood

6

(Source: Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM))
3.

Heat value of Oil Palm Biomass (KCAL/Kg, dry)

10

(Source: PORIM International Palm Oil Congress, 1996)
4.

Energy database for Palm Biomass.

10

(Ngan Ma Ah, 1995)
5.

Comparison of Heat Value of Fuel Type

18

(Source: http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy)
6.

Relationship between mechanical properties and woods.

19

(Source: Roger, 2005)
7.

Comparison of Oven Drying and Moisture Meter Method.

26

8.

Analysis methods and standards

36

9

The length, diameter and the appearance of samples

40

10

The table of weight and density of samples

41

11

Bulk Densities of samples

41

12

Volatile Matter of samples

41

13

Moisture Content for each wood samples

42

14

Result of Carbon Content or Ash Content

43

xi
15

Fix carbon result for each sample

43

16

Overall Percentage of the preferred samples

44

17

Heat Calories Value using Bomb Calorimeter results

45

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

NO.

TITLE

PAGE

1.

Pictures taken from a waste bin that have waste wood

8

2.

Cross section of an oil palm fruit.

9

3.

Oil palm trees in Malaysia

10

4.

The Oil palm Trunk.

11

(Source: http://www.jircas.affrc.go.jp/english/)
5.

The rice stalks or rice straws.

12

6.

Picture of firewood

14

(Source: www.wikipedia.com)
7.

Wood particle of sawdust and the waste environment

15

(Source: www.wikipedia.com)
8.

Fiber saturation point where shrinkage begin to start.

27

(Source: http://chesto fbooks.com/home-improvement)
9.

Graph of moisture content versus shrinkage and Graph of

27

moisture content versus tangential shrinkage
(Source:Green, 1999)
10.

Compression of the sapwood of hickory (26% moisture content)

29

at three different temperatures under increasing pressures.
(Source: The United States Department of Agriculture, 1941)
11.

Amount of compression retained by hickory sapwood after oven
drying and then soaking in water. The specimens were pressed

29

xiii
at different moisture contents and temperatures.
(Source: The United States Department of Agriculture, 1941)
12.

The flow Chart of this project from start to the end

31

13.

The flow of making pellets from raw material of rubberwood,

32

sawdust and rice straws.
14.

A typical commercial pellets compress set-up

34

15.

Electronic Densimeter MD-300S

35

16.

Schematic diagram of the bomb calorimeter system.

38

(Source:http://apchemreview.wikispaces.com)
17.

Bomb Calorimeter in FRIM

39

18.

Graphs of percentages of the fix Carbon,

45

volatile matter, carbon content and moisture content.
19.

The calorie value for all samples

46

20.

The result of briquette making using hydraulic compress.

47

21.

pellet of rubberwood (sawdust)

49

22.

Pellet of oil palm trunk

49

23.

Pellet of rice straws

49

xiv

LIST OF SYMBOLS

m

=

mass, Kg

V

=

volume, m3

Sm

=

Shrinkage (%)

SO

=

Total Shrinkage, (%)

M

=

Moisture content, (%)

ρ

=

density, kg/m3

xv

LIST OF APPENDICES

NO.

TITLE

PAGE

A

PSM Gantt Chart

59

B

Briquetting Process

61

C

RISDA and RIIM statistics

62

D

Laboratory Analysis

65

E

CATIA Structural Generative Analysis Result

66

1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background
Wood comes from trees. This is the most important fact that we have to know

in understanding wood. Woods are characterized into hardwood and softwood that
differ in the inner structure and characteristics. But in this project we will consider
the hardwood including Hardwoods, Medium Hardwoods and Light Hardwood. In
engineering, wood is a natural resource that being use in constructions such as poses
or pillars, furniture, sailing and others. In manufacturing process, many characteristic
involving grains that needs to be considered in order to produce required product
with enough strength upon the wood which is the raw material. The word grain is so
meaningful to show the pattern of inner the inner wood like the rings, and many
other cell that determine the characteristic of woods. There are also several
components in woods that need to be considered in understanding wood before being
manufactured.
Wood is a natural material and being used as a source of energy since
decades to generate electric power and useful thermal output. For woods being
exploited by manufacturers, they tend to produce more and more waste. An idea of
using waste wood as an alternative energy giving much problem solving to recycling
wood and not just let it be thrown away. Wood for use as energy sources comes from
a wide variety of sources. The timberland is the primary, and in most cases original,
resource base for fuel wood. The derived from this type of wood producing waste
wood that can be found in construction site. The others are from manufacturing and

2
wood processing like furniture from urban tree and landscape views. When we
looked into this matter we should know how much people are taking for granted this
waste while it can be recycle to produce energy back for human use. Imagine how
much could we save on energy if this waste can be applied to energy and being used
as regular energy daily.
Wood energy accounts for 9% of total energy consumption in Malaysia.
Statistics show that most biomass energy is consumed by industries, but data on
wood fuel use by households are not available. In the domestic sector biomass
energy is mainly used for cooking (http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/ ). Firewood
has been used in some industries for a very long time. In the rubber industry the
smoking of rubber sheets to produce Ribbed Smoke Sheets (RSS) rubber is wholly
wood fueled (Baharuddin, 1999). This can indicate to us that people are still
recycling waste as energy but they are not into taking serious calibration and further
studies on managing the waste. Thus the wastes of energy material still happen as
specific measurement are not taken.

1.2

Objectives
The main objective of this project is to innovate from waste wood and

manipulated them as an alternative energy for daily purposes. The wastes are to
become a reusable energy that can minimize wastes and pollution to the world.
The objectives are to collect information on the types of wood that is being
categorized as waste and then consolidate the superior quality of soft wood and their
application. After that, the chosen waste woods are to be innovated into solid fuels
either pellets or briquette for the compressed waste wood. Last but not least, the final
objective is to test the efficiency of the subject comparing with the commercial ones.

3

1.3

Scope
In this project, the types of wood that are not being used or waste woods are only

taken into consideration as the study are directed to only waste woods no matter from
raw material or residues.
After general studies, the scope is narrowed down on the chosen wastes for
samples to be experimented which are the rubber wood wastes and its product waste
(sawdust), rice straws and oil palm trunks.
The Process of innovating the waste parts into potential commercialized pellets
are specifically into the types of machines and its principle of works. The models of
machine, comparison on the pellets
The Analysis of the pellets involves only in term of physical properties of the
densities, volatile matter, carbon content, moisture content, fix carbon. Heat content
is evaluated by using bomb calorimeter in its chemical properties to analyze the
energy content.
The cost of manufacturing, maintenance and other costing are also not taken into
consideration in this paper to concentrate more on idea to perform alternative energy.
Further studies should be taken on separate project for better understanding.

1.4

Problem Statement
In Malaysia, we are promoting to save energy and recycle waste. Try to look

at our surrounding we can see there are many woods that re being thrown away just
like that. Then, people tend to buy more and more new products. Yet, these waste
wood are being burnt away just like that without realizing that they still can be use to
produce energy which is called biomass energy. In this matter, there are a lot of
woods that are being exploited and their unneeded parts are left aside just like that.

4
Lesser, they will burnt it to vanish it from sight. The wood waste from consumers is
getting higher and higher due to the increasing of wood application production for
manufacturers. In other perspectives, in rubber estate for example, after the tree
reaches its old times, the woods are being cut off and burnt away. There energy that
they can produce still wasted for nothing.
Nowadays, maybe there is improvement where we can see the waste wood in
manufacturing industry is being used in recirculation energy thus reducing the use of
energy fuel in industry. However, the method that they use are not very effective as
the just throw the waste into furnace to put up fire and continue to innovate the
system that uses the fire as source of energy. The wood must be such to dry and sizes
and many more to increase the efficiency upon the energy aspect. In this case,
wastage of wood also happens.

5

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Types of Wood in Malaysia
Generally woods are divided into two types which are Hardwood and

Softwood. This study will consider more into hardwood and softwood as they are
much usage in industrial products considered as abundant woods parts. There are
three types of hardwood in Malaysia that are being used in industries. The first is the
hard wood, followed by the medium-hard wood and soft wood. Types of woods are
characterized by strength group. Forest Research Institution of Malaysia is the
responsible institute in Malaysia to determine a species strength group based on
Strength Test held by them. From the test, FRIM will divide woods into hard wood,
medium hard wood, and soft wood. Under the Malaysian Grading Rules (1984),
woods are classified as Heavy Hardwood (HHW) when their density exceeds
800kg/m3 and the timers are naturally durable. Medium hardwoods (MHW) are
timbers with density exceeding 729 kg/m3 but lack sufficient natural durability.
Lightwoods (LHW) are timber with density below 720 kg/m3 and not naturally
durable in exposed condition.
The rubberwood from waste will be use in this project. It is of particular
interest to know why this wood is the selected raw material in this project. Light
hardwoods especially rubberwood are also developed for construction uses, and not
necessarily for building furniture, but they are more being concentrated on furniture
like building utilitarian projects (cabinets for the woodshop, painted projects, dog

6
houses, and many more). So, to consumers, in certain period of time, they have come
to change over their old furniture and this waste becoming an annoying part near
dustbin

for

their

size.

(http://www.process-

integrator.com/Solution/Briquette/Feasibility/Intro.htm)
Table 1: The Strength properties of some Malaysian Timber
(Source: Lee at al, 1979)

CHARACTERISTICS

STRENGTH GROUP

(MPa)

A

B

C

D

Modulus Elasticity

9700

6600

5500

3100

Bending and Tension

12.41

9.65

7.24

4.83

11.03

7.93

5.51

4.14

1.45

0.90

0.55

0.45

1.45

0.90

0.62

0.62

Parallel to grain
Compression Parallel
to grain
Compression
perpendicular to grain
Shear Parallel to grain

2.2

Rubberwood and Furniture Woods
The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), often called rubber tree is a tree

belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae and the most economically important
member of the genus Hevea. Rubber wood is the common name of Hevea
brasiliensis, the rubber tree that is found in plantations all over the country. It is of
major economic importance because its sap-like extract known as latex can be
collected and is the primary source of natural rubber (www.wikipedia.com). Malaysia
is famous the world over for its quality timber. First in the furniture industry is
rubber

wood, which makes up 85% of total wood furniture exports.

(http://www.mfpc.com.my). This also indicates that much furniture manufacturing is
made from rubber wood instead of others. Its timber characteristics are moderate

7
hardness, light to moderate weight, and an even, straight grain in a light colour tone;
all these details make rubberwood ideal for furniture manufacturing. Easy to machine
and nail, rubberwood is a furniture designer's dream, allowing for an unlimited
palette of design options. According to FRIM, rubber wood or Hevea brasilliensis
have the density of 640 kg/m3 and types of whitish yellow seasons to a pale straw
colour of wood.
According to Lim K.O, 1986, he stated that rubberwood is a possibility for
further utilization as fuel for its total matter available per annum is 150x10 3 tonnes
and the total energy potentially available current annual basis is 150.73x10 3 boe.
Percentage of presently uses as fuel is -62% and the percentage of total utilized for
other economic considerations is only -5%. The amount wasted approximately
49.74x106 boe. In the other research of quantity of matter and energy potentially
available from future replanting wastes in Malaysia. He stated that in 2007 there will
be 2851.2x103 tonnes and energy potentially available will be 91.359x10 5 boe. The
barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy
released by burning one barrel (42 US gallons) of crude oil. The US Internal
Revenue Service defines it as equal to 5.8 × 106 BTU (British thermal unit).
5.8 × 106 BTU equals 6.1178632 × 109 J
Table 2: Characteristic of Rubberwood
(Source: Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM))
CHARACTERISTIC

VALUE

Density (kg/m3 at 16%Moisture content)

560-640

Tangential Shrinkage Coefficient (%)

1.2

Radical Shrinkage Coefficient (%)

0.8

Hardness(N)
Static Bending, · N/mm at 12% Moisture Content
Modulus of elasticity, N/mm at 12%Moisture Content

4,350
66
9,700

In Malaysia, according to Rubber Industry Smallholders Development
Authority (RISDA), rubberwood plantation covers 51.8% of plantation than others

8
with 275,665.74 hectares. Pahang has the most quantity of rubber wood plantation
which is 46,804.78 hectares of 17% of all state in Malaysia. Rubber Research
Institute Malaysia (RRIM) in 2008, 61,100 hectares are estates and 1,185 93000
hectares are smallholdings resulting the total of 1,247 03000 hectares (Please refer
Appendices). This can indicate how many woods are planted and this can turn into
waste after several years or decades. After the wood turns old and not use, what will
happen to the woods is they are burnt rather that being abundant aside.

2.3

Wood Waste
Wood waste can be broadly defined as the solid wood residues resulting from

the manufacture, use or disposal of wood products. Wood waste is can generally be
any wood from raw material to after processed material that not being used for any
applications. This definition can therefore include several broad categories of wood
products and by-products. Wood wastes are generally wood residues with no further
perceived value that are sent to landfill.
Waste has been a problem for the developing as well as developed countries.
German Federal Government Ordinance has announced that there are three classes or
categories of wood waste occur in waste streams which are (preservative) treated
timber, untreated timber and composite timber products. There are numerous
published methods of categorizing wood residue into different components related to
various recovery options. These published methods generally include one or several
forms of the three broad categories listed above (treated, untreated and composite
timber products), as well as some of the by-products such as off cuts, chips, shavings
and sawdust
Wood waste has been declared a waste of concern by many countries
worldwide, including the 27 countries of the European Union (EU) through the
Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste (EU Directive 94/63/EC, 1994). Wood
waste is a declared waste of concern in New South Wales (NSW), a state of Australia
(Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, 2007). In Malaysia, we can

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