Zulkifli FISIP Qom Alumni in Indonesia: Their Role in the Shici Community

E X P L O R IN G

M U S L IM

CONTEXTS

IHGFEDCBA

S e r ie s E d ito r : F a ro u k T o p a n

B o o k s in th e s e r ie s in c lu d e

D e ve lo p m e n t
C h in e s e ,

M o d e ls in M u s lim

" Is la m ic "

C o n te xts :

a n d N e o -lib e r a l

A lte r n a tive s

E d i t e d b y R o b e r t S p r in g b o r g

T h e C h a lle n g e
P a r a d i g m s fr o m

o f P lu r a lis m :
M u s lim

C o n te xts

E d i t e d b y A b d o u F ila li- A n s a r v a n d S ik e e n a K a r m a li A h m e d

E th n o g r a p h ie s
R i t u a l P e r fo r m a n c e s

o f Is la m :

a n d E ve r yd a y

P r a c tic e s

E d i t e d b y B a d o u in D u p r e t, T h o m a s P ie r r e t, P a u lo P in to a n d

K a th r y n S p e llm a n - P o o ts

C o s m o p o lita n is m s

in M u s lim

P e r s p e c t i v e s fr o m

C o n te xts :

th e P a s t

E d i t e d b y D e r r y l M a c L e a n a n d S ik e e n a K a r m a li A h m e d

G e n e a lo g y

a n d K n o w le d g e

in M u s lim

U n d e r s ta n d in g

th e P a s t

S o c ie tie s :

E d i t e d b y S a r a h B o w e n S a v a n t a n d H e le n a d e F e lip e

C o n te m p o r a r y

Is la m ic L a w in In d o n e s ia :

S h a r ia h a n d L e g a l P lu r a lis m

A r s k a l S a lim

S h a p in g G lo b a l Is la m ic D is c o u r s e s :
T h e R o le o f a l-A zh a r ,

a l-M e d in a

a n d a l - M u s t a fa

E d i t e d b y M a s o o d a B a n o a n d K e ik o S a k u r a i

w w W .e u p p u b lis h in g .c o m /s e r ie s /e c m c

SHAPING GLOBAL ISLAMIC
DISCOURSES
The Role of al~Azhar, al~Medina and al~Mustafa DCBA

E D IT E D

BY

M A SO O D A

B A N O

A N D

K E IK O

SA K U R A I

EDINBURGH
U n iv e rs ity

IN

P re ss

A S S O C IA T IO N

W IT H

THE AGA KHAN UNIVERSITY
(In te rn a tio n a l)
In s titu te

in th e U n ite d K in g d o m

fo r th e S tu d y o f M u s lim C iv ilis a tio n s

The

o p in io n s

n e c e s s a rily
M u s lim

e x p re sse d

a re th o s e

o f th e A g a K h a n

o f th e

U n iv e rs ity ,

a u th o rs

In s titu te

and

do not

fo r th e

S tu d y

of

C iv ilis a tio n s .

© E d ito ria l

m a tte r

© T h e c h a p te rs ,

E d in b u rg h
The

in th is v o lu m e

re fle c t th o s e

Tun

and

th e ir

U n iv e rs ity
- H o ly ro o d

1 2 ( z f ) [ a c k s o n 's
E d in b u rg h

o rg a n is a tio n ,
se v e ra l

M asooda

a u th o rs ,

B ano

a n d K e ik o S a k u ra i,

2015

2015

P re s s L td
R oad

E n try

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w w w .e u p p u b l i s h i n g .c o m

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in G o u d y

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O ld s ty le

a n d p rin te d

and bound

C P I G ro u p

(U K )

A C IP

re c o rd

by

S to c k p o rt,

C h e s h ire ,

in G re a t

L rd , C ro y d o n

fo r th is b o o k

B rita in

is a v a ila b le

IS B N

978 0 74869685

7 (h a rd b a c k )

IS B N

978 074869687

I

IS B N

978

The

I 47440348

(w e b re a d v

in a c c o rd a n c e

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a n d R e la te d

fro m

th e

B ritis h

L ib ra ry

PDF)

I (e p u b )

rig h t o f th e c o n trib u to rs

a s s e rte d

by

CRo 4 YY

w ith

to b e id e n tifie d
th e C o p y rig h t,

R ig h ts

R e g u la tio n s

a s a u th o rs
D e s ig n s

2003

and

o f th is w o rk h a s b e e n
P a te n ts

(S I N o . 2 4 9 8 ).

A ct

1988 and

th e

ContentsQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA

A cknow

v ii

le d g e m e n ts

In tro d u c tio n

Masooda

B ano and

Keiko Sakurai

PART ONE:
M A K IN G O F T H E G L O B A L : IN S ID E T H E T H R E E U N IV E R S IT IE S
1.

The

Is la m ic

R e lig io u s

U n iv e rs ity

M is s io n

and

o f M e d in a
th e

s in c e

M a k in g

1961: T h e

P o litic s

of

S a la f i P e d a g o g y

of a M odem

'21

Mike Farquhar
2.

M a k in g

Q om

In te rn a tio n a l

a C e n tre

o f S h i ''i S c h o l a r s h i p :

A l-M u s ta fa

41

U n iv e rs ity

Keiko Sakurai


P ro te c to r

o f th e

" a l-W a s a tiy y a "

I s l a m : C a i r o 's

a l- A z h a r

U n iv e rs ity

73

Masooda Bano

PA R T Tw o:
R E T U R N IN G G R A D U A T E S IN N E G O T IA T IO N W IT H T H E L O C A L



A h lu s s u n n a h :

A P re a c h in g

N e tw o rk

fro m

K ano

to M e d in a

and

B ack

93

Alex Thurston


Q om

A lu m n i

Zulkifli

in In d o n e s ia :

T h e ir

R o le

in th e

S h i" : C o m m u n ity

117

S H A P IN G

6.

Is la m ic

M o d e rn is m ,

E d u c a tio n :

The

GLOBAL

P o litic a l

R e la tio n s h ip

IS L A M IC

R e fo rm

D IS C O U R S E S

a n d th e A ra b is a tio n

b e tw e e n

M o ro c c a n

of

N a tio n a lis ts

and

a l-A z h a r U n iv e rs ity

142

Ann Wainscott

PART
R E T U R N IN G

7.

F ro m

M ecca

GRADUATES

to C a iro :

AND

C h a n g in g

THREE:
T R A N S F O R M A T IO N

In flu e n c e s

OF THE

LOCAL

o n F a tw a s in S o u th e a s t

A s~

167

Yuki Shiozaki
8.

" A z h a r i s a t i o n ''

o f " U la m a T ra in in g

in M a la y s ia

190

Hiroko Kushimoto
A bout

th e C o n trib u to rs

219

In d e x

221

-v i-

AcknowledgementsYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA

T h is

v o lu m e

A ugust

2012.

c o n trib u tio n s

re s u lte d
The

fro m

a w o rk sh o p

th a t m a d e th is v o lu m e

a s p e c ia l th a n k s

to S te p h a n e

on

H is c o m p a ra tiv e

th is p ro je c t.

R iz v i, w h o

a lo n g

th e w o rk s h o p . T h e ir

e x c e lle n t

k n o w le d g e

fro m

fro n ts . T h is
o f S c ie n c e

W aseda

p ro je c t
(JS P S ),

In s titu te s

fo r th e

a d d itio n ,

M asooda

200

9 and

S te p h a n e
h e lp e d

a c te d

U n iv e rs ity

KAKENHI

H u m a n itie s

G ra n t

th e

v a lu a b le

Saudi

N o.

and

a s s p e c ia lis t

p ro v e d

K a lm b a c h

c o m m e n ta to rs

c h a p te rs ,

and
at

w h ile a ls o

a n a ly s is . B e n Y o u n g p ro v id e d '

su p p o rt

Japan

and

on a num ber

S o c ie ty

24401013,

P ro g ra m

a d v ic e

E g y p tia n

a n d a l-A z h a r

re a d y fo r p u b lic a tio n

p ro v id e d
b y th e

(N IH U )

e x tre m e ly

in d iv id u a l

c o m p a ra tiv e

in

in s ig h tfu l

w o u ld a ls o lik e to e x te n d

a l-M e d in a

in fo rm

o f O x fo rd

fo r th e ir

a re a ls o d u e to H ila ry

th e m a n u s c rip t

w a s s u p p o rte d

U n iv e rs ity

a u th o rs

o f b o th

w ith b o th

to th e th re e -u n iv e rs ity

N is h im u ra

in s titu tio n

w ith

c o m m e n ts

s u p p o rt in g e ttin g

th e

p o s s ib le . T h e y

to b e a b ig a s s e t fo r th e p ro je c t. T h a n k s

c o n trib u tin g

a t th e

L a c ro ix , w h o p ro v id e d

re lig io u s s p h e re s , a n d h is fa m ilia rity

S a jja d

h e ld

e d ito rs w o u ld lik e to th a n k

B a n o w o u ld lik e to a c k n o w le d g e

th e

o f c ritic a l

fo r th e

and

P ro m o tio n

J a p a n 's

fo r Is la m ic A re a
su p p o rt

[ u n 'i c h i

N a tio n a l

S tu d ie s .

In

of her hom e

a n d th e E S R C Id e a s a n d B e lie f F e llo w s h ip , w h ic h s h e h e ld b e tw e e n
2012,

a llo w in g h e r th e tim e to w o rk o n th is p ro je c t.

Masooda Bano and Keiko Sakurai

-v ii-

5

CHAPTER

Qom Alumni in Indonesia:
Their Role in the Shici CommunityZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIH
Z U L K IF L I

IN T R O D U C T IO N .

T h is c h a p te r
c o m m u n ity

e x p la in s th e ro le o f Q o rn a lu m n i in th e d e v e lo p m e n t
in In d o n e s ia . T h e

c o m p le te d

c o u rse s

L e a rn in g )

in

Is la m ic

o f Q o rn , w h ic h

Is la m ic e d u c a tio n

o f th e S h i" :

p h ra se "Q o m

a l u r n n i '' r e f e r s t o t h o s e w h o h a v e

e d u c a tio n

th e

in

is a t p re s e n t

in th e w o rld . T o d a y

th e

H a w z a " Ilm iv y a

m o s t im p o rta n t

th e re a re m o re th a n

in In d o n e s ia , e v e n e x c lu d in g th o s e w h o tra v e lle d

(C o lle g e

c e n tre
200

o f S h i" i

Q om

to Q o rn to a tte n d

of

a lu m n i

s h o rt-te rm

c o u rs e s . T h e g ro w th in th e n u m b e r o f Q o m g ra d u a te s h a s m a d e a m a rk e d c o n trib u tio n to th e fo rm a tio n
in d e e d , th e
A ra b ic

m a jo rity

ustadh,

a n d d e v e lo p m e n t

o f re n o w n e d

te a c h e r)

id e n tifie d

w ith

n u m b e r o f u s ta d z w e re in fa c t e d u c a te d

w ith p ro m in e n t

(re lig io u s

re tu rn e e

Ilm i C o lle g e

in g D e m o c ra tic
In P e k a lo n g a n ,
(tra d itio n a l

and

dacwa

is A b d u rra h m a n

S h i" i

in In d o n e s ia ;

te a c h e rs ,

Java, A hm ad

u s ta d z w h o

a lu m n i,

Shahab,

fro m

th e

even

th o u g h

a

tw o S h i" ! u s ta d z w h o

in In d o n e s ia w h e re im p o rta n t

a c tiv itie s

th e

m o s t p o p u la r

in J a k a rta . A n o th e r

B im a , fo rm e r d ire c to r

J a k a rta , a n d c u rre n tly

C e n tra l

Q o rn

a re a m o n g

a te rtia ry

P a rty , le d b y c u rre n t

Is la m ic e d u c a tio n a l

F re q u e n tly ,

H u s e in

a re h e ld ,

fo r Is la m ic S tu d ie s ,

D e p o k , S o u th e rn

th e

S h i" i fo u n d a tio n s

g a th e rin g s )

fig u re s e n g a g e d in e d u c a tio n a l
in e n t Q o m

(re lig io u s

in E g y p t o r S a u d i A ra b ia . F o r e x a m p le ,

U rn a r S h a h a b a n d h is y o u n g e r b ro th e r

pengajian

ustadz

a re g ra d u a te s o f th e H a w z a " Ilrn iy y a . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e ,

S h ic i u s ta d z a re fre q u e n tly

a re c o n n e c te d

o f th e S h i" ! c o m m u n ity

S h i" :

e d u c a tio n a l

S u s ilo

in s titu tio n

lo c a te d

fo r th e le a d -

pesantren

c a lle d a l- H a d i.

a re g ra d u a te s

-1 1 7 -

in

B am bang Y udhoyono.

B a ra g b a h le a d s a fa m o u s S h i" !

in s titu tio n )

p ro m -

o f th e M a d in a tu l

a m e m b e r o f p a rlia m e n t
p re s id e n t

S h t" i

fro m

Is la m ic s c h o o ls

in o th e r

S H A P IN G

GLOBAL

IS L A M IC

D IS C O U R S E S

M id d le E a s te rn c o u n trie s , a s w e ll a s in te lle c tu a ls fro m s e c u la r u n iv e rs itie s , a ls o
c o m e to Q o m to ta k e s h o rt-te rm
k n o w le d g e

and

e s ta b lis h

tra in in g p ro g ra m m e s in o rd e r to g a in Is la m ic

c o n n e c tio n s

w ith

S h i" ! le a d e rs a n d

th e

" u la rn a o f

Q o m . H a s a n D a lil, fo r e x a m p le , h a v in g fin is h e d h is u n d e rg ra d u a te
in R iv a d h , to o k a th re e -m o n th
In d o n e s ia n

p ro g ra m m e

tra in in g p ro g ra m m e in Q o m . E v e n th e re n o w n e d

S h t ''i i n t e l l e c t u a l J a l a l u d d i n R a k h m a t a n d h i s f a m i l y s t a y e d i n Q o m

fo r a y e a r, d u rin g w h ic h tim e h e a tte n d e d

le a rn in g c irc le s a n d le c tu re s c a rrie d

o u t b y a y a to lla h s . T h is illu s tra te s th e g re a t im p o rta n c e

a tta c h e d

to Is la m ic e d u -

c a tio n in Q o m b y th e S h i= ia o f In d o n e s ia .
The

firs t s e c tio n

th e p ra c tic e
e x p la in s

o f th is c h a p te r

o f In d o n e s ia n

th e

e d u c a tio n a l

d e s c rib e s th e h is to ry a n d d e v e lo p m e n t

s tu d e n ts p u rs u in g th e ir e d u c a tio n
s y s te m

and

s c h o o lin g

s tru c tu re

of

in Q o m : it th e n

w h ic h

is p re v a le n t

th e re . T h e n e x t s e c tio n e x p la in s th e w o rk in g s o f th e Q o m a lu m n i a s s o c ia tio n .
F in a lly , th e c h a p te r a tte m p ts to a c c o u n t fo r th e s ig n ific a n t ro le p la y e d b y Q o rn
a l u m n i i n t h e f i e l d o f I s l a m i c d a 'w a a n d e d u c a t i o n

THE

It is u n c le a r
c a tio n

P R O L IF E R A T IO N

e x a c tly w h e n

O F IN D O N E S IA N

In d o n e s ia n

in Q o m . E ffo rts h a d

in d e e d

In d o n e s ia n

S h i i le a d e rs s u c h

e s ta b lis h e d

c o n ta c t

w ith p ro m in e n t

IN

QOM

b e g a n to p u rs u e Is la m ic e d u -

m a d e to s e n d s tu d e n ts

as M uham m ad

C

STUDENTS

s tu d e n ts

been

in In d o n e s ia .

Ira n ia n

A sad

Shahab,

to Q o m

w ho

S h i" ! " u la rn a in th e

by

m et and

1950Sj how -

e v e r, re lia b le re p o rts s u g g e s t th a t s tu d e n ts b e g a n tra v e llin g to Q o m fo r Is la m ic
le a rn in g o n ly a fe w y e a rs b e fo re th e Ira n ia n re v o lu tio n ,

w h ic h b e g a n in 1 9 7 8 .

T h e s e s tu d e n ts w e re th e d e s c e n d a n ts o f A ra b s , a n d liv e d in v a rio u s lo c a tio n s o n
th e In d o n e s ia n
a n d g ra n d so n

a rc h ip e la g o . A li R id h o a l-H a b s v i, s o n o f M u h a m m a d
o f H a b ib A li K w ita n g o f J a k a rta , s tu d ie d in Q o m

g ra d u a te s o f th e P e s a n tre n

a l-K h a ira t

th e n e x t tw o y e a rs , a n d in S e p te m b e r
fro m P a le m b a n g ,
Q om

S o u th

S u m a tra ,

S u la w e s i, fo llo w e d o v e r

1 9 7 6 , U m a r S h a h a b , a n A ra b d e sc e n d a n t

a n d to d a y a fa m o u s S h i" ! u s ta d z , c a m e to
s tu d e n ts .

In fie ld w o rk c o n -

d u c te d in 1 9 7 5 , F is c h e r a ls o n o te d th e p re s e n c e o fIn d o n e s ia n

s tu d e n ts in Q o m :

am ong

to s tu d y a lo n g s id e s e v e n

o f P a lu , C e n tra l

a l-H a b s y i

in 1 9 7 4 . S ix

th e

fo re ig n

s tu d e n ts ,

o th e r

In d o n e s ia n

in c lu d in g

c o h o rts

fro m

P a k is ta n ,

A fg h a n is ta n ,

In d ia , L e b a n o n , T a n z a n ia , T u rk e y , N ig e ria a n d K a s h m ir, In d o n e s ia n s
le a s t n u m e ro u s .

w e re th e

1

A fte r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t
in te n s ifie d b e tw e e n

o f th e Is la m ic R e p u b lic o f Ira n in 1 9 7 9 , in te ra c tio n

its g o v e rn m e n t

o f th e a y a to lla h s in s p ire d In d o n e s ia n
o lo g ic a l fo u n d a tio n

in te lle c tu a ls

S h t" i " u la m a . T h e v ic to ry

a n d " u la rn a to s tu d y th e id e -

o f t h e I r a n i a n r e v o l u t i o n , n a m e l y , S h i 'T s r n ; a n d a t t h e s a m e

tim e , th e re w a s a n Ira n ia n
p o litic o -re lig io u s

a n d In d o n e s ia n

p o lic y o f " e x p o rtin g "

th e re v o lu tio n ,

w ith

Ira n ia n

l e a d e r s a i m i n g t o s p r e a d S h i 'i i s m i n I n d o n e s i a a n d t o a t t r a c t

QOM

ALUM NI

In d o n e s ia n

IN

IN D O N E S IA :

s tu d e n ts

its re p re s e n ta tiv e s

T H E IR

ROLE

IN

THE

S H Ic I

to s tu d y in Ira n . In 1 9 8 2 , th e Ira n ia n

A y a to lla h

Ib ra h im

A m in i, A v a to lla h

C O M M U N IT Y

g o v e rn m e n t

sent

M a s d u q i a n d H u jja t

a i-Is la m M a h m u d i to In d o n e s ia . A m o n g th e ir a c tiv itie s w a s a v is it to Y a y a s a n
P e s a n tre n

Is la m (Y A P I; th e F o u n d a tio n

o f Is la m ic P e s a n tre n )

in B a n g il, E a s t

J a v a , w h e re th e y m e t w ith its le a d e r, H u s e in a l-H a b s y i; th e la tte r w o u ld b e c o m e
th e m o s t im p o rta n t c o n fid a n t o f Ira n ia n le a d e rs a n d " u la m a in In d o n e s ia . A t th e
tim e , H u s e in a l-H a b s y i w a s p ro b a b ly o n e o f th e m o s t p ro m in e n t S h i" ! " u la rn a in
In d o n e s ia a n d h e p la y e d a m a jo r ro le in th e d e v e lo p m e n t

o f Is la m ic d a 'w a a n d

e d u c a tio n . A s a re s u lt o f th e m e e tin g , Q o rn 's H a w z a " Ilm iy v a a g re e d to a c c e p t
te n In d o n e s ia n s tu d e n ts s e le c te d b y H u s e in a l-H a b s y i. F ro m th e n u n til h is d e a th
in 1 9 9 4 , H u s e in a l-H a b s y i w a s re s p o n s ib le fo r s e le c tin g c a n d id a te s fo r s tu d y a t
H a w z a " Ilm iy v a in Q o m a n d in o th e r c itie s in Ira n .
A s a re s u lt, g ra d u a te s o f Y A P I n u m b e re d a m o n g th e In d o n e s ia n s tu d e n ts w h o
c a m e to Q o m in 1 9 8 2 , a lo n g s id e th e a lu m n i o f o th e r e d u c a tio n a l
T h e y h a v e b e c o m e re n o w n e d

S h i" ! u s ta d z in In d o n e s ia :

in s titu tio n s .

o f th e te n s tu d e n ts

re fe rre d to in th e a g re e m e n t, n e a rly a ll o f w h o m a re A ra b d e s c e n d a n ts ,

s ix a re

a lu m n i o f Y A P l. T h e Y A P I a lu m n i in c lu d e M u h s in L a b ib (H u s e in a l-H a b s v i's
s te p s o n ) a n d R u s d i a l-A y d ru s , w h o h a v e b e c o m e
a n d H u s e in

a l-H a b s y i's s o n , Ib ra h im

S h i" ! u s ta d z in In d o n e s ia ,

a l-H a b s y i, w h o h a s p u rs u e d h is s tu d ie s

in Q o rn u p u n til th e p re s e n t d a y . F ro m o u ts id e Y A P I, A h m a d

B a ra g b a h a n d

H a s a n A b u A m m a r h a v e a ls o b e c o m e S h t" i u s ta d z in In d o n e s ia . In th e y e a rs
th a t fo llo w e d , g ra d u a te s o f Y A P I a n d /o r th o s e re c o m m e n d e d
s y i w e re s till p re d o m in a n t

a m o n g th e In d o n e s ia n

b y H u s e in a l-H a b -

s tu d e n ts w h o w e n t to Q o m .

B e tw e e n r cdy a n d 1 9 8 9 , a l-H a b s y i s e n t te n s tu d e n ts to Q o m , a n d to d a y m o s t
o f th e m

h a v e e s ta b lis h e d

o r a re a ffilia te d w ith n o ta b le

In d o n e s ia a n d h a v e b e e n re c o g n is e d a s im p o rta n t
M usyayya B aabud,

S h i''i fo u n d a tio n s

in

S h i" ! u s ta d z . T h e s e in c lu d e

Z a h ir Y a h y a (th e le a d e r o f a l-K a u ts a r F o u n d a tio n ,

E a s t J a v a , a n d fo rm e rly th e h e a d o f Y A P I), M iq d a d

M a la n g ,

(th e h e a d o f P e s a n tre n

D a ru t T a q rib , J e p a ra , C e n tra l J a v a ), F a th o n i H a d i (th e fo u n d e r o f a l-H u jja h
F o u n d a tio n , je m b e r, E a s t J a v a , a n d c u rre n tly o n th e a d m in is tra tiv e
Is la m ic C o lle g e J a k a rta ),

M uham m ad

F o u n d a tio n , S u ra b a y a ), A b d u rra h m a n

A m in

S u fy a n

(th e h e a d

s ta ff o f th e

o f S a m u d e ra

B im a (fo rm e r d ire c to r o f M a d in a tu l

Ilm i

C o lle g e fo r Is la m ic S tu d ie s , S T A IM I, D e p o k , S o u th e rn J a k a rta ), H u s e in a l-K a ff
(a n a d v is e r a t a l- J a w a d F o u n d a tio n , B a n d u n g ), H e rm a n a l-M u n th a h a r
o f A m iru l M u k m in in

F o u n d a tio n ,

P o n tia n a k ,

(th e h e a d

W e s t K a lim a n ta n } , M u h a m m a d

a l-J u fri, a n d A b d u l A z iz a l-H in d u a n .
In th e 1 9 9 0 S , in a d d itio n to th e a lu m n i o f Y A P I, g ra d u a te s o f o th e r Is la m ic
e d u c a tio n a l in s titu tio n s ,
s e le c te d to c o n tin u e

s u c h a s th e M u ta h h a ri

th e ir e d u c a tio n

F o u n d a tio n

W ith th e g ro w in g in flu e n c e o f th e S h i" ! in te lle c tu a ls
H a id a r B a g ir, w h o s e re c o m m e n d a tio n s

a n d a l-H a d i, w e re

in Q o m . T h is d e v e lo p m e n t
J a la lu d d in

c o rre s p o n d s
R akhm at

and

w e re ta k e n n o te o f in Ira n . O v e r tim e ,

S H A P IN G

th e e d u c a tio n a l

GLOBAL

b a c k g ro u n d

IS L A M IC

D IS C O U R S E S

o f th e In d o n e s ia n

s tu d e n ts

s tu d y in g in Q o rn h a s

b e c o m e m o re v a rie d . F ro m th e o u ts e t, m o s t o f th e s tu d e n ts w h o w e n t th e re h a d
c o m p le te d

th e ir s e c o n d a ry e d u c a tio n ; b u t m o re re c e n tly a n u m b e r o f g ra d u a te s

o f te rtia ry s c h o o ls h a v e a ls o g o n e th e re to p u rs u e h ig h e r le v e ls o f s tu d y - a m o n g
th e m a re a fe w a lu m n i o f M a d in a tu l
D epok, and
U n iv e rs ity

w e can

Ilm i C o lle g e fo r Is la m ic S tu d ie s (S T A IM l),

a ls o fin d g ra d u a te s o f " s e c u la r" u n iv e rs itie s ,

o f In d o n e s ia , J a k a rta , a n d th e U n iv e rs ity

s u c h a s th e

o f P a d ja d ja ra n ,

B andung,

s tu d y in g re lig io u s k n o w le d g e in Q o m . T h e ir e d u c a tio n a l b a c k g ro u n d s a re v a rie d
a n d in c lu d e th e h u m a n itie s ,
M u jta h id

H ashem ,

U n iv e rs ity

o f In d o n e s ia .

M u jta h id

H ashem

s o c ia l s c ie n c e s , a n d e v e n s c ie n c e a n d te c h n o lo g y .

fo r in s ta n c e ,

is a g ra d u a te o f th e

In s te a d

o f e x p a n d in g

c a m e to Q o m

in

2001

te c h n ic a l

h is k n o w le d g e

fa c u lty a t th e
in te c h n o lo g y ,

to e n g a g e in re lig io u s s tu d y . W h ile

th e re , h e w a s s e le c te d a s th e g e n e ra l s e c re ta ry o f th e A s s o c ia tio n
S tu d e n ts
2000.

(H im p u n a n

o f In d o n e s ia n

P e la ja r In d o n e s ia ), w h ic h w a s fo u n d e d in Ira n in A u g u s t

2

In a d d itio n

to th e g ro w in g in te re s t o n th e p a rt o f In d o n e s ia n

re g a rd to s tu d y in g in Ira n , th e Ira n ia n g o v e rn m e n t,
C e n tre

fo r Is la m ic

S tu d ie s

(IC IS ;

s te p p e d u p e ffo rts to a ttra c t
m e n t o f th e c e n tre
1994,

in te rn a tio n a l

w a s tra d itio n a l

th ro u g h

M a rk a z -i [a h a n i-y i

in th a t

s tu d e n ts .

~awza

th e In te rn a tio n a l

" U lu m - i

U n til

1993,

Is la m i),

has

th e m a n a g e -

w a s u n s tru c tu re d ;

b u t s in c e

IC IS h a s b e e n u n d e r th e s u p e rv is io n o f th e o ffic e o f th e L e a d e r o f th e

Is la m ic R e v o lu tio n
th e a u th o rity

h e a d e d b y G ra n d A v a to lla h

" A li K h a m e n e " i, w h o a ls o h a s

to a p p o in t its d ire c to r. T h u s , A li K h a m e n e " i s u c c e e d e d in tra n s -

fo rm in g " th e p re v io u s ly a m o rp h o u s a n d u n s tru c tu re d
a b l e c e n t e r 't . '
re p re s e n ta tiv e

W ith

re g a rd to its e ffo rt to a ttra c t

c o n d u c ts

an

annual

s u c h a s th e Is la m ic C u ltu ra l C e n tre
B a n d u n g . In a d d itio n
s e le c tio n

in

P e rs ia n , w h ic h

1990,

s tu d e n ts ,

is th e

a n IC IS

o f J a k a rta a n d th e M u ta h h a ri

F o u n d a tio n ,

A ra b ic is a p re re q u is ite

in th e

la n g u a g e fo r Is la m ic le a rn in g

a t c e rta in

m a d ra s a s in Q o rn . U p o n

a re a ls o re q u ire d to fo llo w a s ix -m o n th
la n g u a g e o f in s tru c tio n

tra in in g

p ro -

a t m o s t o f Q o m 's

in s titu tio n s .

n u m b e r o f In d o n e s ia n

c a n tly . B y

In d o n e s ia n

in s titu tio n s ,

s o le la n g u a g e o f in s tru c tio n

Is la m ic e d u c a tio n a l

s e m in a ry in to a m a n a g e -

p ro c e s s a t Is la m ic

to a c a d e m ic a c h ie v e m e n t,

a rriv a l in Ira n , s tu d e n ts
g ra m m e

s e le c tio n

p ro c e s s , s in c e th is is a n in te rn a tio n a l

a n d a ls o th e

The

s tu d e n ts w ith

s tu d e n ts s tu d y in g in Q o m

h a s in c re a s e d s ig n ifi-

fifty In d o n e s ia n s tu d e n ts h a d re p o rte d ly c o m p le te d th e ir s tu d ie s

o r w e re s till s tu d y in g in Q o m ; te n y e a rs la te r, th e n u m b e r o f Q o m g ra d u a te s in
In d o n e s ia w a s re p o rte d ly o v e r a h u n d re d . In
chosen

to c o n tin u e

2001,

fifty In d o n e s ia n s tu d e n ts w e re

t h e i r s t u d i e s i n Q o m ," a n d i n

d e n ts w e re s e le c te d . C u rre n tly , th e re a re a b o u t
m o s t o f th e m p u rs u in g Is la m ic s tu d ie s in Q o m .

-1 2 0 -

250

2004,

n in e ty

In d o n e s ia n

a d d itio n a l

s tu -

s tu d e n ts in Ira n ,

QOM

ALUM NI

IN

IN D O N E S IA :

THE

G e n e ra lly

s p e a k in g

th e re

T H E IR

E D U C A T IO N

IN

SYSTEM

a re tw o e d u c a tio n

c Ilm iy y a in Q o m : th e tra d itio n a l
tia l; a n d th e m o d e rn

ROLE

IN

THE

SHI

c

C O M M U N IT Y

,

QOM

s y s te m s o p e ra tiv e

a t th e

H aw za

s y s te m , w h ic h is th e m o s t fa m o u s a n d in flu e n -

s y s te m . T h e

tra d itio n a l

s y s t e m 's c u r r i c u l u m

a n d in te lle c tu a l

fiqh

in c lu d e s b o th

usul al-fiqh
culum ai-Qur'an ( s c i e n c e s o f t h e Q u r 'a n ) , culum
al-hadith ( s c i e n c e s o f h a d i t h ) , nal).w ( A r a b i c s y n t a x ) , ~arf ( A r a b i c m o r p h o l o g y ) ,
balagha ( r h e t o r i c ) , mantiq ( l o g i c ) , I).ikma ( p h i l o s o p h y ) , kalam ( t h e o l o g y ) , ~awVJuf ( S u f i s m ) a n d cirfiin ( g n o s i s , m y s t i c k n o w l e d g e ) . E a c h s u b j e c t h a s i t s o w n
s t a n d a r d t e x t s . i w h i c h a r e s t u d i e d i n halaqat ( s t u d y c i r c l e s ) u n d e r a n i n s t r u c t o r 's
tra n s m itte d

re lig io u s s c ie n c e s :

(ju ris p ru d e n c e ),

(p rin c ip le s o f ju ris p ru d e n c e ),

s u p e rv is io n .
A t th e

muqaddamiit

(p re lim in a ry )

th e e m p h a s is is o n p ro v id in g
th e c o re o f its e d u c a tio n a l

le v e l, w h ic h

s tu d e n ts

la s ts fro m th re e

o p tio n a l s u b je c ts , in c lu d in g

lite ra tu re ,

m a th e m a tic s ,

C

-i

tiiqlid

(p l.

a re a t

th e re a re c e rta in

a s tro n o m y ,

tisala camiiuyya ( t r a c t s o n
mariiji - i tiiqlld; a n a u t h o r i t a t i v e

to ry fiq h , ta k e n fro m o n e o f th e

marja

th a t

p ro g ra m m e . T h e m a in s u b je c ts ta u g h t a t th e p re lim i-

n a ry le v e l in c lu d e n a h w , s a rf, b a la g h a a n d m a n tiq . In a d d itio n ,

p o ra ry

to fiv e y e a rs ,

w ith v a rio u s s k ills in A ra b ic

and

in tro d u c -

p ra c tic e ) o f a c o n te m -

C

s o u rc e o n m a tte rs

of

Is la m ic la w ). T h e le a rn in g p ro c e s s a t th is le v e l in v o lv e s g ro u p s o f s tu d e n ts g a th e rin g to g e th e r a ro u n d a te a c h e r w h o g o e s th ro u g h

th e te x ts w ith th e m . S tu d e n ts

a re fre e to c h o o s e th e te a c h e r w h o w ill b e c o m e th e ir in s tru c to r.

ta q lid .f

e r s a t t h i s l e v e l a r e s e n i o r s t u d e n t s o r a s s i s t a n t s o f m a r a j i 'v i
A t th e s u tu h
in tro d u c e d

le v e l, w h ic h

to th e s u b s ta n c e

u s u a lly la s ts fro m
o f d e d u c tiv e

p ro g re s s to th e n e x t a n d u ltim a te

tafslr

a t th is le v e l a re

( Q u r 'a m c

th re e

U s u a lly , te a c h -

to s ix y e a rs , s tu d e n ts

fiq h a n d u s u l a l-fiq h , o n w h ic h

le v e l d e p e n d s . T h e o p tio n a l s u b je c ts p ro v id e d
e x e g e s is ), h a d ith

(tra d itio n s ),

k a la rn , p h ilo s o -

p h y , " irfa n , h is to ry a n d e th ic s . G e n e ra lly , c o u rs e s a re o rg a n is e d a c c o rd in g
in s tru c tio n a l

te c h n iq u e

u s u a lly

mujtahid

to th e

e m p lo y e d a n d b a s e d o n th e m a in te x ts o f th e tw o m a in

s u b je c ts , a n d s tu d e n ts a re fre e to s e le c t w h ic h le c tu re s to a tte n d .
m a y a ls o a tte n d

a re
th e ir

le c tu re s

in

th e

o p tio n a l

w h o h a v e ju s t a c h ie v e d

s u b je c ts . T e a c h e rs

th e s ta tu s o f

ijtihiid

The

a t th is

s tu d e n ts
le v e l a re

a n d a re e s ta b lis h in g

th e ir r e p u ta tio n s ."
A lth o u g h

th e

s u b je c ts a t th e

u s u l a l-fiq h , th e m e th o d
p rio r le v e ls . T h e te a c h in g

u ltim a te

o f le a rn in g

le v e l

e m p lo y e d

(dar-i khiirij)

a re a ls o fiq h a n d

is d iffe re n t fro m th a t o f th e tw o

is d o n e b y p ro m in e n t

m u jta h id ,

w h o d e liv e r le c tu re s

o f v a ry in g le n g th . U s u a lly th e y p o s t th e ir o w n s c h e d u le s a n d lo c a tio n s fo r th e ir
le c tu re s , a n d s tu d e n ts

a re fre e to c h o o s e w h o s e th e y w ill a tte n d .

d e liv e re d b y th e m o s t p ro m in e n t
p e o p le , in c lu d in g

m u jta h id s m a y w e ll b e a tte n d e d

o th e r m u jta h id s .

A d ia le c tic a l

m e th o d

-

le c tu re s
of

is g e n e ra lly e m p lo y e d

in th e s e c la s s e s : s tu d e n ts a re fre e to d is c u s s a n d a re e n c o u ra g e d

-1 2 1

The

b y h u n d re d s

to a rg u e p o in ts

S H A P IN G

w ith th e te a c h e r.

GLOBAL

D IS C O U R S E S

A t th is s ta g e , m o s t s tu d e n ts a re a c c o m p lis h e d

a b s tra c t d is c u rs iv e a rg u m e n ta tio n
c u lm in a tio n

IS L A M IC

a n d a re tra in e d

in th e s k ill o f

to h a v e s e lf-c o n fid e n c e . T h e

o f th e le a rn in g p ro c e s s is th e a tta in m e n t

ijaza

of an

(lic e n c e , c e rn .

fic a tio n ) fro m o n e o r m a n y re c o g n is e d m u jta h id . It is c o m m o n fo r th e s tu d e n t a t
th is le v e l to w rite a tre a tis e o n fiq h o r u s u l a l-fiq h , a n d p re s e n t it to a m u jta h id
w h o th e n

c o n s id e rs th e s tu d e n t

m u jta h id

m a y is s u e th e ija z a , w h ic h

T h u s , s tu d e n ts

a n d th e ir w o rk . B a s e d o n th e ir e v a lu a tio n ,
a u th o ris e s th e s tu d e n t

b u ild u p th e ir c a re e rs b a s e d o n th e ir re la tio n s h ip s

th e

ijtihiid.8

to e x e rc is e

w ith c e rta in

m u jta h id -te a c h e rs .
W hen
title
An

a s tu d e n t

a y a to lla h

re c e iv e s th e

("ayat Allah",

a y a to lla h

ija z a , m a k in g h im

" s ig n o f G o d " )

a m u jta h id ,

is n o rm a lly

th e

b e s to w e d

h o n o rific
upon

re c o g n is e d a s a rn a rja " -i ta q lid u s u a lly re c e iv e s th e title

al-cuzma ( " g r a n d a y a t o l l a h " ) .
ai-Islam ( p r o o f o f I s l a m ) . T h e

T h e c o m m o n title o f a n a s p irin g m u jta h id

h im .

ayatol/ah
i s hujjat

s tru c tu re o f th e S h i" ! " u la m a is p y ra m id a l: th o s e a t

th e h ig h e s t le v e l, th e m a ra ji" -i ta q lld , a re th e fe w e s t in n u m b e r. T h e tra d itio n a l
s y s te m o f e d u c a tio n

is e x tre m e ly im p o rta n t in S h i" ! s o c ie ty , g iv e n th e m a jo r ro le

o f m a rja " -i ta q lid th ro u g h o u t
The

m o d e rn

a d o p tin g

th e

m a d ra sa

m o d e rn

h is to ry .

s y s te m

re g im e

c u rric u lu m , c la s s ro o m

is a tra n s fo rm a tio n

o f e d u c a tio n

le a rn in g

o f th e

c o n c e iv e d

in

a n d ru le s . N o n -tra d itio n a l

c la s s ic a l s y s te m ,

te rm s

o f g ra d a tio n ,

m a d ra sa s "a re se t u p

to s e rv e n e e d s n o t s u p p lie d b y th e tra d itio n a l s y s te m " ? T h e c u rric u lu m
o f re lig io u s a n d s e c u la r s c ie n c e s p re s e n te d
o f tra d itio n a l
s y s te m

s tu d y c o u rs e s . U n lik e

is n o t

becom e

in te n d e d

to tra in

Is la m ic s c h o la rs a n d

h a s p ro v id e d a n a lte rn a tiv e
th e tra d itio n a l
In d o n e s ia n s ,
The

d e n ts , a s s ig n s s tu d e n ts
fo r th e

o f Ira n

to b e c o m e

m u jta h id s ,

in n o v a tiv e

p ro g ra m m e s

m a d ra s a s y s te m . T h e

Im a m

o ffe rs p ro g ra m m e s

g ra d u a te

g ra d u a te

c o o rd in a te s

in n o v a tio n s

o f Is la m ic k n o w le d g e

K h o rn e in i C o lle g e

le v e ls e q u iv a le n t

th e w id e r
te a c h in g s .

b a s e d o n th e

fo r H ig h e r

E d u c a tio n ,

in c lu d e

e d u c a tio n

u n d e r-

le v e l o f th e

b rin g s H a w z a " Ilm iv y a a s te p c lo s e r

c e n tre o f Is la m ic le a rn in g . Its im p o rta n c e

a c e n tre o f Is la m ic le a rn in g is n o t o n ly b a s e d o n th e tra d itio n a l

B o th e d u c a tio n

and

s tu d e n ts

g ra d e s y s te m s th a t

to th e te rtia ry

s y s te m : th is in n o v a tio n

i n Q o m 's

p ro g ra m m e s fo r fo re ig n s tu -

fo r in te rn a tio n a l

based on

to b e c o m in g a le a d in g in te rn a tio n a l

o n th e e m a n c ip a tio n

to

s tu d e n ts , in c lu d in g

to m a d ra s a s , a n d m o n ito rs th e ir n e e d s w ith in

new

m o d e rn e d u c a tio n a l

b u t ra th e r

ty p e o f e d u c a tio n

in th is m o d e rn ty p e o f p ro g ra m m e .

h a s m a d e e d u c a tio n a l

IC IS , w h ic h

fo r e x a m p le ,
and

s y s te m , th is m o d e rn m a d ra s a

fo r s tu d e n ts w h o , fo r w h a te v e r re a s o n , c a n n o t fo llo w

g lo b a l d is s e m in a tio n

h a s o rg a n is e d

m o d e rn

s tu d e n ts

m is s io n a rie s . T h is

a re g e n e ra lly e n ro lle d

H a w z a " Ilm iy v a th ro u g h

IC IS

th e tra d itio n a l

c o n s is ts

a s lig h tly s im p lifie d v e rs io n

s y s te m o f th e H a w z a " Ilm iv v a . In te rn a tio n a l

Is la m ic R e p u b lic

fra m e w o rk

th ro u g h

o f h a w z a in th e fo rm o f n e w in s titu tio n s

s y s te m s h a v e b e e n a tte n d e d

-1 2 2 -

b y In d o n e s ia n

as

m a d ra s a , b u t a ls o
a n d u n iv e rs itie s .

10

s tu d e n ts . T h e firs t

QOM

ALUM NI

I n d o n e s ia n

IN

s tu d e n ts

a m o d e rn

S h i" i

w as know n

m ake

in

to I r a n

w ith

r e lig iO U S k n o w le d g e
o lo g y , m a th e m a tic s

and

E n g lis h .

e d u c a tio n a l

of O ar

tio n a l
Q om

e n tr e n c h e d

s y s te m

o f le a r n in g .
th e f o r m a l

c la s s e s

o r le c tu r e s

a tte n d

m o d e rn

and

such

w as

le a r n in g ,

its

a s p r o v id e d

th r o u g h

p h ilo s o p h y ,

s o c i-

w a s A r a b ic .

The

a lth o u g h

it d id n o t f o llo w

th e

a

b o th

m o d e rn :

o f I n d o n e s ia n

o f e d u c a tio n ,

it w a s

I t o p e r a te d
in c lu d e d

o f in s tr u c tio n

th e f ir s t g r o u p

s y s te m

K a z im

e f f o r ts

p e r m its .

a s p s y c h o lo g y ,

s y s te m ,

a l- I s la r n i,

O a r a l- T a b lig h

f o r th e

c u r r ic u lu m

th e r e f o r e

haw za

C O M M U N IT Y

M uham m ad

and

r e s id e n c e

la n g u a g e

A c c o r d in g ly ,

f o llo w e d

o f I s la m ic

and

s c ie n c e s

tr a d itio n a l

SHI ,

a t O a r a l- T a b lig h

s tu d e n ts

s y s te m ,

a l- T a b lig h

in th e

c

THE

e n r o lle d

v is a s

The

IN

1 9 6 5 b y A y a to lla h

o f f o r e ig n

a c r e d it

s e c u la r

s tr o n g ly

w e re
in

th e ir

and

s y s te m

ROLE

A s a n in s titu tio n

n u m b e rs

a r r a n g in g

p ro g ra m m e

T H E IR

fo u n d e d

(1 9 0 4 -8 6 ).

f o r its la r g e

to

f iv e - y e a r

to c o m e

in s titu tio n

S h a r iC a tm a d a r i

w illin g

IN D O N E S IA :

a lth o u g h

th e

tr a d i-

s tu d e n ts

th e y

tr a d itio n a l

it w a s

c o u ld

H aw za

in
a ls o

" I lm iv y a

s y s te m .
A f te r
s itio n

th e d is s o lu tio n

to th e

K h o m e in i
f o r e ig n

o f O a r a l- T a b lig h

concept

-

M a d ra sa

s tu d e n ts .

h a v e a tte n d e d

vilayat-i faqih

of

H u jja tiy y a

M a d ra sa

H u jja tiy y a ,

S h a h a b , w h o w a s tr a n s f e r r e d
t:v o y e a r s . T h is

re fo rm e r

m a jo r ity

o n ly

A lth o u g h

m ost

p ro g ra m m e

A y a to lla h

books

and

u tilis in g

r e lig io u s

School
le c tu r e s

A s e d u c a tio n a l
s tu d e n ts

have

S a f a v id

and

in
and

th a t
s tu d y

re fo rm

c e n tr e

m a d ra sa

T h is

The

its o w n

in th e

has

f o r in te r n a tio n a l

Im a m
been

in Q o m ,

K h o m e in i
s tr iv in g

s tu d e n ts .

-1 2 3 -

to
The

School

in

th e

f o llo w s

" I lm iy v a .

The

I n d o n e s ia

have

H u jja tiy y a ,
p r o v id e d

a ls o

in

1 7 0 1 d u r in g

w a s r e b u ilt

b y th e

f o r h is r o le

a m a g n if ic e n t

its o w n

haw za

G ra n d
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fro m

of

e d u c a tio n

r a th e r

a ls o d if f e r e d

s tu d e n ts

a
th e

c o lle c tio n

m a te r ia ls

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its

1 9 3 6 ),

w h ic h

le a r n in g

tr a d itio n a l

(d .

fo r

H u jja t

a t M a d ra sa

f o r m u la te d

p r o h ib ite d

h a s p ro g re sse d
a t th e

m a d ra sa

M u 'r n in iv v a

fo rm e r

c ir c le s

f ille d w ith

H u s e in

M uham m ad

1 9 9 1 ), k n o w n

(d .

lib r a r y ,

p r o v id e d

th e

S h i" i u s ta d z

w a s fo u n d e d
and

to I r a n

d ip lo m a .

r e g is te r e d

d y n a s ty ,

cam e

a t O a r a l- T a b lig h

u s ta d z

M u 'im in iy y a ,

M a r 'a s h i- N a ja f i

te x tb o o k s .

r e g is te r e d

1 9 9 6 , th is

e d u c a tio n

o f th e

m a n u s c r ip ts .

w ho

in H a w z a

S h i" !

m a d ra sa

fo r

H u jja tiy y a

la c k a f o r m a l

w e re

by

p ro g ra m m e

H a = ir i

e m p lo y e d

becom e

M a d ra sa
T h is

c u r r ic u lu m ,

r e c o g n is e d

H u jja tiy y a

S in c e

and

a l- K a r im

O a r a l- T a b lig h ,

s tu d e n ts

o f a la r g e

s tu d e n ts

oppo-

im p le m e n te d

sam e

th e p r o m in e n t

g e n e r a lly

s tu d e n ts .

a l- D in

in Q o r n

th e

a f te r s tu d y in g

of "A bd

w ho

at

to its le a d e r 's

ju r is t)

in 1 9 4 6 b y A y a to lla h

le v e l a n d

le a r n in g

H usayn

S h ih a b

p u b lis h e d

s tu d e n ts

f o r f o r e ig n

e s ta b lis h m e n t

s y s te m

o f e d u c a tio n

I n d o n e s ia n

th e ir

o f S u lta n

in c lu d in g

a s tu d e n t

th e p r e lim in a r y

p u rsu e d

p r o v id e

to th is m a d r a s a

w a s fo u n d e d

o f I n d o n e s ia n

c o m p le te d

r e ig n

s y s te m

to

o f th e

a ll I n d o n e s ia n

" I lm iy v a .'! U n lik e

of H aw za

th e tr a d itio n a l

a fe w

m a d ra sa

(1 8 9 2 -1 9 6 3 ),

K u h k a m a ri

began

1 9 8 2 , n e a r ly

S in c e

1 9 8 1 - o w in g

in

( m a n d a te

fro m

th a n
th e

a tte n d in g

s y s te m .'?

a la r g e n u m b e r

o f I n d o n e s ia n

C o lle g e

f o r H ig h e r

p o s itio n

its e lf

m a d ra sa ,

w h ic h

a s th e

E d u c a tio n .
p r in c ip a l

w a s e s ta b lis h e d

S H A P IN G

GLOBAL

a fte r th e d e a th o f A y a to lla h

IS L A M IC D IS C O U R S E S

K h o m e in i, u s e s th e m o d e rn s y s te m o f e d u c a tio n

te rm s o f p ro g ra m m e s a n d c u rric u la , in s p ite o f its e n tre n c h m e n t
tio n a l h a w z a s y s te m . It ru n s b o th

u n d e rg ra d u a te

v a rio u s fie ld s o f s p e c ia lis a tio n w ith in
C h a n g e s in th e e d u c a tio n

in

in th e tra d i-

a n d g ra d u a te p ro g ra m m e s in

th e re a lm o f re lig io u s s c ie n c e s .

13

s y s te m fo r fo re ig n s tu d e n ts h a v e b e e n d e s ig n e d , in

p a rt, to e x p a n d th e p rim a c y o f Q o m a s a w o rld c e n tre fo r Is la m ic le a rn in g . O n e
such change

is th e a d o p tio n

o f th e c re d it s y s te m a n d a m o d e rn

ta x o n o m y

of

s t u d y p r o g r a m m e s - n a m e l y , b a c h e l o r s , m a s t e r 's a n d d o c t o r a t e s , a s i m p l e m e n t e d
b y W e s te rn

u n iv e rs itie s - a lo n g w ith d ip lo m a s a n d fo rm a l s y s te m s o f a c c re d i-

ta tio n . T h is is m e a n t to p ro v id e fo r th e d e m a n d s o f s tu d e n ts fro m a ll o v e r th e
w o r l d , a n d i t i s a l s o i n a c c o r d w i t h Q o m 's g o a l t o p r o d u c e I s l a m i c s c h o l a r s a n d
p re a c h e rs w ith a g lo b a l a p p e a l. In
th e

In te rn a tio n a l

U n iv e rs ity

C e n tre

2008,

fo r Is la m ic

th e Ira n ia n

S tu d ie s

g o v e rn m e n t

in to

a l-M u s ta fa

tra n s fo rm e d
In te rn a tio n a l

to p ro v id e e d u c a tio n fo r a n fo re ig n s tu d e n ts , in c lu d in g In d o n e s ia n s .

It n o w s u p e rv is e s a n u m b e r o f u n iv e rs itie s s u c h a s Im a m K h o m e in i C o lle g e fo r
H ig h e r

E d u c a tio n

In d o n e s ia n

and

M a d ra sa

B in t a l-H u d a

s tu d e n ts h a v e th u s e x p e rie n c e d

School

fo r H ig h e r

E d u c a tio n .

a v a rie ty o f c h a n g e s in th e e d u c a -

tio n s y s te m : u n lik e th e ir p re d e c e s s o rs , th e y s tu d y in u n d e rg ra d u a te
p ro g ra m m e s in p a rtic u la r fie ld s o f s p e c ia lis a tio n

o r g ra d u a te

w ith re c o g n is e d d ip lo m a s a n d

t i t l e s ; w h i l e s o m e d o B A d e g r e e s , o t h e r s t a k e m a s t e r 's p r o g r a m m e s , a n d a f e w
o th e rs

s e e k d o c to ra te s .

C o lle g e fo r H ig h e r
[a m ia t

a l-Z a h ra ,

W h ile

E d u c a tio n ,
a n o th e r

m o s t m a le s tu d e n ts
fe m a le s tu d e n ts

in s titu te

s tu d y a t Im a m

a tte n d

e ith e r

fo r re lig io u s le a rn in g

K h o m e in i

B in t a l-H u d a

in Q o m

th a t

or

o ffe rs

b a c h e l o r s o r m a s t e r 's d e g r e e s .
Q o m 's

tra n s fo rm a tio n

th e u s e o f in fo rm a tio n

o f Is la m ic e d u c a tio n

te c h n o lo g ie s

in to a m o d e rn

in th e d is s e m in a tio n

s y s te m in c lu d e s

o f k n o w le d g e . In th is

re g a rd , R a s ia h s u g g e s ts :

In Q u m , th e h a w z a h a s n o t b e e n

im m u n e to th e s e d e v e lo p m e n ts ,

a n d th e

n e w te c h n o lo g y o f th e s o -c a lle d " d ig ita l re v o lu tio n " h a s b ro u g h t in n o v a tio n s
to th e w a y tra d itio n a l

Is la m ic k n o w le d g e

m e a n s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n

a n d a u d i o p o d c a s t s , e m a i l ,c o m p a c t d i s k s ,
lik e , a re tra n s fo rm in g
W ith

d e v e lo p m e n ts :

e n c e c o u rs e , a n d th e tra n s la tio n

In d o n e s ia n
Q om

s tu d e n ts

th ro u g h

th e ir

th is h a s re n d e re d

...

D V D s ,C D - R O M

th e p o s s ib ilitie s o f d is s e m in a tin g

re g a rd to th e h a w z a th e d ig iriz a tio n

m a jo r in te rre la te d

is tra n s m itte d

a n d s to ra g e , th e fo rm o f in te rn e t

b e n e fit fro m

s o ftw a re a n d th e

Is la m ic k n o w le d g e .

o f k n o w le d g e h a s in c lu d e d

th e d ig ita l lib ra ry , th e o n lin e

th re e

c o rre sp o n d -

o f o rig in a l te x ts ."

th e

tra n s fo rm a tio n

o f Is la m ic e d u c a tio n

u s e o f th e v a rio u s fo rm s o f in fo rm a tio n

th e m

T o d a y , d ig ita l

w e b p a g e s , v id e o

m o re p ro g re s s iv e

-1 2 4

-

th a n

th e ir

te c h n o lo g y ,

in
and

p re d e c e s s o rs . C e rta in ly ,

QOM

ALUM NI

c o n n e c tio n s
m a tio n

IN

IN D O N E S IA :

T H E IR

b e tw e e n b o th g e n e r a tio n s

te c h n o lo g y ,

I s la m ic e d u c a tio n

and

ROLE

IN

THE

S H Ic I

a r e m o r e e a s ily m a d e b y m e a n s o f in f o r -

th is in tu r n

is c o n tr ib u tin g

to th e

QOM

ALUM NI

in I n d o n e s ia

d e m a n d f o r w a y s to e s ta b lis h c lo s e r e la tio n s h ip s

a n d s o in te n s if y th e ir m is s io n a r y e f f o r ts u p o n r e tu r n in g

e s ta b lis h e d a n a s s o c ia tio n

c a lle d I k a ta n

o f a l- M u s ta f a

o n 7 F e b ru a ry

H a w z a " I lm iv y a I t

U n iv e r s ity

2009,

is c u r r e n tly

A lu m n i J a m ia h
A lu m n i) .

b r in g s to g e th e r

The

and

b e tw e e n th e m

h o m e , th e I n d o n e s ia n

a lu m n i o f H a w z a " I lm iy y a a n d o f a l- M u s ta f a I n te r n a tio n a l

la u n c h e d

of

A S S O C IA T IO N

A lo n g w ith th e g r o w in g n u m b e r o f H a w z a " I lm iy v a a lu m n i

A s s o c ia tio n

d e v e lo p m e n t

in I n d o n e s ia .

THE

th e c o n c o m ita n t

C O M M U N IT Y

U n iv e r s ity

a l- M u s ta f a

a s s o c ia tio n ,

(M IU )

(IK M A L ;
w h ic h

w as

a ll th o s e w h o h a v e s tu d ie d

in

c h a ir e d b y M iq d a d T u r k a n ( th e c h a ir -

(2 0 II-1 3 )

m a n o f P e s a n tr e n D a r u t T a q r ib , J e p a r a , C e n tr a l J a v a ) , a s s is te d b y H u s e in a l- K a f f
( a l- ja w a d F o u n d a tio n ,

B a n d u n g ) a s v ic e - c h a ir m a n

a n d K h o lid a l- W a lid a s s e c -

r e ta r y . T h e s tr u c tu r e o f th e a s s o c ia tio n in c o r p o r a te s s u c h d iv is io n s a s e d u c a tio n
a n d d a 'w a , w e lf a r e a n d a d v o c a c y , m e d ia a n d p u b lic r e la tio n s , a n d w o m e n , e a c h
h e a d e d b y r e n o w n e d Q o m a lu m n i o f th e o ld e r g e n e r a tio n .
A c c o r d in g

to its s ta tu te ,

th e g o a ls o f I K M A L a r e to d e v e lo p a n d a d v a n c e

I s la m ic p r o p a g a tio n a s b o th a n in d iv id u a l a n d a c o lle c tiv e o b lig a tio n ; to p r o te c t
its m e m b e r s ; to in c r e a s e th e q u a lity , c o m p e te n c e

a n d p r o s p e r ity o f its m e m b e r s ;

to in c r e a s e th e r e lig io u s k n o w le d g e o f th e I s la m ic c o m m u n ity ,

ahl al-bayt

I n d o n e s ia n
r e la tio n s h ip s
a s s o c ia tio n

w ith . a lu m n i o f r e la te d
in te n d s

in s titu tio n s .

to c a r r y o u t a c tiv itie s

o f its m e m b e r s th r o u g h
a n d d e v e lo p in g

p a r tic u la r ly

c o m m u n ity ; a n d to e s ta b lis h h a r m o n io u s

e d u c a tio n ,

th e e x is te n c e

T o a c h ie v e

b y : ( i) im p r o v in g

th e s e g o a ls , th e
th e p e r f o r m a n c e

r e s e a r c h a n d a p p lic a tio n s ;

o f th e A s s o c ia tio n

th e

a n d p r o d u c tiv e

o f a l- M u s ta f a

( ii)

p r o m o tin g

A lu m n i;

( iii)

p r o m o tin g a n d p r e s e r v in g th e in te r e s ts a n d p o s itio n s o f m e m b e r s ; ( iv ) im p r o v in g c o m m u n ic a tio n
n ic a tio n

a n d c o o p e r a tio n

a n d c o o p e r a tio n

b o th w ith in

a m o n g m e m b e r s ; ( v ) e s ta b lis h in g c o m m u -

w ith in s titu tio n s ,

a g e n c ie s a n d o th e r

a n d o u ts id e th e c o u n tr y ; ( V i) im p r o v in g c o a c h in g ,

o r g a n is a tio n s ,
m e n to r in g

and

s u p e r v is io n o f m e m b e r s in c a r r y in g o u t m is s io n a r y a n d s c ie n tif ic a c tiv itie s ; ( v ii)
c a r r y in g o u t e f f o r ts f o r th e w e lf a r e o f m e m b e r s b y c o o r d in a tin g
o f th e

a lu m n i

and

a llo c a tin g

s o c ia l a s s is ta n c e ; ( v iii)

s e r v ic e ; a n d ( x i) p r o v id in g in f o r m a tio n

p e r f o r m in g

th e a c tiv itie s
c o m m u n ity

a n d h e lp in g to s o lv e r e lig io u s p r o b le m s

f a c e d b y c o m m u n itie s .
S in c e
in c lu d in g

its f o u n d a tio n ,
tr a in in g ,

th e a s s o c ia tio n

h a s c a r r ie d

w o r k s h o p s , s e m in a r s , p u b lic a tio n s

o u t a r a n g e o f a c tiv itie s ,
a n d c o m m u n ity

s e r v ic e .

O n e n o ta b le a c tiv ity w a s th e w o r k s h o p o n d a 'w a m e th o d s a n d a h l a l- b a v t s y lla b i
in I n d o n e s ia , w h ic h to o k p la c e in M a r c h

201

-1 2 5

-

2

w ith a r o u n d a h u n d r e d p a r tic ip a n ts ,

S H A P IN G

GLOBAL

IS L A M IC

D IS C O U R S E S

b o th m e m b e rs o f IK M A L a n d o th e r S h i" t a c tiv is ts a n d p ro p a g a to rs . A m o n g th e
fa c ilita to rs w e re S a y y id A h m a d

F a z e li (d ire c to r o f th e Is la m ic C o lle g e J a k a rta , a

b ra n c h o f a l-M u s ta fa In te rn a tio n a l

U n iv e rs ity ),

to r o f th e Is la m ic C u ltu ra l C e n tre ),

a n d H a id a r B a g ir (M iz a n P u b lis h in g H o u s e ).

S a y y id M o rte z a M u s a w i (d ire c _

T h e w o rk s h o p w a s in s p ire d b y th e n e g a tiv e re s p o n s e s to S h iis m

in In d o n e s ia

a n d th e s e c ta ria n v io le n c e th a t h a d o c c u rre d in s e v e ra l p la c e s in J a v a , in c lu d in g
th e
in

b u rn in g

c h a irm a n

o f P e s a n tre n

a l-H a d i

in B a ta n g

M is b a h a l-H u d a

P e k a lo n g a n ,

C e n tra l

in S a m p a n g , D e c e m b e r

2011.

Java
The

o f IK M A L , M iq d a d T u rk a n , s a w th e s e a c tio n s a s re s u ltin g fro m th e

in a p p ro p ria te
and

dow n

a n d o f P e s a n tre n

2000,

im p le m e n ta tio n

m is c o m m u n ic a tio n

o f d a 'w a b y S h i " ! p r o p a g a t o r s . M i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g

seem

to h a v e c o lo u re d

th e

im p le m e n ta tio n

of dacw a

w ith in S h i" ! te a c h in g in In d o n e s ia . In th e w o rk s h o p , fo r e x a m p le , A h m a d F a z e li
w a rn e d

th e

p a rtic ip a n ts

th a t

e n g e n d e r m is u n d e rs ta n d in g

th e

c o rre c t

d a 'w a

c o n te n ts

if th e y w e re c o m m u n ic a te d

w o u ld n e v e rth e le s s

to th e w ro n g p e o p le b y

in c o rre c t m e th o d s .
In th e fie ld o f re lig io u s c u ltu re ,

IK M A L h a s a tte m p te d

w ritin g s o f its m e m b e rs . It p u b lis h e s a n e -jo u rn a l c a lle d
in g s o n

S h i" ! d o c trin e s ,

ju ris p ru d e n c e ,

Q u r 'a n i c

to d is s e m in a te

Hauzah

th e

in w h ic h w rit-

e x e g e s is , h is to ry ,

tra d itio n s

a n d o th e r to p ic s a re p ro v id e d . In th is jo u rn a l, th e a lu m n i e x p re s s th e ir re lig io u s
th o u g h ts ,

w h ic h

a re s tro n g ly b a s e d o n S h i" ! id e o lo g y ; s c ru tin y

m a y le a d o n e to c o n c lu d e

th a t

th e jo u rn a l is id e o lo g ic a l ra th e r

e n tific in n a tu re . Q o m a lu m n i a ls o c o n tin u e
b o o k s a n d a rtic le s , b o th tra n s la tio n s

is n o t e n tire ly d e p e n d e n t

th a n

tru ly s c i-

to p ro d u c e w ritin g s in th e fo rm o f

a n d o rig in a l c o m p o s itio n s ,

fro m IK M A L . S im ila rly , th e ir in v o lv e m e n t

o f its c o n te n ts

i n t h e f i e l d o f d a 'w a

in d e p e n d e n tly
a n d e d u c a tio n

o n th e ir a s s o c ia tio n w ith IK M A L , a n d m u c h is c a rrie d

o u t in d e p e n d e n tly .

THE

S O C IA L

STRUCTURES.

M o s t Q o m a lu m n i h a v e a c h ie v e d
a lu m n i,

such

as U m ar

b e c o m e v e ry p ro m in e n t

Shahab,

OF

QOM

ALUM NI

th e s ta tu s o f u s ta d z , o r re lig io u s te a c h e r. E a rly
H u s e in

Shahab

and

A

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