The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching Past Tense to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED
LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) IN TEACHING PAST
TENSE TO THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN 5
TANGERANG SELATAN
A Skripsi
Presented to Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training Faculty
in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of S.Pd. (Strata One) in English Language Education

By

Ade Maulina Fazrin
1111014000043

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT
TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING FACULTY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
2015

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED
LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) IN TEACHING PAST
TENSE TO THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN 5
TANGERANG SELATAN

By

Ade Maulina Fazrin
1111014000043

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT
TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING FACULTY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
2015

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:
Nama

Ade MaulinaFazin

Tempat/Tgl. Lahir

J

NIM

111

Jurusan

Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

akarta, 07 Oktober I 993
1014000043

Menyatakan dengan sesungguhnya bahwa skripsi yang
Effectiveness

befudul "The

of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching

Past

Tense to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tartgerang Selatan" adalah
benar hasil karya sendiri di bawah bimbingan dosen Drs. Nasifuddin

Djalil, M.Ag

dan Dadan Nugraha, M.Pd.

Demikian surat pernyataan

ini

saya buat dengan sesungguhnya dan saya siap

menerima segala konsekuensi apa bila terbukti bahwa skripsi ini bukan hasil karya
sendiri.
Jakarta, 31 Agustus 2015

Ade Maulina Fazrin

NIM

1111014000043

ABSTRACT

Ade Maulina Fazrin (1111014000043). The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted
Language Learning (CALL) in Teaching Past Tense to the Tenth Grade
Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
This research aimed to find empirical evidence of whether or not computerassisted language learning (CALL) was effective in teaching past tense to the tenth
grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
The method of this research was a quasi-experimental method employing pre
and posttest design. The sample of this research was taken by using purposive
sampling technique. The first sample was 37 students as an experimental class that
learnt past tense using CALL. The second sample was also 37 students as a control
class that learnt past tense using conventional teaching technique. The data of this
research was taken by using tests i.e. pre and posttests as well as an interview. Pretest
was delivered before students were given a treatment, posttest was given after
students got a treatment, and interview was conducted after students were given the
posttest. The data of the tests were then calculated by using t-test with sig. 5% and
the effect size formula; while the data of the interview were interpreted.
The result of the test was in line with the result of the interview which agreed to
state that the use of CALL in teaching past tense to the tenth grade students of
SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan was effective. And, the effectiveness of CALL itself
was strong. It was proved by the value of t observation which was higher than the
value of t table i.e. 5.29 > 1.666; and also proved by the value of the effect size of
CALL i.e. 1.24 which was higher than 1.
Keywords: Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Teaching Past Tense, Tenth
Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan, Quasi Experimental Research

i

ABSTRAK

Ade Maulina Fazrin (1111014000043). Keefektifan penggunaan komputer
pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa dalam mengajar past tense untuk siswa kelas
sepuluh SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan bukti empiris apakah penggunaan
komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa untuk siswa kelas sepuluh SMAN 5
Tangerang Selatan adalah efektif atau tidak.
Metode penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperiment semu dengan menggunakan
desain pretes dan posttes. Sample penelitian ini diambil dengan menggunakan teknik
purposif. Sample yang pertama berjumlah 37 siswa sebagai kelas eksperiment yang
mempelajari past tense menggunakan komputer. Sample yang kedua juga berjumlah
37 siswa sebagai kelas kontrol yang mempelajari past tense menggunakan tekhnik
pengajaran konvensional. Data penelitian ini diambil dengan menggunakan tes yaitu
pre-tes dan post-tes serta interview. Pretes diadakan sebelum siswa diberi perlakuan,
post-tes diberikan setelah siswa mendapatkan perlakuan, dan interview diadakan
setelah siswa diberi posttes. Data dari hasil tes kemudian dihitung menggunakan
rumus t-tes dengan signifikansi 5% serta rumus ukuran keefektifan; sedangkan data
dari hasil interview ditafsirkan.
Hasil tes ternyata sama dengan hasil wawancara yang setuju untuk menyatakan
bahwa penggunaan komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa dalam mengajar past
tense untuk siswa kelas sepuluh SMAN 5 Tangerang selatan adalah efektif. Dan,
keefektifan dari komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa itu sendiri adalah kuat.
Hal ini dibuktikan oleh nilai t-hitung yang lebih besar dari pada nilai t-tabel yaitu
5.29 > 1.666; dan juga dibuktikan oleh nilai ukuran keefektifan dari komputer
pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa yaitu 1.24 yang lebih tinggi dari pada 1.
Kata Kunci: Komputer Pembantu Pembelajaran Bahasa, Pengajaran Past Tense,
Siswa Kelas Sepuluh SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan, Penelitan Kuasi Eksperimen

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Praised be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, who has given the writer His love and
compassion to finish the last assignment in her study. Peace and salutation be upon
to the prophet Muhammad, his family, his companion, and his adherence.
In this occasion, the writer would like to express her greatest appreciation,
honor, and gratitude to her beloved parents, who always give her support,
motivation, and moral encouragement in finishing her research.
Her gratitude is also addressed to her advisors, Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag
and Dadan Nugraha, M.Pd, for their patience, valuable guidance, comments, and
suggestions in accomplishing her research.
The writer‘s sincere gratitude also goes to:
1. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Thib Raya, MA., the Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya and
Teachers‘ Training Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta,
2. Dr. Alek, M.Pd, the Chairman of English Education Department,
3. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., the Secretary of English Education Department,
4. All lecturers of English Education of Tarbiya and Teachers‘ Training Syarif
Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta,
5. Dra. Hj. Ara Juhara, M.MPd, the Head Master of SMAN 5 South Tangerang,
6. Sardi, S.Ag M.M., the English Teacher of SMAN 5 South Tangerang,
7. All of teachers and staffs at SMAN 5 South Tangerang, and
8. Her beloved friend, Anang Tri Wahyudi, S.Pd, who supported and helped her to
finish her research. May Allah. The Almighty bless them all, so be it.
Finally, the writer does realize that this research is still far from being perfect.
Critics and suggestions are really acceptable to make it better.
Tangerang, June 9th 2015
The Writer

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................i
ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................. ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................... iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................iv
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................. vii
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................ vii
LIST OF APPENDIXES ................................................................................... viii

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................1
A. The Background of the Study .................................................... 1
B. The Indentification of the Problem ............................................ 5
C. The Limitation of the Problem ................................................... 5
D. The Formulation of the Problem ................................................ 5
E. The Objective of the Study ........................................................ 5
F. The Significance of the Study .................................................... 5

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ......................................... 7
A. Grammar .............................................................................. 7
1. Definition of Grammar ................................................... 7
2. Importance of Grammar ................................................. 8
3. Grammatical Aspects of Language .............................. 10
4. Tenses........................................................................... 11
5. Past Tense .................................................................... 12
B. Teaching of Grammar ........................................................ 13
1. Approaches and Methods in Grammar Teaching......... 13
2. Stages in Grammar Teaching ....................................... 15
3. Aids in Grammar Teaching .......................................... 17
a.

Definition of Teaching Aid .................................... 17

b.

Importance of Teaching Aids ................................. 17

iv

c.

Types of Teaching Aids ......................................... 18

C. Computer-Assited Language Learning (CALL) ................ 19
1. Definition of CALL...................................................... 19
2. Characteristics of CALL .............................................. 21
3. Criteria of Good CALL ................................................ 23
4. Power Point Macro-Enabled Show .............................. 24
5. Roles of CALL ............................................................. 29
6. Advantages of CALL ................................................... 30
7. Disadvantages of CALL............................................... 31
D. Teaching Past Tense Using CALL: Power Point MacroEnabled Show .................................................................... 32
E. The Relevant Previous Study ............................................. 35
F. The Conceptual Framework of the Study .......................... 37
G. The Theoretical Hypothesis of the Study ........................... 38

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY .................................. 39
A. The Place and Time of the Study ....................................... 39
B. The Method and Design of the Study ............................... 39
C. The Population and Sample of the Study .......................... 40
D. The Instrument of the Study.............................................. 40
1. The Validity and Reliability of the Test Items ............. 42
2. The Quality of the Test Items....................................... 44
E. The Technique of Data Collecting .................................... 46
F. The Technique of Data Analyzing .................................... 46
1. Testing Normality of the Data ..................................... 47
2. Testing Homogeneity of the Data ................................ 47
3. Testing T-Test of the Data .......................................... 48
4. Testing the Effect Size of CALL ................................. 49
G. The Statistical Hypothesis of the Study ............................ 49

v

CHAPTER IV

FINDING OF THE STUDY .................................................. 51
A. The Description of the Data .............................................. 51
1. The Description of the Students‘ Pretest Scores .......... 52
2. The Description of the Students‘ Posttest Scores ........ 52
3. The Description of the Students‘ Gained Scores ......... 53
B. The Analysis of the Data ................................................... 54
1. The Analysis of the Data Normality ............................ 54
2. The Analysis of the Data Homogeneity ....................... 58
3. The Analysis of the t-Test ............................................ 59
4. The Analysis of the Effect Size of CALL .................... 60
C. The Hypothesis Test ......................................................... 60
D. The Analysis of the Interview Data .................................. 61
E.

CHAPTER V

The Interpretation of the Data .......................................... 61

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ............................. 63
A. The Conclusions of the Study........................................... 63
B. The Suggestions of the Study ........................................... 63

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................ 65
APPENDIXES ...................................................................................................... 69

vi

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1

:

Advantages and Disadvantages of Some Methods and
Approaches ............................................................................14

Table 4.1

:

The Scores of Students‘ Tests in the Experimental (X) and
Control Classes (Y) ...............................................................51

Table 4.2

:

Table frequency of students‘ pretest in the experimental (X)
and control classes (Y) ...........................................................52

Table 4.3

:

Table frequency of students‘ posttest in the experimental (X)
and control class (Y) ..............................................................53

Table 4.4

:

Table Data Normality Analysis in the Experimental Class ..56

Table 4.5

:

Table Data Normality Analysis in the Control Class ............57

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1

:

Pre- and Posttest Design .......................................................39

Figure 3.2

:

Interview Questions ..............................................................41

vii

LIST OF APPENDIXES

Appendix 1

:

Instrument before being Tested Its Validity, Reliability, and
Item Quality ..........................................................................70

Appendix 2

:

Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the
Instrument .............................................................................75

Appendix 3

:

Instrument of the Study (Pretest and Posttest) ......................93

Appendix 4

:

The Scores of Students‘ Tests in the Experimental (X) and
Control Classes (Y) ................................................................97

Appendix 5

:

Table Resulted from Data Normality Calculation ................99

Appendix 6

:

Data of Students‘ Opinion Resulted from an Interview ......103

Appendix 7

:

Lesson Plan (RPP) ..............................................................105

Appendix 8

:

Photos of Experimental and Control Class Activities .........124

Appendix 9

:

Letter from the School stating that the Research has been done
..............................................................................................125

viii

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of the Study
English grammar is an important element in English. It acts as a structural
foundation of English since it consists of a set of rules that govern English
language behavior.1 So, it can explain about why and how of the English language
is organized.2 With that pattern, people can identify, understand, and create what
is called as acceptable English sentences to help them communicate better.
Conversely, they will find difficulties to communicate in English without
knowing English grammar. They are supposed to have a greater chance to do
wrong interpretation of what people say or write and also do global error which
will hinder the communication message.
Such vivid explanation of how important grammar‘s role in English makes
the existence of English grammar becomes important in English language
assessment and learning in Indonesia. In English language assessment, English
grammar is regarded as a language element that can be used to measure students‘
English language competence. In this case, students can be considered as having
good competency in English if they have a good score in English grammar. Many
English tests then include English grammar as their test items. The tests become a
passport to, selection for, and entry into the most coveted jobs and universities in
Indonesia. Even nowadays, the score of the tests becomes as one of CPNS
(candidate-civil state employee) requirements in Indonesia.
As a result, in Indonesia, English grammar is considered as an important
aspect that should be learnt in English language learning. It is because besides the
score of English grammar has a benefit for students as explained above, the
knowledge of English grammar is also necessary for students to achieve English
1

Marianne Celce Murcia and Sharon Hilles, Techniques and Resources in Teaching
Grammar, (New York: Oxford University, 1988), p. 16.
2
Graham Lock Alexander, Longman English Grammar Practice for Intermediate Students,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 1.

1

2

language learning objective in Indonesia. The objective is to make students be
able to use English to communicate.3 However, the communication skill that is
taught in senior high school is limited only at the informational stage. 4 At this
stage, students are expected to be able to use English to access the sources of
knowledge in English. At this point, the knowledge of English grammar can help
students achieve such objective. They can more easily understand and create
various texts in English.
One of the texts that have to be learnt at the informational stage is narrative
text. It is taught at the tenth grade students of senior high school. It tells about an
event that occurred in the past. Thus, it uses past tense to indicate that the event
really happened in the past. Consequently, in teaching narrative text, teachers
have to include the teaching of past tense since the knowledge of past tense can
facilitate students to understand and create a narrative text.
However, although students have learnt past tense, they still find difficulties
to use it. It was proved when the writer did a teaching and learning observation at
the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan during the first week of
conducting a teaching practice at that school. The result of the observation shows
that most of students still make mistakes when they are asked to write a narrative
text. They tend to use present tense rather than past tense because they cannot
differentiate which one is present tense and past tense. Even they know it; they
still cannot ensure themselves that they use correct form of past verb since in the
past tense there are two forms of past verb that they can choose i.e. regular and
irregular past verbs.
From the observation, there are four things that can be regarded as problems
that cause students‘ difficulty in using past tense.
First, the teacher‘s perception of English grammar teaching is wrong. It is
caused by the negative influence of UN (national examination) in grammar
teaching. If looking more carefully, the existence of UN has a negative impact for
3

Indonesian national education ministry regulation No. 22 year 2006, standard competency
and basic competency in senior high school, 2015, p. 307, (http://bsnpindonesia.org/id/?page_id=103).
4
Ibid.

3

English grammar teaching. The impact is that grammar becomes as a subject that
may not be taught in the school because what will be tested in UN is not grammar
but reading comprehension. In reading comprehension, students are asked to
understand a text in order to answer some questions. Then, to understand a text, as
stated by the teacher, what students need is not a grammatical knowledge but an
ability to predict the meaning of the text. In other word, students do not really
need to know grammatical aspect in order to understand a text. As a result, the
teacher thinks that teaching grammar is not important and wasting teaching time
since to make students understand grammar, teacher needs a long time to teach.
Finally, the teacher prefers to teach grammar briefly and even does not teach
grammar at all.
Second, the use of teaching technique is ineffective. In this case, if the
teachers wrongly choose teaching technique that is not suitable for their classes,
the result of grammar teaching will not satisfy for them. It is because the use of
ineffective teaching technique can make teachers‘ classroom management and
activities bad for the students. It can make students bored and crowded as well as
make teachers unable to manage their language teaching time.
Third, the students‘ learning habit in the class is deviant. The deviation is like
using handphone and internet in the class when the teaching-learning process
occurs. This habit can negatively influence the students‘ result of English
grammar learning because it can disturb students‘ learning concentration. In
addition, it gives students a chance to use google translate when they are asked to
write a narrative text. This thing will make students do not practice what they
have learnt about past tense since what they do for their writing is just copying
and pasting.
Last, the students‘ learning motivation is low. The low of students‘ learning
motivation can negatively impact on students‘ language learning progress. As
observed by the writer, when students have low learning motivation, they tend to
not concentrate on what teacher is explaining to them. They also look lazy to
practice or reread what they have learnt at their school. Even, sometimes, they do
not do the assignment that the teacher gives to them. As a result, their language

4

learning progress is not developed since they do not practice and remember as
well as concentrate on the language learning material that is taught.
In other word, the problems that cause students‘ difficulty in using past tense
are the teachers‘ wrong perception of English grammar teaching, the use of
ineffective teaching technique, and the wrong of students‘ learning habit in the
class, as well as the low of students‘ learning motivation.
Further, to make students more motivated to learn, teachers can use media
that becomes as a hot topic in language teaching and learning. The media is
computer. It is called as computer-assisted language learning (CALL) to describe
the use of computer as a part in language learning process. To use CALL in
language learning, teachers need software such as Microsoft Power Point MacroEnabled Show. By using Ms. Power Point Macro-Enabled Show, teacher can
create a language learning application which enables students to get explanation
of the language learning material in an interesting way because it can be equipped
with picture, animation, sound, and video which attract students‘ attention and
empower faculties of retention to them. In addition, it can enable students to have
a grammatical practice which is designed like a game. The game will
automatically show students‘ score after students have completely answered all
questions in the game. In other word, this game can give students immediate
feedback for their learning and attract students to practice English grammar.
Moreover, by using Ms. Power Point Macro-Enabled Show, teacher can integrate
grammar teaching with other English teaching material such as narrative text.
Therefore, the teaching of grammar will not take a long time and disturb the
intended language learning material since it can be flexibly suited depending on
the teachers‘ creativity.
From the explanation above, the writer is then encouraged to conduct a
research entitled the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL)
in teaching past tense to the tenth grade student of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.

5

B. The Identification of the Problem
Based on the background of the study, there are four things that are regarded
as problems which cause students‘ difficulty in using past tense as follows:
1. The teacher‘s perception of English grammar teaching is wrong,
2. The use of teaching technique is ineffective,
3. The students‘ learning habit in the class is deviant, and
4. The students‘ learning motivation is low.

C. The Limitation of the Problem
Since CALL is interesting to be used in this study, the problem of this study
has to be limited only on examining the effectiveness of computer-assisted
language learning (CALL) in teaching past tense to the tenth grade student of
SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.

D. The Formulation of the Problem
Thus, the problem of this study can be formulated as ―Is computer-assisted
language learning (CALL) effective in teaching past tense to the tenth grade
students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan or not?‖

E. The Objective of the Study
In other word, the objective for conducting this study is merely to find
empirical evidence of whether or not computer-assisted language learning
(CALL) is effective in teaching past tense to the tenth grade students of SMAN 5
Tangerang Selatan.

F. The Significance of the Study
Finally, it is hoped that this study can produce benefits to the writer, readers,
and further researchers in giving wide information about the teaching of past tense
using CALL and motivating them to do a better research about the use of CALL

6

in language teaching and learning as well as encouraging them to design a better
application for teaching and learning grammar or other aspects of English.

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Grammar
1. Definition of Grammar
Definition of grammar is often changed. The shifting of grammar definition
is merely to improve the old grammar perspective with the better one. In this
study, the old one refers to traditional view while the better one is functional view.
Commonly, the teaching of English grammar in Indonesia is under an
assumption of traditional view point for the term of grammar. In this view,
grammar is regarded as a set of rules that govern language behavior.1 It describes
how a speaker produces sentences using the words, and serves as a way to
manipulate language and combine words into sentences.2 If we look more
carefully, traditional grammar more focuses on the language form rather than
meaning. Moreover, this view left the importance of how to use grammar in real
life. As stated by Alexander3, the primary concern of traditional grammar is with
the forms of grammatical structures rather than with their meanings or uses in
different contexts. Therefore, the teaching of grammar with this view makes
students not be able to connect grammar with their lives. Consequently, students
will feel grammar not meaningful to be learnt and finally their motivation to learn
grammar will decrease.
On the contrary, the functional view includes a consideration of the structure
functions and their meanings in context.4 In this view, grammar is regarded not
only as a set of grammatical forms, but also grammatical meaning and use as a

1

Marianne Celce Murcia and Sharon Hilles, Techniques and Resources in Teaching
Grammar, (New York: Oxford University, 1988), p. 16.
2
Peny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities: a Practical Guide for Teachers, (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1988), P. 4.
3
Graham Lock Alexander, Longman English Grammar Practice for Intermediate Students,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 1.
4
Ibid.

7

8

whole.5 Thus, grammar deals with three dimensions i.e. form, meaning and use.
This assumption leads teachers to teach grammar that should be meaningful in
context and also teach students how to use it. As a result, students can connect
grammar with their lives and their motivation to learn grammar will increase.
In short, the two different main streams for the term grammar are traditional
and functional views. The former more focuses on structure rather than meaning
and use whereas the last focuses on not only structure but also meaning and use.
In this study, the functional view is preferred to be used to define grammar that is
described as a set of rules on how language can be formed and used as an
acceptable and meaningful language in context.

2. Importance of Grammar
Grammar plays an important role in language teaching and learning. The
importance of grammar is so many. The followings are the five importance of
grammar.
First, it is the function of grammar as a structural foundation of language
skills.6 Grammar is regarded as a structural foundation of language skill because
of an assumption which states that learning language skills is like build a building.
Students have to build its foundation first before building its higher parts. If they
do not make a strong foundation, the building will easily break and cannot be built
into a higher one. The foundation of this building is grammar. So, to develop
students‘ language skill, teacher needs to teach grammar since the teaching of
grammar is so important for students as a foundation for their language skills.
Second, it is the existence of grammar in language curriculum. As a language
element that is needed to develop and measure students‘ proficiency in English,
grammar becomes to be a subject that has to be taught and tested in language
curriculum. It is on the language curriculum whether students like it or not. They
D. Laser Freeman, ―Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring,‖ in Shu Yun Yu
(Ed.), The Effects of Games on the Acquisition of Some Grammatical Features of L2 German on
Students’ Motivation and on Classroom Atmosphere (A Thesis Published in Australian Catholic
University, October 2005), p. 11.
6
K. Lynn Savage, et.al, Grammar Matters Teaching Grammar in Adult ESL Programs, (New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 3.
5

9

have to pass this subject in order to graduate and be considered as having enough
proficiency in English. Consequently, grammar is a must and important to be
learnt by students.
Third, it is the function of grammar as a sentence-making machine. Grammar
becomes to be important for students because it can function as a sentence-making
machine for them. It can describe the regularities of language behaviors and
provide students with patterns to generate enormous number of new sentences.7
So, by knowing grammar students will be facilitated to produce new sentences.
Fourth, it is the function of grammar as a tool for language monitoring.
Grammar enables students to self-monitor. It can assist students in becoming
aware of a structure that they encounter and help them continue to notice it in
subsequent encounters.

8

Once students have internalized the structure through

repeated exposure, they can use this knowledge to monitor their own language
use.9 It then improves their proficiency in creating polish and acceptable English
sentences. In short, knowing grammar can help students monitor their language
use.
Last, it is the function of grammar to prevent students from fossilizing early.
It is assumed that students who receive no grammar instruction seem to be at risk
of fossilizing early because they cannot monitor their own language use. They will
easily feel satisfied with their current ability. It then makes their language
progress stop and fossilize early. Therefore, grammar is so needed to prevent
students from fossilizing early.
To sum up, grammar is so important in language teaching and learning. It is
because grammar functions as a structural foundation of language that enables
students to develop their language skills. Consequently, grammar should be taught
in language curriculum since it can function as a language-sentence machine for

7

p. 13.

Jeremy Harmer, the Practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman, 1991),

S. Fotos, ―Cognitive Approaches to Grammar Instruction,‖ In K. Lynn Savage, et.al (Eds.),
Grammar Matters Teaching Grammar in Adult ESL Programs, (New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2010), p. 4.
9
Savage, et.al, Grammar Matters Teaching Grammar in Adult ESL Programs, (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 4.
8

10

students because it describes the regularities of language behaviors so that
students can use it as a pattern to make an enormous number of new sentences and
help them monitor their language use. Finally, it will prevent them from
fossilizing early.

3. Grammatical Aspects of Language
To explain the grammatical aspects of language, inevitably, it has to involve
the explanation of the nature of grammar itself. If tracing back the history of
grammar, it will be found that there are two approaches which can be used to
describe the nature of grammar.
The first is a descriptive grammar. It is a grammar approach which describes
the nature of grammar as a description of the language grammar that exists in the
minds of its speakers.10 It considers that every human being who speaks a
language knows its grammar. So, by describing the language grammar that exists
in the speaker‘s minds, someone can know about the nature of grammar itself.
On the other hand, prescriptive grammar comes with a different perspective.
According to this approach, language always changes by the time and the change
of language itself is regarded as a corruption. So, instead of describing the
language grammar which is then regarded as a corruption, prescriptive grammar
tends to prescribe grammar rules that are regarded as correct forms that the
speaker should know.11
However, nowadays, the approach that is widely used is a descriptive
grammar. Although, there will be some differences among speakers‘ knowledge,
this approach believes that there will be a shared or common knowledge too. Such
knowledge is then regarded as laws which can represent the universal aspects of
all languages or what is called as a universal grammar.
So, universal grammar is defined as principles that characterize all human
language such as grammatical aspects of language itself.12 And, to discover the
10

Victoria Fromkin, et.al, An Introduction to Language: Seventh Edision, (Boston:
Wadsworth, 2003), 14.
11
Ibid., p. 15.
12
Ibid., p. 19.

11

universal grammar is the goal of linguist. In other word, to get the explanation
about the grammatical aspects of language, students have to look it out in the
linguistic theory.
In linguistics, grammatical aspects of language are divided into four levels.13
The first level is phonology. It is a linguistic analysis which deals with sound
systems. Then, the next level is morphology. It is a linguistic analysis which deals
with word-structure. The third level is syntax. It is a study of language grammar
which deals with sentence-structure. Finally, at the upper level, there is semantics.
It is a linguistic analysis which deals with meaning. So, the grammatical aspects
of language are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.

4. Tense
Tense is included as a grammatical aspect of a language in the word level i.e.
morphology. It is one of morphological aspects which modify the form of a word,
particularly a verb, so that it can fit into a particular syntactic slot.14 In this case, it
acts as a verb time which suits and relates the happening described by the verb to
time in the past, present, or future.15 So, tense is a grammatical aspect which can
suit and connect an event with its time and its connection is showed through the
use of certain verb. For instance, when someone says, ―I visited my grandmother‘s
house‖, it shows that the event happened in the past. It is because the sentence
uses certain verb i.e. ‗visited‘ which shows that the event happened in the past.
Actually, there are three main tenses in English grammar. First, it is present
tense. It uses present verb to indicate that the event occurs at present. The verb is
like ‗play/plays‘, ‗is/are playing‘, ‗has/have played‘, or ‗has/have been playing‘,
and so on. Second, it is past tense. It uses past verb to indicate that the event
occurred in the past. The verb is like ‗played‘, ‗was/were playing‘, ‗had played‘,
or ‘had been playing‘, and so on. And, last, it is future tense. It uses future verb to

13

Francis Katamba, Morphology, (London: Macmillan Press, 1993), p. 4.
Ibid., p. 51
15
G. Leech and J. Svartvik, A Communicative Grammar of English, (Edinburgh: Pearson
Education, 2002), p. 66
14

12

indicate that the event will occur in the future. The verb is like ‗will play‘, ‗will be
playing‘, ‗will have played‘, or ‗will have been playing‘, and so on.
Further, since this study wants to examine the teaching of past tense, the
following is a more detailed explanation of past tense in English.

5. Past Tense
Past tense in English grammar is divided into four kinds. They are simple
past tense, past progressive tense, pas perfect tense, and past perfect progressive
tense.

a. Simple Past
Simple past tense is a verb time that indicates an activity or situation that
began and ended at a particular time in the past. 16 It is used for a completed action
that happened at one specific time in the past.17 It employs the following pattern to
create sentences:
Subject + Verb II …

b. Past Progressive
Past progressive tense is a verb time that indicates two actions occurred at the
same time but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action
occurred.18 It indicates two actions which were in progress simultaneously.19 The
followings are the patterns that are employed in past progressive tense.
Basic pattern: Subject + was/ were + verb ing
When + subject 1 + simple past + subject 2 + past progressive …
Subject1 + past progressive + while + subject2 + past progressive …

16

Betty Schampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, (New Zersey: Prentice
Hall Regents, 1989), p. 24.
17
M. A. Phyle and M. E. Munoz Page, Cliff TOEFL preparation Guide Test of English as a
Foreign Language, (Delhi: Nice Printing Press, 2009), P.59.
18
Azhar, op. cit., p. 24.
19
Phyle and Page. op. cit., p. 60.

13

c. Past Perfect
Past perfect tense is a verb time that indicates an activity was completed
before another activity or time in the past.20 It employs time signals such as
before, after, and when. To create past perfect tense, students can use the
following patterns:
Basic pattern: Subject + had + (verb in past participle) …

Subject + past perfect + before + subject + simple past tense
Subject + simple past tense + after + subject + past perfect

d. Past Perfect Progressive
Past perfect progressive tense is a verb time that indicates an activity which
was in progress before another activity or time in the past.

21

In addition, it can

indicate an activity that was in progress recently to another time or activity in the
past. To create past perfect progressive tense, students can use the following
patterns:
Subject + had + been + verb ing …

B. Teaching of Grammar
1. Approaches and Methods in Grammar Teaching
The shifting of language teaching approach and method, as well as the
demand for pursuing the best approach and method in language teaching shows
that there is no single approach and method that can guarantee successful results
of language teaching.22 It is because each method and approach brings not only its
advantages but also limitations in language teaching. The following table is the

20

Ibid., p. 39
Azhar. loc. cit.
22
Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language
Teaching: a Description and Analysis, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p.11.
21

14

advantages and disadvantages of methods and approaches in language teaching as
what stated by Savage23 as well as Richard and Rodgers24:
Table 2.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Some Methods and Approaches

Method or

Advantages

Approach
Grammar

An

translation

grammar

method

explicit

Limitations

teaching

rules;

of a

tedious

experience

attention memorizing

paid to language forms; unusable
good for teaching situation absence

endless

list

grammar
of

of
of

rules;

communicative

where understanding literary practice
text is the primary focus
Direct method Only

everyday

sentences Failing to consider the practical

using

visuals realities of language classroom

taught;

(actions, pictures, objects) to learning;

lack

a

thorough

convey meaning; using the methodological basis.
target

language

as

a

language classroom
Audio-lingual
method

Contextualizing
structure

and

key Acquiring
illustrating imitation

language
not

situation in which structures sentences;

through

creating

failing

to

new
make

might be used; enhancing students transfer skills to real
students‘ analogical ability; communication
using

drills

to

outside

the

reinforce classroom; the experience of

grammatical patterns

studying

is

boring

and

unsatisfying
Natural
approach

Giving

extra-linguistic Not suitable for teaching that

context to make classroom focuses on grammar because
activities as meaningful as this approach more emphasizes

23
24

Savage, et.al, op. cit., p. 6-7.
Richards and Rodgers, op. cit., page 4, 9-11, 53, 59, 137-139, and 141.

15

possible;

providing on

comprehensible

and

comprehensible input; using meaningful practice activities
a wide range of activity;

than

production

grammatically

of
perfect

utterances and sentences
Communicati

Emphasizing on meaningful communication can result in

ve language

interaction; course syllabus ignoring grammar; emphasizing

teaching

includes language functions; on fluency at the expense of
using authentic texts and accuracy can result in many
contexts

students never attaining correct
grammar

The table above describes that not all methods and approaches focus or
include the teaching of grammar in their concepts. Consequently, it should be
better for teachers to use a teaching aid to help them teach grammar. In this
current study, the teaching aid that is used is computer.

2. Stages in Grammar Teaching
According to Harmer25, there are three major stages in teaching grammar i.e.
introducing new language, practice, and communicative activities. These stages
are in line with what Celce-Murcia & Hilles26 state about grammar teaching
stages. They state that the teaching grammar stages include presentation, focused
practice, and communicative practice. However, in this case, they add feedback
and correction as the final stage in teaching grammar. So, generally, the teaching
of grammar can be through the following stages:
a. Presentation.
At this stage, teacher presents students with clear information about the
language they are learning. They must be shown what the language means and
how it is used. They also have to know what grammatical form of the new
25
26

Harmer, op. cit, p. 50-51.
Celce-Murcia and Hilles, op. cit., p. 27-28.

16

language and how it is said or written. In short, at this stage, teacher should
present the meaning, use, form, and context of the new language that is going to
be learnt.

b. Focused practice.
At this stage students manipulate the structure in question while all other
variables are constant. The purpose of this step is to allow students to gain control
of the form without the added pressure and distraction of trying to use the form for
communication. The focus of this stage is on the accuracy. At this stage, teacher
may intervene slightly to help guide and to point out inaccuracy. The teacher
should not proceed the next phase until most of students have mastered at least the
form of the structure.

c. Communicative practice
At this stage, students are engaged in communicative activities to practice the
structure being learnt. Communicative activities happen if there are information
gap, purpose, and response in the interaction. This activity is vital in language
classroom since here students can do their best to use the language as individuals.

d. Feedback and correction
The last stage is that teacher should give feedback and correction that
engages students cognitively. Here teacher is not only simply pointing out the
error and providing the appropriate target form but also giving them a remedial
action to fix their understanding.

To sum up, grammar teaching consists of four stages i.e. presentation,
focused practice, communicative practice, as well as feedback and correction.
Presentation stage requires teacher to present the use, meaning, form, and context
of new language. Then students practice the structure in a focused and
communicative practice. After that, the teacher gives students feedback and
correction of their work.

17

3. Aids in Grammar Teaching
a. Definition of Teaching Aid
The term of aid in language teaching means broader than media and tool.
Every media and tool can be said as a teaching aid if they aim to help teacher
present information. The difference between media and tool is that every tool is
media but not all media is a tool. Media refers to all things (hardware, software, or
etc.) that can bring information from its source to receiver27. But, tool only refers
to a hardware that is used to present information.28 And the broader definition of
them belongs to teaching aid. So, teaching aid can be defined as all things that can
facilitate teachers in teaching a new material. In this case, it refers to software and
hardware of CALL.

b. Importance of Teaching Aids
In conducting the teaching stages, teachers are recommended to use some
aids to succeed their teaching stages meeting their goal. It is because the use of
teaching aids is so important and useful in teaching and learning process.
According to Sukartiwi,29 the importance of using aid in the teaching and learning
process are:
a. To increase students‘ motivation.
b. To avoid students bored.
c. To make students easy to understand the instructional material, and
d. To make teaching and learning process more systematic
If thinking more carefully, the importance of teaching aids is more than what
Sukartiwi already said. The teaching aid also helps teacher create an environment
that is interesting for students and brings features that can help them retain more
concept permanently. By using teaching aid, teacher can also clarify the subject

27

Sharon E. Smaldino, et.al, Instructional Technology & Media for Learning, (Jakarta:
Kencana, 2011), p. 9.
28
Arief S. Sadiman, et.al, Media Pendidikan dan Proses Belajar Mengajar, (Jakarta: PT Raja
Grafindo Persada; 1986), p. 5.
29
Soekartiwi, ―Rancangan Instruksional,‖ in Nuhung Ruis, et.al, Instructional Media,
(Jakarta: Ministry of National Education, 2009), p. 4.

18

matter more easily so that it will save the teacher‘s time from a long explanation.
Moreover, teaching aid can provide students with direct experience or real-world
application which enables students to learn higher order thinking. It is because by
using teaching aid, teacher can create a possible direct interaction between
students and their environment as well as present everything outside the
classroom by means of aid.
In short, the use of teaching aid in language teaching is so important and
useful to give students motivation, clarification, retention, direct experience or
real-world application, and a chance to learn higher order thinking.

c. Types of Teaching Aids
Actually, aids in language teaching are so many. To make it simple, Alduais
divided them into five categories as follows.30

1) Visual aids
This aid emphasizes on the use of vision sense. It is like realia, model,
picture, drawing, poster, map, board, card, graph, menu, film strip, comic book,
facial diagram, calendar, table, and so on

2) Audio aids
This aid involves the use of hearing sense. It is like tape recorder,
phonograph, radio, and so on.

3) Audio-visual aids
This aid combines the use of both vision and hearing sense. It is like TV,
Video tapes, DVDs, Video CDs and so on.

30

Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais, Integration of Language Learning Theories and Aids
Used for Language Teaching and Learning: A Psycholinguistic Perspective, (Journal of Studies in
Education, Vol. 2, No. 4, November 2012), p. 111.

19

4) Action aids
This aid encourages the use of physical movement. It is like dramatization,
physical response, pantomiming, charade game, party games, rumor game, roleplaying, conversations, physical response, and so on.

5) Multimedia aids
This aid involves the use of many senses (vision, hearing, etc.). It is like
computer, laptop, internet, and so on.
Further, Anderson,31 provided another category of teaching aids. He divided
the teaching aids into ten categories i.e. printed aids, audio-printed aids, silent
visual aids, silent visual aids with audio, visual movement aids with audio, things
aids, human and environment aids, and computer.
From all of the teaching aids in each category above, the one that is
considered as the most sophisticated is computer. It is because computer can
present students not only, picture but also sound, video, animation, and graphic
that can make learning interesting. In addition, it enables teacher to create context
in which teaching grammar is meaningful for students.32 Consequently, in this
study, computer is preferred to be chosen as a teaching aid to help students learn
grammar effectively. The purpose of choosing this aid is merely to examine the
effectiveness of computer in teaching past tense.

C. Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
1. Definition of CALL
Definition of CALL is so many because there are so many ways of how the
authors see and understand CALL. One of its ways is by considering its
abbreviation, acronyms, and also concepts.

31

Sadiman, et.al, op. cit., p. 95.
Dalia Omar Abu Shagga, The Effectiveness of Using Computerized Educational Games on
Developing Aspects of English Grammar for Deaf Ninth Graders in Gaza Governorates (a thesis
Published in Al-Azhar University Gaza, 2012), p. 4.
32

20

The abbreviation of CALL stand

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