The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching Past Tense to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan
TANGERANG SELATANA Skripsi
Presented to Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training Faculty in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of S.Pd. (Strata One) in English Language Education
Ade Maulina Fazrin 1111014000043
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT
TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING FACULTY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
Ade Maulina Fazrin 1111014000043
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT
TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING FACULTY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:
J akarta, 07 Oktober I 993
1 1 1 1014000043
Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Nama
Tempat/Tgl. Lahir NIM
Menyatakan dengan sesungguhnya bahwa
ofComputer-Assisted Language Learning
Tense to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tartgerang Selatan" adalah benar hasil karya sendiri di bawah bimbingan dosen Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag dan Dadan Nugraha, M.Pd.
Demikian surat pernyataan
inisaya buat dengan sesungguhnya dan saya siap menerima segala konsekuensi apa bila terbukti bahwa skripsi ini bukan hasil karya sendiri.
Jakarta, 31 Agustus 2015
Ade Maulina Fazrin NIM 1111014000043
Ade Maulina Fazrin (1111014000043). The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in Teaching Past Tense to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
This research aimed to find empirical evidence of whether or not computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was effective in teaching past tense to the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
The method of this research was a quasi-experimental method employing pre and posttest design. The sample of this research was taken by using purposive sampling technique. The first sample was 37 students as an experimental class that learnt past tense using CALL. The second sample was also 37 students as a control class that learnt past tense using conventional teaching technique. The data of this research was taken by using tests i.e. pre and posttests as well as an interview. Pretest was delivered before students were given a treatment, posttest was given after students got a treatment, and interview was conducted after students were given the posttest. The data of the tests were then calculated by using t-test with sig. 5% and the effect size formula; while the data of the interview were interpreted.
The result of the test was in line with the result of the interview which agreed to state that the use of CALL in teaching past tense to the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan was effective. And, the effectiveness of CALL itself was strong. It was proved by the value of t observation which was higher than the value of t table i.e. 5.29 > 1.666; and also proved by the value of the effect size of CALL i.e. 1.24 which was higher than 1.
Keywords: Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Teaching Past Tense, Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan, Quasi Experimental Research
Ade Maulina Fazrin (1111014000043). Keefektifan penggunaan komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa dalam mengajar past tense untuk siswa kelas sepuluh SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan bukti empiris apakah penggunaan komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa untuk siswa kelas sepuluh SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan adalah efektif atau tidak.
Metode penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperiment semu dengan menggunakan desain pretes dan posttes. Sample penelitian ini diambil dengan menggunakan teknik purposif. Sample yang pertama berjumlah 37 siswa sebagai kelas eksperiment yang mempelajari past tense menggunakan komputer. Sample yang kedua juga berjumlah 37 siswa sebagai kelas kontrol yang mempelajari past tense menggunakan tekhnik pengajaran konvensional. Data penelitian ini diambil dengan menggunakan tes yaitu pre-tes dan post-tes serta interview. Pretes diadakan sebelum siswa diberi perlakuan, post-tes diberikan setelah siswa mendapatkan perlakuan, dan interview diadakan setelah siswa diberi posttes. Data dari hasil tes kemudian dihitung menggunakan rumus t-tes dengan signifikansi 5% serta rumus ukuran keefektifan; sedangkan data dari hasil interview ditafsirkan.
Hasil tes ternyata sama dengan hasil wawancara yang setuju untuk menyatakan bahwa penggunaan komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa dalam mengajar past tense untuk siswa kelas sepuluh SMAN 5 Tangerang selatan adalah efektif. Dan, keefektifan dari komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa itu sendiri adalah kuat. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh nilai t-hitung yang lebih besar dari pada nilai t-tabel yaitu 5.29 > 1.666; dan juga dibuktikan oleh nilai ukuran keefektifan dari komputer pembantu pembelajaran Bahasa yaitu 1.24 yang lebih tinggi dari pada 1.
Kata Kunci: Komputer Pembantu Pembelajaran Bahasa, Pengajaran Past Tense, Siswa Kelas Sepuluh SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan, Penelitan Kuasi Eksperimen
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Praised be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, who has given the writer His love and compassion to finish the last assignment in her study. Peace and salutation be upon to the prophet Muhammad, his family, his companion, and his adherence.
In this occasion, the writer would like to express her greatest appreciation, honor, and gratitude to her beloved parents, who always give her support, motivation, and moral encouragement in finishing her research.
Her gratitude is also addressed to her advisors, Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag and Dadan Nugraha, M.Pd, for their patience, valuable guidance, comments, and suggestions in accomplishing her research.
The writer‘s sincere gratitude also goes to:
1. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Thib Raya, MA., the Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya and
Teachers‘ Training Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, 2. Dr. Alek, M.Pd, the Chairman of English Education Department,
3. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., the Secretary of English Education Department,
4. All lecturers of English Education of Tarbiya and Teachers‘ Training Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta,
5. Dra. Hj. Ara Juhara, M.MPd, the Head Master of SMAN 5 South Tangerang, 6. Sardi, S.Ag M.M., the English Teacher of SMAN 5 South Tangerang,
7. All of teachers and staffs at SMAN 5 South Tangerang, and
8. Her beloved friend, Anang Tri Wahyudi, S.Pd, who supported and helped her to finish her research. May Allah. The Almighty bless them all, so be it.
Finally, the writer does realize that this research is still far from being perfect. Critics and suggestions are really acceptable to make it better.
Tangerang, June 9th 2015 The Writer
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRAK ... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...iv
LIST OF TABLES ... vii
LIST OF FIGURES ... vii
LIST OF APPENDIXES ... viii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ... 1
A. The Background of the Study ... 1
B. The Indentification of the Problem ... 5
C. The Limitation of the Problem ... 5
D. The Formulation of the Problem ... 5
E. The Objective of the Study ... 5
F. The Significance of the Study ... 5
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ... 7
A. Grammar ... 7
1. Definition of Grammar ... 7
2. Importance of Grammar ... 8
3. Grammatical Aspects of Language ... 10
4. Tenses ... 11
5. Past Tense ... 12
B. Teaching of Grammar ... 13
1. Approaches and Methods in Grammar Teaching... 13
2. Stages in Grammar Teaching ... 15
3. Aids in Grammar Teaching ... 17
a. Definition of Teaching Aid ... 17
c. Types of Teaching Aids ... 18
C. Computer-Assited Language Learning (CALL) ... 19
1. Definition of CALL... 19
2. Characteristics of CALL ... 21
3. Criteria of Good CALL ... 23
4. Power Point Macro-Enabled Show ... 24
5. Roles of CALL ... 29
6. Advantages of CALL ... 30
7. Disadvantages of CALL ... 31
D. Teaching Past Tense Using CALL: Power Point Macro-Enabled Show ... 32
E. The Relevant Previous Study ... 35
F. The Conceptual Framework of the Study ... 37
G. The Theoretical Hypothesis of the Study ... 38
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY ... 39
A. The Place and Time of the Study ... 39
B. The Method and Design of the Study ... 39
C. The Population and Sample of the Study ... 40
D. The Instrument of the Study ... 40
1. The Validity and Reliability of the Test Items ... 42
2. The Quality of the Test Items... 44
E. The Technique of Data Collecting ... 46
F. The Technique of Data Analyzing ... 46
1. Testing Normality of the Data ... 47
2. Testing Homogeneity of the Data ... 47
3. Testing T-Test of the Data ... 48
4. Testing the Effect Size of CALL ... 49
CHAPTER IV FINDING OF THE STUDY ... 51
A. The Description of the Data ... 51
1. The Description of the Students‘ Pretest Scores ... 52
2. The Description of the Students‘ Posttest Scores ... 52
3. The Description of the Students‘ Gained Scores ... 53
B. The Analysis of the Data ... 54
1. The Analysis of the Data Normality ... 54
2. The Analysis of the Data Homogeneity ... 58
3. The Analysis of the t-Test ... 59
4. The Analysis of the Effect Size of CALL ... 60
C. The Hypothesis Test ... 60
D. The Analysis of the Interview Data ... 61
E. The Interpretation of the Data ... 61
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ... 63
A. The Conclusions of the Study ... 63
B. The Suggestions of the Study ... 63
BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 65
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 : Advantages and Disadvantages of Some Methods and Approaches ...14 Table 4.1 : The Scores of Students‘ Tests in the Experimental (X) and Control Classes (Y) ...51 Table 4.2 : Table frequency of students‘ pretest in the experimental (X) and control classes (Y) ...52 Table 4.3 : Table frequency of students‘ posttest in the experimental (X) and control class (Y) ...53 Table 4.4 : Table Data Normality Analysis in the Experimental Class ..56 Table 4.5 : Table Data Normality Analysis in the Control Class ...57
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 : Pre- and Posttest Design ...39 Figure 3.2 : Interview Questions ...41
LIST OF APPENDIXES
Appendix 1 : Instrument before being Tested Its Validity, Reliability, and
Item Quality ...70
Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the Instrument ...75
Appendix 3 : Instrument of the Study (Pretest and Posttest) ...93
Appendix 4 : The Scores of Students‘ Tests in the Experimental (X) and Control Classes (Y) ...97
Appendix 5 : Table Resulted from Data Normality Calculation ...99
Appendix 6 : Data of Students‘ Opinion Resulted from an Interview ...103
Appendix 7 : Lesson Plan (RPP) ...105
Appendix 8 : Photos of Experimental and Control Class Activities ...124
Appendix 9 : Letter from the School stating that the Research has been done ...125
The Background of the Study
English grammar is an important element in English. It acts as a structural foundation of English since it consists of a set of rules that govern English language behavior.1 So, it can explain about why and how of the English language is organized.2 With that pattern, people can identify, understand, and create what is called as acceptable English sentences to help them communicate better. Conversely, they will find difficulties to communicate in English without knowing English grammar. They are supposed to have a greater chance to do wrong interpretation of what people say or write and also do global error which will hinder the communication message.
Such vivid explanation of how important grammar‘s role in English makes the existence of English grammar becomes important in English language assessment and learning in Indonesia. In English language assessment, English grammar is regarded as a language element that can be used to measure students‘ English language competence. In this case, students can be considered as having good competency in English if they have a good score in English grammar. Many English tests then include English grammar as their test items. The tests become a passport to, selection for, and entry into the most coveted jobs and universities in Indonesia. Even nowadays, the score of the tests becomes as one of CPNS (candidate-civil state employee) requirements in Indonesia.
As a result, in Indonesia, English grammar is considered as an important aspect that should be learnt in English language learning. It is because besides the score of English grammar has a benefit for students as explained above, the knowledge of English grammar is also necessary for students to achieve English
Marianne Celce Murcia and Sharon Hilles, Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar, (New York: Oxford University, 1988), p. 16.
Graham Lock Alexander, Longman English Grammar Practice for Intermediate Students,
language learning objective in Indonesia. The objective is to make students be able to use English to communicate.3 However, the communication skill that is taught in senior high school is limited only at the informational stage.4 At this stage, students are expected to be able to use English to access the sources of knowledge in English. At this point, the knowledge of English grammar can help students achieve such objective. They can more easily understand and create various texts in English.
One of the texts that have to be learnt at the informational stage is narrative text. It is taught at the tenth grade students of senior high school. It tells about an event that occurred in the past. Thus, it uses past tense to indicate that the event really happened in the past. Consequently, in teaching narrative text, teachers have to include the teaching of past tense since the knowledge of past tense can facilitate students to understand and create a narrative text.
However, although students have learnt past tense, they still find difficulties to use it. It was proved when the writer did a teaching and learning observation at the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan during the first week of conducting a teaching practice at that school. The result of the observation shows that most of students still make mistakes when they are asked to write a narrative text. They tend to use present tense rather than past tense because they cannot differentiate which one is present tense and past tense. Even they know it; they still cannot ensure themselves that they use correct form of past verb since in the past tense there are two forms of past verb that they can choose i.e. regular and irregular past verbs.
From the observation, there are four things that can be regarded as problems
that cause students‘ difficulty in using past tense.
First, the teacher‘s perception of English grammar teaching is wrong. It is caused by the negative influence of UN (national examination) in grammar teaching. If looking more carefully, the existence of UN has a negative impact for
Indonesian national education ministry regulation No. 22 year 2006, standard competency and basic competency in senior high school, 2015, p. 307, (http://bsnp-indonesia.org/id/?page_id=103).
English grammar teaching. The impact is that grammar becomes as a subject that may not be taught in the school because what will be tested in UN is not grammar but reading comprehension. In reading comprehension, students are asked to understand a text in order to answer some questions. Then, to understand a text, as stated by the teacher, what students need is not a grammatical knowledge but an ability to predict the meaning of the text. In other word, students do not really need to know grammatical aspect in order to understand a text. As a result, the teacher thinks that teaching grammar is not important and wasting teaching time since to make students understand grammar, teacher needs a long time to teach. Finally, the teacher prefers to teach grammar briefly and even does not teach grammar at all.
Second, the use of teaching technique is ineffective. In this case, if the teachers wrongly choose teaching technique that is not suitable for their classes, the result of grammar teaching will not satisfy for them. It is because the use of
ineffective teaching technique can make teachers‘ classroom management and
activities bad for the students. It can make students bored and crowded as well as make teachers unable to manage their language teaching time.
Third, the students‘ learning habit in the class is deviant. The deviation is like using handphone and internet in the class when the teaching-learning process occurs. This habit can negatively influence the students‘ result of English grammar learning because it can disturb students‘ learning concentration. In addition, it gives students a chance to use google translate when they are asked to write a narrative text. This thing will make students do not practice what they have learnt about past tense since what they do for their writing is just copying and pasting.
Last, the students‘ learning motivation is low. The low of students‘ learning motivation can negatively impact on students‘ language learning progress. As observed by the writer, when students have low learning motivation, they tend to not concentrate on what teacher is explaining to them. They also look lazy to practice or reread what they have learnt at their school. Even, sometimes, they do not do the assignment that the teacher gives to them. As a result, their language
learning progress is not developed since they do not practice and remember as well as concentrate on the language learning material that is taught.
In other word, the problems that cause students‘ difficulty in using past tense are the teachers‘ wrong perception of English grammar teaching, the use of
ineffective teaching technique, and the wrong of students‘ learning habit in the class, as well as the low of students‘ learning motivation.
Further, to make students more motivated to learn, teachers can use media that becomes as a hot topic in language teaching and learning. The media is computer. It is called as computer-assisted language learning (CALL) to describe the use of computer as a part in language learning process. To use CALL in language learning, teachers need software such as Microsoft Power Point Macro-Enabled Show. By using Ms. Power Point Macro-Macro-Enabled Show, teacher can create a language learning application which enables students to get explanation of the language learning material in an interesting way because it can be equipped with picture, animation, sound, and video which attract students‘ attention and empower faculties of retention to them. In addition, it can enable students to have a grammatical practice which is designed like a game. The game will
automatically show students‘ score after students have completely answered all
questions in the game. In other word, this game can give students immediate feedback for their learning and attract students to practice English grammar. Moreover, by using Ms. Power Point Macro-Enabled Show, teacher can integrate grammar teaching with other English teaching material such as narrative text. Therefore, the teaching of grammar will not take a long time and disturb the intended language learning material since it can be flexibly suited depending on
the teachers‘ creativity.
From the explanation above, the writer is then encouraged to conduct a research entitled the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in teaching past tense to the tenth grade student of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
The Identification of the Problem
Based on the background of the study, there are four things that are regarded
as problems which cause students‘ difficulty in using past tense as follows: 1. The teacher‘s perception of English grammar teaching is wrong, 2. The use of teaching technique is ineffective,
3. The students‘ learning habit in the class is deviant, and 4. The students‘ learning motivation is low.
The Limitation of the Problem
Since CALL is interesting to be used in this study, the problem of this study has to be limited only on examining the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in teaching past tense to the tenth grade student of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
The Formulation of the Problem
Thus, the problem of this study can be formulated as ―Is computer-assisted language learning (CALL) effective in teaching past tense to the tenth grade
students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan or not?‖
The Objective of the Study
In other word, the objective for conducting this study is merely to find empirical evidence of whether or not computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is effective in teaching past tense to the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.
The Significance of the Study
Finally, it is hoped that this study can produce benefits to the writer, readers, and further researchers in giving wide information about the teaching of past tense using CALL and motivating them to do a better research about the use of CALL
in language teaching and learning as well as encouraging them to design a better application for teaching and learning grammar or other aspects of English.
Definition of Grammar
Definition of grammar is often changed. The shifting of grammar definition is merely to improve the old grammar perspective with the better one. In this study, the old one refers to traditional view while the better one is functional view.
Commonly, the teaching of English grammar in Indonesia is under an assumption of traditional view point for the term of grammar. In this view, grammar is regarded as a set of rules that govern language behavior.1 It describes how a speaker produces sentences using the words, and serves as a way to manipulate language and combine words into sentences.2 If we look more carefully, traditional grammar more focuses on the language form rather than meaning. Moreover, this view left the importance of how to use grammar in real life. As stated by Alexander3, the primary concern of traditional grammar is with the forms of grammatical structures rather than with their meanings or uses in different contexts. Therefore, the teaching of grammar with this view makes students not be able to connect grammar with their lives. Consequently, students will feel grammar not meaningful to be learnt and finally their motivation to learn grammar will decrease.
On the contrary, the functional view includes a consideration of the structure functions and their meanings in context.4 In this view, grammar is regarded not only as a set of grammatical forms, but also grammatical meaning and use as a
Marianne Celce Murcia and Sharon Hilles, Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar, (New York: Oxford University, 1988), p. 16.
Peny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities: a Practical Guide for Teachers, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), P. 4.
Graham Lock Alexander, Longman English Grammar Practice for Intermediate Students,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 1.
whole.5 Thus, grammar deals with three dimensions i.e. form, meaning and use. This assumption leads teachers to teach grammar that should be meaningful in context and also teach students how to use it. As a result, students can connect grammar with their lives and their motivation to learn grammar will increase.
In short, the two different main streams for the term grammar are traditional and functional views. The former more focuses on structure rather than meaning and use whereas the last focuses on not only structure but also meaning and use. In this study, the functional view is preferred to be used to define grammar that is described as a set of rules on how language can be formed and used as an acceptable and meaningful language in context.
Importance of Grammar
Grammar plays an important role in language teaching and learning. The importance of grammar is so many. The followings are the five importance of grammar.
First, it is the function of grammar as a structural foundation of language skills.6 Grammar is regarded as a structural foundation of language skill because of an assumption which states that learning language skills is like build a building. Students have to build its foundation first before building its higher parts. If they do not make a strong foundation, the building will easily break and cannot be built into a higher one. The foundation of this building is grammar. So, to develop
students‘ language skill, teacher needs to teach grammar since the teaching of
grammar is so important for students as a foundation for their language skills. Second, it is the existence of grammar in language curriculum. As a language
element that is needed to develop and measure students‘ proficiency in English,
grammar becomes to be a subject that has to be taught and tested in language curriculum. It is on the language curriculum whether students like it or not. They
5D. Laser Freeman, ―Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring,‖ in Shu Yun Yu
(Ed.), The Effects of Games on the Acquisition of Some Grammatical Features of L2 German on
Students’ Motivation and on Classroom Atmosphere (A Thesis Published in Australian Catholic University, October 2005), p. 11.
K. Lynn Savage, et.al, Grammar Matters Teaching Grammar in Adult ESL Programs, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 3.
have to pass this subject in order to graduate and be considered as having enough proficiency in English. Consequently, grammar is a must and important to be learnt by students.
Third, it is the function of grammar as a sentence-making machine. Grammar becomes to be important for students because it can function as a sentence-making machine for them. It can describe the regularities of language behaviors and provide students with patterns to generate enormous number of new sentences.7 So, by knowing grammar students will be facilitated to produce new sentences.
Fourth, it is the function of grammar as a tool for language monitoring. Grammar enables students to self-monitor. It can assist students in becoming aware of a structure that they encounter and help them continue to notice it in subsequent encounters. 8 Once students have internalized the structure through repeated exposure, they can use this knowledge to monitor their own language use.9 It then improves their proficiency in creating polish and acceptable English sentences. In short, knowing grammar can help students monitor their language use.
Last, it is the function of grammar to prevent students from fossilizing early. It is assumed that students who receive no grammar instruction seem to be at risk of fossilizing early because they cannot monitor their own language use. They will easily feel satisfied with their current ability. It then makes their language progress stop and fossilize early. Therefore, grammar is so needed to prevent students from fossilizing early.
To sum up, grammar is so important in language teaching and learning. It is because grammar functions as a structural foundation of language that enables students to develop their language skills. Consequently, grammar should be taught in language curriculum since it can function as a language-sentence machine for
Jeremy Harmer, the Practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman, 1991), p. 13.
8S. Fotos, ―Cognitive Approaches to Grammar Instruction,‖ In K. Lynn Savage, et.al (Eds.),
Grammar Matters Teaching Grammar in Adult ESL Programs, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 4.
Savage, et.al, Grammar Matters Teaching Grammar in Adult ESL Programs, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 4.
students because it describes the regularities of language behaviors so that students can use it as a pattern to make an enormous number of new sentences and help them monitor their language use. Finally, it will prevent them from fossilizing early.
Grammatical Aspects of Language
To explain the grammatical aspects of language, inevitably, it has to involve the explanation of the nature of grammar itself. If tracing back the history of grammar, it will be found that there are two approaches which can be used to describe the nature of grammar.
The first is a descriptive grammar. It is a grammar approach which describes the nature of grammar as a description of the language grammar that exists in the minds of its speakers.10 It considers that every human being who speaks a language knows its grammar. So, by describing the language grammar that exists
in the speaker‘s minds, someone can know about the nature of grammar itself. On the other hand, prescriptive grammar comes with a different perspective. According to this approach, language always changes by the time and the change of language itself is regarded as a corruption. So, instead of describing the language grammar which is then regarded as a corruption, prescriptive grammar tends to prescribe grammar rules that are regarded as correct forms that the speaker should know.11
However, nowadays, the approach that is widely used is a descriptive
grammar. Although, there will be some differences among speakers‘ knowledge, this approach believes that there will be a shared or common knowledge too. Such knowledge is then regarded as laws which can represent the universal aspects of all languages or what is called as a universal grammar.
So, universal grammar is defined as principles that characterize all human language such as grammatical aspects of language itself.12 And, to discover the
Victoria Fromkin, et.al, An Introduction to Language: Seventh Edision, (Boston: Wadsworth, 2003), 14.
Ibid., p. 15.
universal grammar is the goal of linguist. In other word, to get the explanation about the grammatical aspects of language, students have to look it out in the linguistic theory.
In linguistics, grammatical aspects of language are divided into four levels.13 The first level is phonology. It is a linguistic analysis which deals with sound systems. Then, the next level is morphology. It is a linguistic analysis which deals with word-structure. The third level is syntax. It is a study of language grammar which deals with sentence-structure. Finally, at the upper level, there is semantics. It is a linguistic analysis which deals with meaning. So, the grammatical aspects of language are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
Tense is included as a grammatical aspect of a language in the word level i.e. morphology. It is one of morphological aspects which modify the form of a word, particularly a verb, so that it can fit into a particular syntactic slot.14 In this case, it acts as a verb time which suits and relates the happening described by the verb to time in the past, present, or future.15 So, tense is a grammatical aspect which can suit and connect an event with its time and its connection is showed through the
use of certain verb. For instance, when someone says, ―I visited my grandmother‘s house‖, it shows that the event happened in the past. It is because the sentence
uses certain verb i.e. ‗visited‘ which shows that the event happened in the past. Actually, there are three main tenses in English grammar. First, it is present tense. It uses present verb to indicate that the event occurs at present. The verb is
like ‗play/plays‘, ‗is/are playing‘, ‗has/have played‘, or ‗has/have been playing‘,
and so on. Second, it is past tense. It uses past verb to indicate that the event
occurred in the past. The verb is like ‗played‘, ‗was/were playing‘, ‗had played‘,
or ‘had been playing‘, and so on. And, last, it is future tense. It uses future verb to
Francis Katamba, Morphology, (London: Macmillan Press, 1993), p. 4.
Ibid., p. 51
G. Leech and J. Svartvik, A Communicative Grammar of English, (Edinburgh: Pearson Education, 2002), p. 66
indicate that the event will occur in the future. The verb is like ‗will play‘, ‗will be playing‘, ‗will have played‘, or ‗will have been playing‘, and so on.
Further, since this study wants to examine the teaching of past tense, the following is a more detailed explanation of past tense in English.
Past tense in English grammar is divided into four kinds. They are simple past tense, past progressive tense, pas perfect tense, and past perfect progressive tense.
a. Simple Past
Simple past tense is a verb time that indicates an activity or situation that began and ended at a particular time in the past.16 It is used for a completed action that happened at one specific time in the past.17 It employs the following pattern to create sentences:
Subject + Verb II …
b. Past Progressive
Past progressive tense is a verb time that indicates two actions occurred at the same time but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred.18 It indicates two actions which were in progress simultaneously.19 The followings are the patterns that are employed in past progressive tense.
Basic pattern: Subject + was/ were + verb ing
When + subject 1 + simple past + subject 2 + past progressive … Subject1 + past progressive + while + subject2 + past progressive …
Betty Schampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, (New Zersey: Prentice Hall Regents, 1989), p. 24.
M. A. Phyle and M. E. Munoz Page, Cliff TOEFL preparation Guide Test of English as a Foreign Language, (Delhi: Nice Printing Press, 2009), P.59.
Azhar, op. cit., p. 24.
c. Past Perfect
Past perfect tense is a verb time that indicates an activity was completed before another activity or time in the past.20 It employs time signals such as before, after, and when. To create past perfect tense, students can use the following patterns:
Basic pattern: Subject + had + (verb in past participle) … Subject + past perfect + before + subject + simple past tense
Subject + simple past tense + after + subject + past perfect
d. Past Perfect Progressive
Past perfect progressive tense is a verb time that indicates an activity which was in progress before another activity or time in the past. 21 In addition, it can indicate an activity that was in progress recently to another time or activity in the past. To create past perfect progressive tense, students can use the following patterns:
Subject + had + been + verb ing …
Teaching of Grammar
Approaches and Methods in Grammar Teaching
The shifting of language teaching approach and method, as well as the demand for pursuing the best approach and method in language teaching shows that there is no single approach and method that can guarantee successful results of language teaching.22 It is because each method and approach brings not only its advantages but also limitations in language teaching. The following table is the
Ibid., p. 39
Azhar. loc. cit.
Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: a Description and Analysis, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p.11.
advantages and disadvantages of methods and approaches in language teaching as what stated by Savage23 as well as Richard and Rodgers24:
Table 2.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Some Methods and Approaches
Approach Advantages Limitations
An explicit teaching of grammar rules; attention paid to language forms; good for teaching situation where understanding literary text is the primary focus
a tedious experience of memorizing endless list of unusable grammar rules; absence of communicative practice
Direct method Only everyday sentences taught; using visuals (actions, pictures, objects) to convey meaning; using the target language as a language classroom
Failing to consider the practical realities of language classroom learning; lack a thorough methodological basis.
Contextualizing key structure and illustrating situation in which structures might be used; enhancing
students‘ analogical ability;
using drills to reinforce grammatical patterns
Acquiring language through imitation not creating new sentences; failing to make students transfer skills to real communication outside the classroom; the experience of studying is boring and unsatisfying
Giving extra-linguistic context to make classroom activities as meaningful as
Not suitable for teaching that focuses on grammar because this approach more emphasizes
Savage, et.al, op. cit., p. 6-7.
possible; providing comprehensible input; using a wide range of activity;
on comprehensible and meaningful practice activities than production of grammatically perfect utterances and sentences
Communicati ve language
Emphasizing on meaningful interaction; course syllabus includes language functions; using authentic texts and contexts
communication can result in ignoring grammar; emphasizing on fluency at the expense of accuracy can result in many students never attaining correct grammar
The table above describes that not all methods and approaches focus or include the teaching of grammar in their concepts. Consequently, it should be better for teachers to use a teaching aid to help them teach grammar. In this current study, the teaching aid that is used is computer.
Stages in Grammar Teaching
According to Harmer25, there are three major stages in teaching grammar i.e. introducing new language, practice, and communicative activities. These stages are in line with what Celce-Murcia & Hilles26 state about grammar teaching stages. They state that the teaching grammar stages include presentation, focused practice, and communicative practice. However, in this case, they add feedback and correction as the final stage in teaching grammar. So, generally, the teaching of grammar can be through the following stages:
At this stage, teacher presents students with clear information about the language they are learning. They must be shown what the language means and how it is used. They also have to know what grammatical form of the new
Harmer, op. cit, p. 50-51.
language and how it is said or written. In short, at this stage, teacher should present the meaning, use, form, and context of the new language that is going to be learnt.
b. Focused practice.
At this stage students manipulate the structure in question while all other variables are constant. The purpose of this step is to allow students to gain control of the form without the added pressure and distraction of trying to use the form for communication. The focus of this stage is on the accuracy. At this stage, teacher may intervene slightly to help guide and to point out inaccuracy. The teacher should not proceed the next phase until most of students have mastered at least the form of the structure.
c. Communicative practice
At this stage, students are engaged in communicative activities to practice the structure being learnt. Communicative activities happen if there are information gap, purpose, and response in the interaction. This activity is vital in language classroom since here students can do their best to use the language as individuals.
d. Feedback and correction
The last stage is that teacher should give feedback and correction that engages students cognitively. Here teacher is not only simply pointing out the error and providing the appropriate target form but also giving them a remedial action to fix their understanding.
To sum up, grammar teaching consists of four stages i.e. presentation, focused practice, communicative practice, as well as feedback and correction. Presentation stage requires teacher to present the use, meaning, form, and context of new language. Then students practice the structure in a focused and communicative practice. After that, the teacher gives students feedback and correction of their work.
Aids in Grammar Teaching
Definition of Teaching Aid
The term of aid in language teaching means broader than media and tool. Every media and tool can be said as a teaching aid if they aim to help teacher present information. The difference between media and tool is that every tool is media but not all media is a tool. Media refers to all things (hardware, software, or etc.) that can bring information from its source to receiver27. But, tool only refers to a hardware that is used to present information.28 And the broader definition of them belongs to teaching aid. So, teaching aid can be defined as all things that can facilitate teachers in teaching a new material. In this case, it refers to software and hardware of CALL.
Importance of Teaching Aids
In conducting the teaching stages, teachers are recommended to use some aids to succeed their teaching stages meeting their goal. It is because the use of teaching aids is so important and useful in teaching and learning process. According to Sukartiwi,29 the importance of using aid in the teaching and learning process are:
a. To increase students‘ motivation. b. To avoid students bored.
c. To make students easy to understand the instructional material, and d. To make teaching and learning process more systematic
If thinking more carefully, the importance of teaching aids is more than what Sukartiwi already said. The teaching aid also helps teacher create an environment that is interesting for students and brings features that can help them retain more concept permanently. By using teaching aid, teacher can also clarify the subject
Sharon E. Smaldino, et.al, Instructional Technology & Media for Learning, (Jakarta: Kencana, 2011), p. 9.
Arief S. Sadiman, et.al, Media Pendidikan dan Proses Belajar Mengajar, (Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada; 1986), p. 5.
29 Soekartiwi, ―Rancangan Instruksional,‖ in Nuhung Ruis,
et.al, Instructional Media, (Jakarta: Ministry of National Education, 2009), p. 4.
matter more easily so that it will save the teacher‘s time from a long explanation. Moreover, teaching aid can provide students with direct experience or real-world application which enables students to learn higher order thinking. It is because by using teaching aid, teacher can create a possible direct interaction between students and their environment as well as present everything outside the classroom by means of aid.
In short, the use of teaching aid in language teaching is so important and useful to give students motivation, clarification, retention, direct experience or real-world application, and a chance to learn higher order thinking.
Types of Teaching Aids
Actually, aids in language teaching are so many. To make it simple, Alduais divided them into five categories as follows.30
1) Visual aids
This aid emphasizes on the use of vision sense. It is like realia, model, picture, drawing, poster, map, board, card, graph, menu, film strip, comic book, facial diagram, calendar, table, and so on
2) Audio aids
This aid involves the use of hearing sense. It is like tape recorder, phonograph, radio, and so on.
3) Audio-visual aids
This aid combines the use of both vision and hearing sense. It is like TV, Video tapes, DVDs, Video CDs and so on.
Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais, Integration of Language Learning Theories and Aids Used for Language Teaching and Learning: A Psycholinguistic Perspective, (Journal of Studies in Education, Vol. 2, No. 4, November 2012), p. 111.
4) Action aids
This aid encourages the use of physical movement. It is like dramatization, physical response, pantomiming, charade game, party games, rumor game, role-playing, conversations, physical response, and so on.
5) Multimedia aids
This aid involves the use of many senses (vision, hearing, etc.). It is like computer, laptop, internet, and so on.
Further, Anderson,31 provided another category of teaching aids. He divided the teaching aids into ten categories i.e. printed aids, audio-printed aids, silent visual aids, silent visual aids with audio, visual movement aids with audio, things aids, human and environment aids, and computer.
From all of the teaching aids in each category above, the one that is considered as the most sophisticated is computer. It is because computer can present students not only, picture but also sound, video, animation, and graphic that can make learning interesting. In addition, it enables teacher to create context in which teaching grammar is meaningful for students.32 Consequently, in this study, computer is preferred to be chosen as a teaching aid to help students learn grammar effectively. The purpose of choosing this aid is merely to examine the effectiveness of computer in teaching past tense.
Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
Definition of CALL
Definition of CALL is so many because there are so many ways of how the authors see and understand CALL. One of its ways is by considering its abbreviation, acronyms, and also concepts.
Sadiman, et.al, op. cit., p. 95.
Dalia Omar Abu Shagga, The Effectiveness of Using Computerized Educational Games on Developing Aspects of English Grammar for Deaf Ninth Graders in Gaza Governorates (a thesis Published in Al-Azhar University Gaza, 2012), p. 4.
The abbreviation of CALL stands for Computer-Assisted Language Learning. It is a term used to describe the use of computer as a vehicle for delivering instruction. As stated by Fotos & Browne33, CALL is not a method but a tool for learning using computer. Further, Young34 added that CALL is an aid for teacher to present, reinforce and assess materials to be learned using computer and usually includes substantial interactive elements. In brief, CALL is a term which is used to describe the use of computers as a part of language course.
The term of CALL has many acronyms such as computer-assisted language instruction (CAI), intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL), computer enhanced language learning (CELL), technology enhanced language learning (TELL), and web enhanced language learning (WELL). The main difference between the acronyms is the focus given to the computer as a part of the language learning process. For instance, CAI refers to the use of the computer for instruction, regardless of what is being taught. ICALL refers to the integration of techniques from the fields of Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics to enhance CALL applications. CELL effectively means the same thing as CALL. TELL is an acronym that is mainly used in North America that covers the same domain as CALL. WELL refers specifically to the use of the web (or Internet) in the language learning process. Then, CALL in this study is used as a general term to cover all of the acronyms.
CALL has two concepts i.e. CALL as a tutor versus CALL as a tool35. CALL as tutor refers to the use of computer as a substitute for teacher in presenting and
evaluating students‘ work. It may replace the function of teacher or textbook in
the language teaching. The concern of this instructional strategy is the students learn in isolation, with less rapport and less personal teaching from the teacher.
33S. Fotos and C. Browne, ―New Perspectives on CALL for second language classrooms,‖ in
Toni Yuliyanto (Ed), Developing Students’ grammar through Computer-Assissted Language Learning (CALL) (a research published in UNJ University, 2010), p. 16.
34B. Young, ―Exergaming Definitions‖, in Dalia Omar Abu Shagga (Ed.),
The Effectiveness of Using Computerized Educational Games on Developing Aspects of English Grammar for Deaf Ninth Graders in Gaza Governorates (a thesis Published in Al-Azhar University Gaza, 2012), p. 19.
35M. Levy, ―Computer
-assisted language learning: Context and conceptualization‖, in Sue E. K. Otto and James P. Pusack (Eds.), Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues (The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 93), p. 784.
The computer has the information to be learnt and controls the learning environment. It is different with the perspective of CALL as a tool which refers to the use of computer as a means for teachers and students to enrich their work. It enhances the teaching process, usually by focusing on one particular learning task and aiming to improve it. In this view, computer does not replace the function of teacher and textbook rather than supplement them. It is used in normal classrooms with the teacher as the instructional leader in the language teaching. Further, the idea of CALL as a tutor versus tool becomes blurring. As suggested by Hubbard and Bradin36, viewing tutor and tool-oriented CALL as mutually exclusive categories does not accurately reflect the reality of today's uses of CALL. Nowadays CALL can be used both as tutor and tool because it often uses particular software that embodies the characteristics and quality of both tutor and tool. So, in this study, tutor and tool are considered as parallel rather than opposing concepts of CALL.
In short, to understand CALL, someone may see its abbreviation, acronyms, and concepts. From such things, CALL can be defined as a term to describe the use of computer as a tool and tutor for presenting language teaching and learning material as well as evaluating and improving students‘ work.
Characteristics of CALL
Teaching learning activity by using computer cannot be said as a CALL if it does not have the characteristics of CALL. According to Susilana and Riyana37, there are seven characteristics of what is called as a CALL.
First, it is content representation. In CALL, the learning material that will be presented is not in the form of a text only but it can be in the form of a video, animation, sound, and etc. It depends on the teacher‘s decision about which form that will be suitable to present the material effectively. And also, not all material
36P. Hubbard and Siskin C. Bradin (2004), ―another look at tutorial CALL‖, in Sue E. K. Otto
and James P. Pusack (Ed.), Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues (The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 93), p. 784.
Rusman, Belajar dan Pembelajaran Berbasis Komputer: Mengembangkan Profesionalisme Guru Abad 21, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2013), p. 186.
should be presented in the CALL. The teacher should carefully select which material that will be representative to be shown in the CALL. So, teaching learning activity based on CALL will carefully consider the content of what will be shown to the students.
Second, it is visualization. In CALL, the material that will be learnt should be visualized by using or combining text with video, animation, sound, or etc. It is used to facilitate students to learn material quickly. In addition, it can empower
faculties of students‘ retention.
Third, it is using interesting color and high graphic resolution. Usually, CALL uses interesting template equipped with various images and objects which are suitable to the learning demand. The aim of using such template is merely to
attract students‘ attention, avoid students‘ boredom, and to make students enjoy
learning the material.
Fourth, it is the use of various learning strategies. In CALL, there are four learning strategies. They are drill and practice, tutorial, stimulation, and educational game. Such learning strategies should exist in CALL. They can be designed separately or collaboratively. It depends on the learning needs and requests.
Fifth, it is feedback and reinforcement. One of CALL characteristics is providing students with feedback and reinforcement. Students must be shown whether their answers are correct or not. They also must be given reinforcement or explanation about the answers. It aims to guide and evaluate students‘
understanding, as well as to give students‘ retention.
Sixth, it is self-evaluation. CALL also provides students with learning practice in which the students can automatically be shown their scores after they have answered all questions. If the scores are not maximally achieved by the students, the students are allowed to learn the material again. In other word, CALL should permit students to do self-evaluation.
Last, it is individual or classical use. Teaching learning activity using CALL should allow students to use the program individually or classically. In addition, it should permit the students to use it not only in the classroom but also in their
home. Therefore, the students can repeat the learning material again as much as they need.
In brief, teaching learning activity by using computer can be called as CALL if it has seven characteristics of CALL such as it can present and visualize the material. It uses interesting color and high graphic resolution. It uses various learning strategies. It provides students with feedback and reinforcement. It allows students to do self-evaluation. And, it can be used individually or classically.
Criteria of Good CALL
Not all CALL can produce positive results in improving students‘ learning progress. It is because some of the tools may have poor quality to be used. Sue and James stated that a CALL can be said as the best one if it has six criteria as follows.38
First, it is suitability. Good CALL must permit teachers to meet the needs of their own students, syllabi, methodologies, and principles. It must be suitable to such needs in order the intended objectives can be achieved effectively.
Second, it is interactivity. Good CALL must give teachers a way to create interactivity which provides students with a good classroom practice. It should facilitate teachers to create activities that motivate students, fit effectively to the syllabus, and give helpful support as well as feed back to the students.
Third, it is media. Good CALL must be equipped by additional media support. This addition will allow students to come into authentic materials and direct contact with the target cultures. It also permits teachers to improve not only
students‘ receptive skills but also productive skills. Moreover, it can be used as
students‘ aids to learn glossaries and grammar.
Fourth, it is record keeping. Good CALL must allow teachers to track
students‘ progress and give feedback on students‘ performance. It should record
and keep students‘ works so that it helps teachers provide appropriate help or
remediation for students.
Sue E. K. Otto and James P. Pusack, Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues, (The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 93), p. 786
Fifth, it is ease of use.Good CALL must be easy to use. It means, in practice, the tool should not be more difficult than a word processor. In addition, it will be helpful for students and teacher, if the tool also provides good documentation, training videos, and examples of the best practices.
Last, it is accessibility. Good CALL must provide students access to the learning materials via web. It will enable students to learn the material when they are in their home. So, the learning process will not be restricted only in the classroom.
To summarize, the good CALL that can be used to improve students‘ learning progress is the one which can fulfill the six criteria of a good CALL. It should be suitable, interactive, easy to use, and accessible. In addition, it should possess media support and can record the students‘ learning progress.
Power Point Macro-Enabled Show
Power point macro-enabled show is one of power point product which enables the teacher inserts macro code in the slides and also makes the power point view become like a flash or slide show at the first time it is opened. It is used in this study as a CALL because it is considered as having the seven criteria of what is called as a CALL and also has the six criteria of what is called as a good CALL.
As a CALL, power point macro-enabled show can fulfill the seven criteria of what is called as a CALL. 39
First, it can be used to present learning material in a representative way. It is because it provides teacher with various features such as video, audio, animation, and etc. Therefore, in power point macro-enabled show, the teacher can freely select which feature that is regarded to be representative for presenting the material.
Second, it can be used to visualize the material. Equipped with various features, power point macro-enabled show enables teacher to use and combine text, video, animation, and etc. to help the teacher visualize the material for students.
Third, it uses interesting color and high graphic resolution. In power point macro-enabled show, there is a feature for inserting color and graphic. The color and graphic that are provided are so various and have high resolution. Therefore, the teacher can use them to make an interesting template.
Fourth, it enables teacher to use various learning strategies. By using power point macro-enabled show, teacher can create an application that employs various learning strategies such as drill and practice, tutorial, simulation, and educational game.
Fifth, it permits teacher to give feedback and reinforcement. By using power point macro-enabled show, teacher can also create an application that can show to students whether their answers are correct or not. In addition the teacher can also create menu explanation to give students reason about why such answers are correct.
Sixth, it can be used as a self-evaluation for students. In power point macro-enabled show, there is a feature called
‗macro‘ which can be used to run certain code for scoring. So
that, the application that will be created with such code can automatically show students‘ score after they have taken any exercise. Such thing will help students to do self-evaluation.
The last, it can be used individually or classically. By using power point macro-enabled show, teacher can create an application that can be copied and pasted into another driver. So, if the students need to use the application in their home, their task is just copying and pasting the application.
Further, as a good CALL, power point macro-enabled show permits the teacher to create a language learning application which can fulfill the six criteria of a good CALL.40
First, it is suitable. Power point macro-enabled show can be suited to the
teachers‘ need. For instance, the teacher in this study would like to make an application for teaching grammar using power point macro-enabled show. In the teacher‘s mind, the application is supposed to have a grammar game to attract students to learn and practice English grammar. In addition, the teacher wants the application can automatically show students‘ score after they have practiced English grammar using the application. Fortunately, power point macro-enabled show lets the teacher‘s dream become real. The teacher can make a grammar
game which is called as ―space decoder‖ by inserting and combining various animations and trigger
Then, the teacher can also make a grammar practice which can automatically
show students‘ score by inserting certain code in the power point macro.
Second, it is interactive. Power point macro-enabled show can make teaching and learning grammar become interactive. The students not only watch and listen what is explained in the application but also participate to answer questions from what they have watched and listened. In this case, the application permits students to write their answers freely in the columns or choose one correct answer from 4 possible choices
Third, it is equipped with media support. Power point macro-enabled show can be equipped with additional media such as audio, video, picture, graphic,
animation, text, and object. Such features can be used to attract and facilitate students to learn grammar. They also can be used to empower faculties of
students‘ retention as well.
Fourth, it can record students‘ learning progress. Power point macro-enabled
show can save students‘ work. After students have leant grammar using the
application, there will be a message box which asks whether students need to save
their work or not. In this case, students have to click ‗yes‘ to let the application record their work. So that, the teacher can trace back students‘ learning progress
by opening again the application that students have operated.
Fifth, it is easy to be used. The application that is made by using power point macro-enabled show is easy to be used for student. The student can operate the application easily by only clicking the bottoms and read the instructions.
The last is accessible. The application that is made by using power point macro-enabled show is accessible for students. It means that the students can access the application not only in their classroom but also in their home. If the students need to use the application in their home, they have to copy first the file into their flash disk. After that, they have to paste the file to their laptop or computer. Then, they can use the application whenever they need because the application has already existed in their laptop or computer.
To sum up, power point macro-enabled show is regarded as a CALL and a good CALL in this study because it fulfills the seven criteria of CALL and six criteria of good CALL. As a CALL, it can present and visualize the material in a representative way. It uses interesting color and high graphic resolution. It uses various learning strategies. It provides students with feedback and reinforcement. It allows students to do self-evaluation. And, it can be used individually or classically. As a good CALL, it is suitable, interactive, easy to use, and accessible for students. In addition, it is equipped with media support which can attract and
empower faculties of students‘ retention. And, it can record students‘ learning progress by saving students‘ work.
Roles of CALL
There are many roles that computer can do to assist students in language learning. The number of its roles depends on the number of what it can do to help teacher. Generally, computer can do two main roles in language teaching.
First, computer is used to assist instruction. Computer based instruction is the role of CALL to provide instruction. Based on this role, there are four types of instructional strategies that can be used in language teaching:41
a. Drill and practice: it is used to present material, exercise, as well as immediate feedback repeatedly.
b. Tutorial: it is used to present an explanation or illustration of the new or being learnt material.
c. Simulation: it is used to give students‘ a chance to apply their knowledge in the real situation
d. Instructional/educational games: it is used to motivate students and develop their ability.
Last, computer is used to assist assessment. Computer-assisted assessment is the role of CALL to assess students‘ learning progress and to provide them feedback and correction during and after learning process.
So, the roles of CALL are to assist instruction and assessment. In assisting instruction, CALL offers four types of instructional strategies such as drill and practice, tutorial, simulation, and instructional/educational games; while, in assisting assessment, the use of CALL is to give students feedback and correction.
Advantages of CALL
Educational literature painted a positive picture of the effectiveness of computer in facilitating the mastery of various basic skills. They indicated that the current computer technology has many advantages for language teaching and learning. Nicol and Andreson42 stated that CALL can provide students with extended practice, which, in turn, can lead to atomization of basic skills. In addition, it can readily provide students feedback which may be used to improve the timing, quality, and quantity of individual feedback. Moreover, CALL can be
Rusman. loc. cit.
42 M. Nicol and A. Anderson, ―Computer
-Assisted vs. Teacher–Directed Teaching of
Innumeracy in Adults‖, in Ali Ahmad Al-Barakat and Ruba Fahmi Bataineh, International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, (IJEDICT, 2008, Vol. 4, Issue 4), pp. 65
used to foster students‘ motivation to learn. As stated by Willner and Willner43 as well as Nicol and Andreson, there is empirical evidence that CALL can stimulate
students‘ motivation to engage in academic activities which may readily be helped
by computer learning activities. In short, the positive effects of computer in language teaching and learning are providing students with extended practice, giving immediate feedback which can lead to the optimal use of learning time,
and fostering students‘ motivation to learn.
Disadvantages of CALL
Although computer in language class brings benefits as stated above, there are also disadvantages of CALL.44
First, CALL is impractical to be used. It cannot be easily carried around and studied whenever and wherever students wish. They have to posses their own personal notebook to make it possible. If they do not have it, they only can learn the new material at school which provides students a chance to access computers in a restricted time. Or, they can use rental computer which demands them to pay bill for each hour. Therefore, CALL can only have maximal benefits for students who have personal computer.
Second, not all schools provide students with computers. It is caused by the inability of schools to buy computers and to pay computer bill for each month. Or, if schools inevitably provide students with computers, they have to force students to pay additional expense because of the use of computer which obviously
increases students‘ school fee for each month.
Third, not all teachers and students are familiar with computer technology. It is because the knowledge of computer technology is still new for teachers and students. It then makes some of them illiterate how to operate computer. And
E. Willner and J. Willner, ―Pre-service Teachers' Perceptions about Computer Use for
Tutoring‖, in Ali Ahmad Al-Barakat and Ruba Fahmi Bataineh, International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, (IJEDICT, 2008, Vol. 4, Issue 4), pp. 65
finally, the use of computer is not maximally employed in teaching learning process.
Last, the existence of CALL programs is imperfect. Commonly, CALL program is designed for facilitating students to learn language limited for only one aspect because it is still difficult for specialists to design an application that can help teacher teach all language aspects using one program. In addition, the design of current CALL programs still unables to handle unexpected learning problems
as well as response to students‘ questions immediately as teachers do.
In short, CALL has disadvantages in language teaching and learning. It is because computer is not practical to be used and not all schools provide students with computers. In addition, there are some teachers and students who still do not know how to operate computer which then makes the use of computer is not maximally employed. Moreover, the existence of current CALL programs is still imperfect for teaching all language aspects.
Teaching Past Tense Using CALL: Power Point
In this study, the teaching of grammar using CALL is divided into the following stages: 45
At the presentation stage, the role of CALL is to assist instruction. It employs tutorial as an instructional strategy at this stage. Therefore, at this stage, the function of CALL is as a tutor. It is used to present explanation or illustration of the new material being learnt. The explanation will be equipped with animations, sounds and video to attract students and make learning more interesting for them. This equipment will help them memorize the material quickly and longer.
2. Focused practice.
At this stage, the role of CALL is to assist instruction. It functions as a tool which provides students with exercises to manipulate the structure in question while all other variables are constant. The instructional strategies that will be used in this stage are practice and game activities. In practice activities, the design of CALL is like doing exercises on computer in the form of multiple choice items and short answer items. At this stage, students will get immediate feedback from the computer such as they will be given their score and the explanation of the answer. While in game activity, students are required to play grammar game on computer.
3. Communicative practice
At this stage, the role of CALL is to assist instruction. It functions as a tool and employs simulation as an instructional strategy. So, at this stage, students are engaged in communicative activity to practice the
structure being learnt. It is used to give students a chance to apply their knowledge in the real situation. The communicative activity at this stage is writing a narrative text. After students have learnt and practice past tense. They will be asked to write a narrative text.
4. Feedback and correction
At this stage, the role of CALL is to assist assessment. It is used as a tool to help teacher give feedback and correction to students. In this case, the learning application is designed to be able to show students whether their answers are correct or not. In addition, it is also made to be able to show students score automatically after they have done the exercise. Therefore, the students can get immediate feedback from the application. Then, the teacher‘s task is just giving students evaluation about how well they do in each meeting. Teacher also may
give students‘ retention by re-explaining the answers and concluding what students have learnt in each meeting together.
5. Practice at home as a homework assignment
At this stage, students will be given the software to be learnt and practiced at home. To ensure that all students practice at home, teacher asks students to submit their work in the next meeting.
From the explanations, it can be concluded that the use of CALL in this current study is both as tutor and tool. It means that the use of CALL does not replace the function of teacher. Students do not learn in isolation with the computer in all stages, instead they only use it at the presentation, focused practice and assessment activities. Here, teacher is still the leader which leads and monitors students to do communicative practice activities and also provide them homework as well as feedback and correction.
The Relevant Previous Study
There are many researches that have been conducted to find out the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in teaching grammar. However, there are only three related previous researches that are used as references for this study.
First, it is a research that is conducted by Iravani and Tajik46 about The Effect of Software-Assisted Grammar Teaching on Learning Grammar of Iranian Male Junior High School Learners. In this research, they found that using CALL in teaching grammar has a greater impact on the students' grammar learning than
Hasan Iravani and Mehdi Tajik, The Effect of Software-assisted Grammar Teaching on Learning Grammar ofIranian Male Junior High School Learners (Journal of Language and Translation Volume 3, Number 1 (pp.23-28), 2012), p. 27.
using traditional method. It is because students are more intrinsically motivated to learn due to they do not have to learn in a monotonous learning situation like in the traditional class. However, to make the use of CALL is effective, the researcher should ensure that before treatment all of the students know how to operate the computer.
Another reference is a research that is conducted by Naba'h, Hussain, Omari, and Shdeifat47. This research is about The Effect of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching English Grammar on the Achievement of Secondary Students in Jordan. The result of this research showed that the use of CALL is effective in teaching passive voice grammar. It is because computers enable each individual to work according to his own pace, and also provide students with immediate feedback, as well as give them a chance to use many senses which can empower faculties of retention to them. Moreover, in this study, there was showed that male students have higher scores than female students in the post-test regardless of the teaching way that is used. It may be due to male students are more serious in their learning process and more incredibly interested in computers and multi-media programs. Another finding of this study is that scientific students have higher marks than literary students regardless of the gender or method of teaching. It is because the scientific stream students generally have relatively higher mental abilities and be more interested in studying and better in learning languages than the literary students.
Last, it is a research that is conducted by Shagga48 by the title The Effectiveness of Using Computerized Educational Games on Developing Aspects of English Grammar for Deaf (Hearing Loss Students) Ninth Graders in Gaza Governorates. This study showed that the computer educational game is more effective for developing aspects of English grammar for the deaf (hearing loss students) than using the sign language because the computer educational games
Abdallah Abu Naba'h, Jebreen Hussain, Aieman Al-Omari, and friend, The Effect of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching English Grammar on the Achievement of Secondary Students in Jordan (The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 6, No. 4, October 2009), p. 435-437
Change the following sentences into past tense 1. I (eat) meatball at 10 o‘clock this morning 2. She (swim) at the swimming pool last week 3. We (wait) for two hours before the train (come) 4. I (watch) TV when the telephone (ring)
5. Andi (wash) his motorcycle while Siti (wash) plates 6. After I (turn) off the lamp, I (sleep)
7. He (lock) the door before he (leave)
8. They (study) for one week before they (take) national examination 9. A car (hit) a cat last night
10. They (read) at 7 o‘clock last night Answer Key
1. I was eating meatball at 10 o‘clock this morning 2. She swam at the swimming pool last week
3. We had been waiting for two hours before the train came 4. I was watching TV when the telephone rang
5. Andi was washing his motorcycle while Siti was washing plates 6. After I had turned off the lamp, I slept
7. He had locked the door before he left
8. They had been studying for one week before they took national examination 9. A car hit a cat last night
10. They were reading at 7 o‘clock last night Rubric penilaian
Aspek Penilaian Nilai
Jawaban Benar 10
Alasan Benar 10
Total Jawaban Benar x 10 = 100
Mengetahui 27 Maret 2015
Guru Pamong Mahasiswi
Appendix 7 :
Lesson Plan (RPP)
RANCANGAN PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) UNTUK KELAS KONTROL
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris / Narrative text: Past Tense Kelas/Semester : X/2
Pertemuan : 1 x Pertemuan Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 45 Menit Standar Kompetensi :
12. Mengungkapkan makna dalam bentuk teks tulis fungsional pendek dan esei sederhana berbentuk narrative, descriptive dan news item dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari
Kompetensi Dasar :
12.2. Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teks berbentuk narrative
12.2.1.Mengidentifikasi pola kalimat past tense: positive, negative, dan interrogative
12.2.2.Menentukan jenis past tense yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat yang rumpang
12.2.3.Mengubah kalimat positive past tense menjadi kalimat negative dan interrogative
Tujuan Pembelajaran :
Setelah kegiatan pembelajaran, siswa di harapkan mampu mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis kalimat past tense, membuat pola kalimat past tense (positive, negative, dan interrogative), serta mengubah kalimat positive past tense menjadi kalimat negative dan interrogative
A. Tatap Muka (TM)
1. Materi Pembelajaran: Past Tense
2. Ringkasan Materi Pembelajaran
Jenis Past Tense Rumus
Simple Past Tense Non verbal
(+) Subject (he/she/it) + to be (was) + complement (+) Subject (you, we, they) + to be (were) + complement Verbal
(+) Subject + V2 + . . . Non verbal
(-) Subject (he/she/it) + to be (was) + not + complement (-) Subject (you, we, they) + to be (were) + not + complement
(-) Subject + did not + V1 + . . . Non verbal
(?) To be (was) + subject (he/she/it) + complement (?) To be (were) + subject (you, we, they) + complement Verbal
(?) Did + subject + V1 + . . . Past Continuous
(+) Subject (he/she/it) + to be (was) + verb-ing (+) Subject (you, we, they) + to be (were) + verb-ing (-) Subject (he/she/it) + to be (was) + not + verb-ing (-) Subject (you, we, they) + to be (were) + not + verb-ing
(?) To be (was) + subject (he/she/it) + verb-ing (?) To be (were) + subject (you, we, they) + verb-ing Past Perfect Tense Non Verbal
(+) S + Had + Been + Complement Verbal
(+) S + Had + V3 Non Verbal
(-) S + Had NOT+ Been + Complement Verbal
(-) S + Had NOT + V3 Non Verbal
(?) Had + S + Been + Complement Verbal
(?) Had + S + V3 Past Perfect
(+) S + Had + Been + V-ing (-) S + Had NOT + Been + V-ing (?) Had + S + been + V-ing 3. Sumber Belajar:
Referensi : Buku Paket yang relevan Bahan ajar : Past Tense
Media/Alat : LKS, Spidol, Papan Tulis 4. Metode: Drilling
5. Langkah Kegiatan Pembelajaran Tatap Muka Pertama
Aktifitas Guru dan Siswa Kegiatan Pendahuluan
Meminta siswa duduk di tempat yang telah ditentukan Meminta siswa memimpin doa
Menjawab salam siswa Mengecek absensi siswa
Apersepsi: Menyiapkan siswa dengan mengulang kembali pelajaran kemarin
Kegiatan Inti Eksplorasi
Memperlihatkan beberapa kalimat past tense baik dalam bentuk positive, negative, dan interrogative dan meminta siswa mengidentifikasi pola kalimat positive, negative, dan interrogative past tense.
Guru bersama dengan siswa mendiskusikan pola positive, negative, dan interrogative kalimat past tense
Meminta siswa mencatat pola-pola tersebut
Meminta siswa mengidentifikasi jenis past tense yang tepat untuk melengkapi 20 kalimat yang diberikan
Meminta siswa mengubah 20 kalimat past tense menjadi kalimat negative dan interrogative
Guru bersama dengan siswa mendiskusikan jawaban yang benar dari soal tersebut.
Guru bersama siswa menyimpulkan materi yang dipelajari hari ini Guru memberi tugas siswa yaitu menulis sebuah paragraph text narrative B. Penugasan Terstruktur (PT)
1. Materi Pembelajaran Past Tense
2. Sumber Belajar
Referensi : Buku Paket yang relevan Bahan ajar : Past Tense
Media/Alat : LKS, Spidol, Papan Tulis 3. Metode: Drilling
4. Langkah Kegiatan Pembelajaran
Tahap Kegiatan Aktivitas Siswa
Pendahuluan Menjawab pertanyaan apersepsi guru
Inti Mengidentifikasi pola kalimat positive, negative, dan interrogative past tense.
Mengidentifikasi jenis past tense yang tepat untuk melengkapi 20 kalimat yang diberikan
Mengubah 20 kalimat past tense menjadi kalimat negative dan interrogative
Penutup Menyimpulkan apa yang telah dipelajari hari ini C. Kegiatan Mandiri Tidak Terstruktur (KMTT)
2. Sumber Belajar: LKS
3. Tugas untuk Siswa: Berlatih soal past tense. D. Penilaian
1. Tekhnik Penilaian : Test 2. Bentuk Penilaian : Test
3. Aspek yang dinilai : Pengetahuan 4. Jenis Penilaian : Penilaian hasil 5. Instrument Penilaian : Short Answer Item 6. Indikator Penilaian :
Mengidentifikasi jenis past tense yang tepat untuk melengkapi 20 kalimat yang diberikan
Mengubah 20 kalimat past tense menjadi kalimat negative dan interrogative
Soal ada di LKS halaman 12 Contoh soal:
1. Uncle/send/this/package/last week
(-)_____________________________________________ Nilai (1) (?)____________________________________________ Nilai (1) Jumlah soal: 60 Soal
Aspek Penilaian Nilai
Jawaban Benar 1
Alasan Benar 1
Total Jawaban Benar (60) : 0.6 = 100
Mengetahui 31 Maret 2015
Guru Pamong Mahasiswi
Appendix 8 :
Photos of Experimental and Control Class
PHOTOS a. EXPERIMENTAL CLASS