The implementation of Jigsaw to improve students` participation in English class for seventh grade students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta - USD Repository

  

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF JIGSAW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’

PARTICIPATION IN ENGLISH CLASS FOR SEVENTH GRADE

STUDENTS OF SMP N 8 YOGYAKARTA

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Require ments to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

  By Pipiet Dhanayu Pratiwindya

  Student Number: 091214134

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2013

  

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF JIGSAW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’

PARTICIPATION IN ENGLISH CLASS FOR SEVENTH GRADE

STUDENTS OF SMP N 8 YOGYAKARTA

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

  

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Require ments

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  By Pipiet Dhanayu Pratiwindya

  Student Number: 091214134

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

2013

  

“Twenty years from now you will be

more disappointed by the things that

you didn't do than by the ones you did

do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail

away from the safe harbor. Catch the

trade winds in your sails. Explore.

  Dream.Discover.” H. Jackson Brown Jr.

  This thesis is dedicated to: My beloved father, mother, and brothers

  

ABSTRACT

  Pratiwindya, Pipiet Dhanayu 2013. The Implementation of Jigsaw to Improve

  Student s’ Participation in English Class for Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

  Students’ participation is the important factor in teaching and learning process to achieve learning goals . The students’ participation is influenced by some factors, such as teacher’s way of teaching and students’ condition. The students should be given enough time to practice English in the classroom. From the preliminary study result, the problem of low participation in English learning occurred in class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. This class was different from the other classes because the students were passive in following English learning. From thirty students, there were more than fifteen students had low participation. Besides, the teacher used traditional method in every teaching and did not involve the students to practice English. It caused the students feel bored and do not participate in the class. Therefore, the researcher implemented jigsaw technique to improve the student s’ participation. This research was conducted to answer two research questions: (1) How is the implementation of jigsaw technique in the class

  VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta? (2) Does the implementation of jigsaw technique improve the students’ participation? The researcher employed classroom action research based on Kemmis and

  McTaggart model for three cycles during three meetings. It consisted of four stages in every cycle: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The

  th th

  implementation was conducted on March 13 , 18th, and April 3 , 2013. The data was obtained from observation sheets, students’ participation checklist, field notes, questionnaire, and interviews. The researcher analyzed the students’ participation through three kinds of interactions proposed by Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007). They are the interaction between students to teacher, student to students, and student to material.

  In this research, the students’ participation which occurred during the implementation of jigsaw technique was divided into three kinds of interaction. First, the interaction between students to teacher involved asking question related to the materials to the teacher. Second, the interaction between student to student involved three activities, such as asking questions about the text to friends, sharing and retelling the content of the text to friends. Third, the interaction between students and material was categorized into two activities, such as reading the text loudly and answering questions in the worksheet. Therefore, there were six students’ participation activities which were analyzed in this research. The result showed that the implementation of jigsaw technique could improve the students’ participation. The students improved their participation in each cycle from the preliminary study result. It was proved by the students’ participation checklists which revealed the improvement of t he students’ participation.

  

ABSTRAK

  Pratiwindya, Pipiet Dhanayu 2013. The Implementation of Jigsaw to Improve

  

Students’ Participation in English Classfor Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 8

Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Partisipasi siswa adalah faktor penting di dalam proses belajar mengajar untuk mencapaitujuan pembelajaran. Partisipasi siswa dapat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya adalah cara guru mengajar dan kondisi siswa.Para siswa seharusnya diberikan cukup waktu untuk berlatih berbahasa Inggris di kelas. Berdasarkan pra-observasi, masalah mengenai rendahnya partisipasi siswa dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris terjadi di kelas VII.10 SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. Kelas tersebut berbeda dengan kelas lainnya karena siswa pasif dalam mengikuti pelajaran bahasa Inggris di dalam kelas. Dari 30 siswa, lebih dari 15 siswa mempunyai partisipasi rendah. Disamping hal itu, guru menggunakan metode tradisioanl setiap mengajar dan tidak melibatkan para siswa untuk berlatih berbahasa Inggris. Hal ini menyebabkan siswa merasa bosan dan tidak berpartisipasi di dalam kelas. Oleh karena itu, peneliti menerapkan tehnik

  

jigsaw untuk meningkatkan partisipasi siswa kelas VII.10. Penelitian ini dilakukan

  untuk menjawab dua pertanyaan penelitian: (1) Bagaimanakah penerapan tehnik

  

jigsaw di kelas VII.10 SMP N 8 Yogyakarta? (2) Apakah penerapan tehnik jigsaw

  di kelas dapat meningkatkan partisipasi siswa? Peneliti menggunakan sebuah penelitian tindakan kelas berdasarkan model

  Kemmis dan McTaggart untuk tiga siklus selama tiga kali pertemuan. Penelitian ini terdiri dari empat tahap di setiap siklus: rencana, tindakan, observasi, dan refleksi. Penerapan dilakukan pada tanggal 13, 18 Ma ret 2013 dan 3 April 2013. Data diperoleh dari lembar observasi pengamatan aktivitas di kelas, daftar ceking partisipasi siswa, catatan lapangan, kuesioner, dan wawancara.Peneliti menganalisa partisipasi siswa melalui tiga macam interaksi yang dijelaskan oleh Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007), yaitu interaksi antara siswa dan guru, interaksi antara siswa dan siswa, dan interaksi antara siswa dan materi.

  Pada penelitian ini, partisipasi siswa yang terjadi selama penerapan teknik

  

jigsaw dibedakan ke dalam tiga macam interaksi. Pertama, interaksi antara siswa

  dan guru berarti siswa bertanya tentang materi kepada guru. Kedua, interaksi antara siswa dan siswa berarti siswabertanya tentang isi teks kepada teman, siswaberbagi isi teks dan menceritakan ulang isi teks kepada teman. Ketiga, interaksi antara siswa dan materi berarti siswa membaca teks dengan keras dan menjawab soal di lembar soal. Jadi, terdapat enam aktifitas partisipasi siswa yang disertakan ke dalam tiga macam interaksi di dalam kelas. Hasil dari penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa penerapan tehnik jigsaw dapat meningkatkan partisipasi siswa. Para siswa mengalami peningkatan partisipasi di setiap siklus dari hasil pra-observasi. Hal ini dibuktikan dari daftar ceking partisipasi siswa yang menyatakan tentang peningkatan partisipasi siswa.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  It is a blessing so that I can finish my thesis. My deepest gratitude is for

  

Allah SWT, who always accompanies me wherever I am and listens to my

happiness and sorrows about my thesis whenever I want.

  This thesis could finish because of assistance from my major sponsor

  

Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. I thank her because she supported and guided

me to complete my thesis patiently.

  Then I would like to thank H. Suharno, S.Pd., S.Pd. T., M.Pd., the Headmaster of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta, who allowed and supported me to conduct my research. I would also like address my thanks to Drs. H. Sucipta, MM.,

  

Sutarto, S.Pd., Dra. Septiana Listianingrum and Sugiharti, S.Pd., the teacher

  of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta, who guided, supported, and gave me suggestions in conducting my research. I would like to thank all students of class VII 10 of SMP

  N 8 Yogyakarta for the cooperativeness during the research.

  I really thank Drs. Barli Bram, M.Ed., Ph.D., Drs. Y.B. Gunawan,

  

M.A., Christina Lhaksmita Anandari, S.Pd., Ed.M., and C. Sih Prabandari,

S.Pd., M.Hum., the lecturers of the English Language Education Study Program

  of Sanata Dharma University for the suggestions. I would thank Bu Danikand Bu

  

Tari, PBI secretariat staff, whohelpedme to manage all of the things related to

  administration. I would also thank the staffs of Perpustakaan Sanata Dharma for all the services to provide many books so I can finish my thesis.

  I also deliver my deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, Drs. Maryoto and Ustiyah for their never ending love, supporting all my activities, and teaching me everything about life. They are my inspiration. I am also so grateful for having brothers, my older brother Vidi Andika Wisnu Adi Candra and my younger brother Vicky Mahendra Bagaskara. I thank them for protecting and supporting me. I would also thank my grandparents and my big family, Harso Mulyono and

  

Rr. Putri Pranitaningrum, S.Pd., for being my proof reader. She is a very kind

person who gave me constructive comments on my thesis.

  I also thank my best friends ever in this campus Sekar, Helen, Niken, Ita,

  

Friska, Berta, Deni, Bruder Markus, Leo, Dimas, Wanda, and my High

  School best friends, Wawa, Arum, Tenten, Nyit-nyit, Criwil and Melon for the ‘crazy time’ together. I have shoulders to cry on every time I could not stand by myself. I hope our friendship will be lasting forever. I also thank Vita, Wilda,

  

Mbak Sisi, Mbak Hana, Tia, Budi, Tari, Dian, Ajeng, and Bu RW for

supporting my thesis.

  Finally, I would like to thank everybody whom cannot be mentioned on this page for supporting me and painting my days. I realize that the research is still not perfect. Therefore, I need suggestions to make this research better. I hope this research can be useful for others.

  The writer, Pipiet Dhanayu Pratiwindya

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page i TITILE PAGE ……………………………………………………………... ii

  APPROVAL PAGES ……………………………………………………… iv STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ……………………………. v DEDICATION PAGE …………………………………………………….. vi

  PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ………………………….….

  vii ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………..…

  ABSTRAK

  viii ……………………………………………………………..…… ix

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………...... xi

  TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………..… LIST OF TABLES xiv ……………………………………………………….... xv LIST OF FIGURE………………………………………………………...... xvi LIST OF APPENDICES …………………………………………………...

  CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.............................................................

  1 A.

  1 Research Background...................................................

  B.

  5 Problem Limitation.......................................................

  C.

  5 Research Problems.......................................................

  D.

  5 Research Objectives.....................................................

  E.

  5 Research Benefits.........................................................

  F.

  6 Definition of Key Terms..............................................

  CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  9 …….....……..

  A.

  9 Theoretical Description................................................

  1.

  9 English Learning and Teaching Process..................

  2.

  11 Teaching Adolescent………………………….......

  3.

  12 Students’ Participation….........................................

  4.

  15 Cooperative Learning Method.................................

  5.

  18 Jigsaw……………..................................................

  B.

  21 Theoretical Framework................................................

  CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  24 …………………….......

  A.

  24 Research Method............................................................

  B.

  28 Research Setting……………………………………....

  C.

  28 Research Participants.....................................................

  D.

  Research Instruments and Data Gathering Technique.......................................................................

  28 E.

  37 Data Analysis Technique..............................................

  F.

  41 Research Procedure.......................................................

  CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  45 ………....

  A.

  45 Preliminary study..........................................................

  1. First Ob 45 servation Result…………….………..........

  2. Second

  47 Observation Result…………………..........

  3. Prelimi 48 nary Study Discussion………………..........

  B.

  The Description of the Implementation of the Jigsaw Technique.........................................................

  49

  49 1. Cycle 1……………………………………….........

  a. Planning for

  50 Cycle 1……………….……….......

  53 b. Acting for Cycle 1…………………………......

  c. Observing for Cycle

  55 1…………………….…....

  d. Reflecting for

  60 Cycle 1……………………….....

  64 2. Cycle 2……………………………………............

  a. Planning for

  64 Cycle 2…………….………….......

  66 b. Acting for Cycle 2…………………..…….…...

  68 c. Observing for Cycle 2……………….………....

  72 d. Reflecting for Cycle 2……………………….....

  74 3. Cycle 3…………………………………..…............

  a. Planning for Cycle 3

  74 ……………...……….….....

  b. Acting for Cycle 3

  76 ……………………….….......

  c. Observing for Cyc

  79 le 3………………….….........

  82 d. Reflecting for Cycle 3………………….…….....

  C.

  The Way of the Jigsaw Technique in Improving the Students’ Participations of VII.10 Students of SMP N 8

  92 Yogyakarta……………………………………...........

  1. Three Kinds of Interaction........................................

  93 2. Jigsaw Technique for Group Learning activities.....

  95 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

  99 ………….........

  A.

  99 Conclusions...........................................................

  B.

  101 Suggestions...........................................................

  REFERENCES................................................................................................ 103

  

LIST OF TABLES

  59 Table 4.5 Observation Shee t of Researcher’s Activity……………..….

  89

  Students’ Participation Improvement in Quantity…………..

Table 4.12 Students’ Participation Improvement in Percentage………...

  82 Table 4.11

  80 Table 4.10 Students’ Participation of Cycle 3………………………......

  79 Table 4.9 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity.…….………...........

  71 Table 4.8 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity………………...

  69 Table 4.7 Students’ Participation of Cycle 2..........................................

  68 Table 4.6 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity.................................

  57 Table 4.4 Students’ Participation of Cycle 1..………………………....

  Table Page

  56 Table 4.3 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity ...………………….

  48 Table 4.2 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity….......................

  39 Table 4.1 Students’ Participation of SecondObservation……..………

  35 Table 3.6 Qualification of Checklist Score…………………..…...........

  34 Table 3.5 Sample of Questionnaire…………………………...………..

  33 Table 3.4 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity…………………….

  33 Table 3.3 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity………………...

  30 Table 3.2 Sample of Students’ Participation Checklist……..……….....

Table 3.1 Sample of Students’ Participation Checklist…………...........

  90

  

LIST OF FIGURE

  Figure Page

  Figure 3.1

  25 Kemmis and McTaggart’s Cycle Model…………….......

  

LIST OF APPENDICES

  Appendix Page

  A. Covering Letter for the Head of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta ……………. 106

  B. Research Official Statement from SMP N 8 Yogyakarta ….……..... 108

  C. Research Instruments ………………………………….…............... 110 1.

  111 Observation Sheets……………………………….…...............

  2.

  113 Students’ Participation Checklist……………………..............

  3.

  117 Field Notes Guide…………………………………….............

  4.

  118 Questionnaire……………………………………………….....

  5.

  121 Interviews Guide……………………………………...............

  D. Learning Materials 124 ……………………….…………………….......

  1.

  125 Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle One……..….....

  2.

  139 Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Two…..............

  3.

  148 Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Three………....

  E. Raw Data 158 ………………………………………………….…...…..

  1. Students’ Participation Checklist Result of Preliminary Study

  159 ……………………………………………………...…..

  2.

  161 Students’ Participation Checklist Resultsof Cycle One…......

  3.

  165 Students’ Participation Checklist Results of Cycle Two…..… 4.

  169 Students’ Participation Checklist Results of Cycle Three…....

  5.

  173 Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One….….....................

  6.

  174 Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two……….…............

  7.

  175 Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Three………...……....

  8.

  176 Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One………............

  9.

  178 Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two………...........

  10.

  179 Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Three……..............

  11.

  180 Observation Sheet Results of Cycle One……………..............

  12.

  182 Observation Sheet Results of Cycle Two……………..………

14. Sample of Students’ Worksheet Results……………………… 15.

  Sample of Questionnaire Results……………………..............

  16. Interviews Transcript………………………...…..…………… 186 192 197

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter includes six major points. They are the research background,

  the research problems, the research objectives, the problem limitation, the research benefits, and the definition of terms related to the research.

A. Research Background

  A teaching learning process is the interaction among a teacher and students in the classroom. There is a crucial factor which influences the teaching and learning process. Students’ participation is the important factor because it gives an impact of the success of teaching and learning process. Cohen (1991) states “participation is a way to bring students actively into the educational process and to assist in enhancing our teaching and bringing life to the classroom

  ” (p. 699). Students should contribute their participation in the teaching and learning process in order to achieve learning goals.

  Ramsden (1992) describes “students who are actively involved in class are more likely to understand material presented” (as cited in Sariefe and Klose, 2008, p. 2).

  The students’ participation refers to the students’ involvement in following the le arning process. There are numerous kinds of students’ participation in the classroom, such as paying attention to the teacher’s explanation, asking and answering questions, giving comments about the material, doing assignments, contributing ideas in a group discussion, and performing their works. According to Vandrick (2000), “Participation is defined as speaking in class, asking and answering questions, making comments and participating in discussion” (as cited in Sariefe and Klose, 2008, p. 2).

  In the English teaching and learning process, the students should participate in order to know their achievement in learning so mething. Tatar (2005) sta tes “active classroom participation played an important role in the success of education and students’ personal development in the future” (p. 145). The teacher has to encourage the students to participate in the class in order to achieve the teaching and learning goal. The teacher should create a learning activity which makes the students are motivated to follow the lesson. In addition, the implementation of a teaching method influences the students’ participation in the classroom. Felder (2001) states that if the teacher uses monotonous teaching style, the students may become bored and inattentive in class, do poorly on tests, and get discouraged about the courses (p. 2). Therefore, the students are reluctant to contribute their participation in the classroom. To overcome this problem, the teacher should find an appropriate method in the teaching and learning proces s.

  In this research, the researcher employed classroom action research to improve the students’ participation in English class. The research was conducted in the class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. This class was different from the other classes of seventh grades in SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. It was because the students had less participation in English class. The researcher had conducted preliminary study twice in that class. In the preliminary study, the researcher noted a major problem found in the class VII.10. The students did not participate in the teaching and learning process From thirty students, there were more than fifteen students who had low participation, especially the girls. Six students were noisy and busy with themselves in the back. The girls tended to be silent when the teacher asked some questions. While in the discussion activity, three girls played with their cell phones and talked about other things outside the topic of the lesson. On the other hand, four boys in the back drew unimportant things in their books and played with their gadgets.

  The researcher found that the teacher did not give all students enough opportunity to participate in the learning process. The teacher liked to point the same student to answer questions related to the materials. It was because the student was active in the classroom. The researcher noted that the teacher used a traditional method. The teacher explained the material briefly, then asking the students to do the assignment by discussing with their friends. The researcher also found that the teacher did not give feedback about the result of the students’ homework.

  The researcher conducted an interview with three students and gave a questionnaire to the thirty students. The students stated that they felt bored in the class because the teacher often used the same teaching technique. They also noted some factors, such as laziness, feeling sleepy and hungry, having problems, and teaching styles influenced their moods to participate in the learning process.

  A teacher and students have important roles in the teaching and learning process. Both of the teacher and students should involve in the learning process in order to make the learning process work well. The teacher should provide an activity which makes all students participate in the learning process. The teaching method and classroom activities have an important role in this case. The teacher should apply a method where all students can participate in the teaching and learning process.

  Therefore, the researcher tried to find out the solution to the problem. There are various teaching methods which are offered in the education world recently. A teacher should choose an effective method which is suitable for the classroom condition. The researcher considered one of the techniques in cooperative learning method. This method covers a technique which invites the students to cooperate with others. It is jigsaw technique. Slavin (1995) states “another way to insure participation is to make students expert on some part of the topic by having them do research on their area of expertise” (p. 130). In addition,

  Aronson (2002) describes “jigsaw classroom is like in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece- each student's part- is essential for the completion and full understa nding of the final product” (p. 114). By using the jigsaw technique, all students have an opportunity to participate in the class. It is because each student has responsibility to master their parts in the group in order to complete their information.

  Therefore, this research is conducted to implement the jigsaw technique to improve the students’ participation in the English class.

  B. Problem Limitation

  The focus of this research was to investigate the use of the jigsaw technique to improve students’ participation in the classroom. The researcher employed classroom action research for the VII.10 students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. There were 30 students in the class. They consisted of 16 girls and 14 boys.

  C. Research Problems

  This research was conducted to answer two questions. The questions were: (1) How is the implementation of jigsaw technique in the class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta? (2) Does the implementation of jigsaw technique improve the students’ participation?

  D. Research Objectives

  This research was intended to examine the process of how the implementation of the jigsaw technique in class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta and how the jigsaw technique improves students’ participation in the classroom.

  E. Research Benefits

  This research was expected to give benefits to:

1. The English Teacher of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The result of this research was expected to give information about the use Because this technique was new for the teacher of seventh grade in SMP N 8 Yogyakarta, it could be a reference to improve students’ participation through the implementation of the jigsaw technique in the class.

  2. The Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The researcher expected that this research would be useful for the students of the seventh grade of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta to improve their participation in the learning process of English class. Therefore, the students could achieve the goal of the lesson.

  3. Other Researchers

  It was expected to give information to other researchers who want to conduct further research about similar topic.

F. Definition of Key Terms

  To make clear the definition of some terms, the researcher clarifies the following:

1. Students’ Participation

  According to Vandrick (2000) students’ participation is defined as speaking in class, asking and answering questions, making comments and participating in discussion (as cited in Klose and Sariefe, 2008, p. 2). Furthermore, Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007: 1) proposes that student participation can be defined in terms of three kinds of interaction: student to teacher, student to student, and student to material.

  In this research, students’ participation was the contribution of the students to participate in the group work and classroom. It was divided in six criteria.

  They were (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking ques tions related to the text to friends (3) sharing the content of the text to friends (4) retelling the content of the text to friends (5) answering questions in the worksheet (6) asking questions related to the material to the teacher. Then, the researcher analyzed those six criteria of students’ participation by using the three kinds of interaction in the classroom.

2. Jigsaw

  Aronson (2002) explains jigsaw: The jigsaw structure encourages listening, engagement, and empathy by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in academic activity. Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal; each person depends on all the others (as cited in Berger and Hanze, 2007, p. 30). In this research, jigsaw technique was implemented in the group work activity. There were three groups sections in the jigsaw activity. They were home group part 1, expert group, and home group part 2. The first group section was called home group part 1. In this section, there were six groups and each group consisted of five members. Each student had different paragraph of a descriptive text. Then, they moved to the second group which was called expert group. In this section, the student gathered with their friends who had the same paragraph to comprehend and understand the paragraph.

  After that, they returned to their home group to retell what they had learnt in the expert group. This section was called home group part 2. In the end of the lesson, the students were assessed by answering questions in the worksheet. Therefore, in this study, the jigsaw technique had a goal to make the students participate in the teamwork and classroom.

3. Class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The seventh grade students are students whose age is around eleven to thirteen. SMP N 8 Yogyakarta is one of favorite schools in Yogyakarta especially for the science. In this study, the researcher conducted the research for the seventh grade students of class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. They were 30 students in the class. This class was different from the other classes. Some students have good abilities in English. However, almost all girls and some boys were passive in English teaching and learning process es. They needed improvement to participate in the class. Therefore, the researcher conducted research in this class.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the researcher describes some theories which are related to

  the research. This chapter is divided into two parts, namely the theoretical description and the theoretical framework. The theoretical description covers the theories which are related to the implementation of the jigsaw technique. It includes theories of English learning and teaching process, theories of adolescent, theories of students‟ participation, theories of cooperative learning method, andtheories of jigsaw. In the theoretical framework, the researcher summarizes all major relevant theories to solve the research questions.

A. Theoretical Description

  In this theoretical description, the researcher discusses the theories related to the research.

1. Englis h Learning and Teaching Process

  In this globalization era, English is important to be learnt. However, learning English as a foreign language is not easy without any practices. Brown (1987) states “how to learn a foreign language without really trying” (p. 1). It means that if learners want to master English, they must do a lot of practice. They must practice listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

  In Indonesia, the students are obligated to learn English by the and the teacher should try to use and deliver the language appropriately. In addition, the students need motivation to learn English, especially for Junior High School students. According to B rown (1987), “Motivation is commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action” (p. 114). It means that motivation is one of factors which influence people to do something. When the students are motivated to learn English, they will participate to follow the English learning process in the classroom.

  Brown (1987) explains that teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, and setting the conditions for learning (p. 7). Furthermore, Brown (1987) defines that teaching as “showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, and causing to know or understand.” (p.4). Brown (1987) also describes that learning is acquiring o r getting knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction (p. 6).

  In teaching English, the teacher can be a facilitator of the students to practice the language.

  Finocchiaro (1958) states “the teacher is the most important single el ement in any teaching situation” (p. 10). There are no good or bad methods; there are only good or bad teachers. It means that teacher‟s skill is important in the teaching process.

  Teaching and learning English also deals with communicative aspect. Savign on (1983) notes “communicative competence is relative, not absolute, and depends on the cooperation of all the participants involved” (p. 9). It means that the cooperativeness of each participant in classroom is needed. Both of a teacher and students should contribute their participation to succeed in the teaching and learning English. In short, participation in the teaching and learning English process gives advantages to the teacher and the students. The teacher can handle the class and makes the students are active to follow the English learning process.

  Therefore, the purpose of learning English can be achieved.

2. Teaching Adolescent

  According to Landis (1952), “The adolescent-youth group is made up of persons twelve to twenty- four years of age; psychologically, of those who are trying to bridge the gap between dependent childhood and self-sufficient adulthood” (p. 21). In this stage, junior high school students are included as adolescent”. Furthermore, Hamachek (1990) elaborates adolescent:

  Adolescent is an intensely social period in the development continuum. A great many adolescent activities are done in groups, and in subgroups or cliques with the groups, and in same-sex or opposite-sex pairs. The participants‟ primary motivation is not necessarily to know others (although that is part of it), but to know themselves through feedback from others (p. 176).

  It means that adolescent period likes to make a group in their social environment. In teaching and learning process, adolescent enjoys working with their friends in the group discussion. Therefore, the teacher can use a group work activity to teach the adolescent.

  Besides, many factors can influence adolescent in following the teaching and learning process. Hawley andHawley (1979 ) state “if students are hungry or thirsty or need to go to the bathroom, these temporary physical distresses will divert their attention and reduce their ability to concentrate and thus affect their potential for learning” (p. 5).Hawley andHawley (1979) add that negative factors may arise “when a student is upset or frustrated by a crisis at home or when a student is angry at or scared by others in the classroom, his/her learning performance will surely be affected” (p. 6).

3. Students’ Participation

  The fundamental factor to succeed in the teaching and learning process is participation.

  In the classroom, the students‟ participation is exceedingly required to make the learning work well. The teacher needs the students‟ participation in order to succeed in the goal of the learning. The students‟ participation means that the students make interactions in the classroom. Schreyer Institute for Teaching

  Excellence (2007: 1) describes that the students‟ participation in the class can be defined in terms of three kinds of interaction:


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