Effect of chemical treatments on the tensile strength and flammability of paper mulberry fiber reinforced PLA composites.

3rd International Conference on Biosciences and Biotechnology
3rd International Conference on Biosciences and Biotechnology
“Maintaining World Prosperity Through Biosciences,
“Maintaining
Biotechnology
World Prosperity
and Revegetation”
Through Biosciences, Biotechnology and Revegetation”

PROCEEDINGS
2nd International Conference on
Sustainable Technology Development
(ICSTD)

“Developing Sustainable Technology
for A Better Future”

Bali, October 31st 2012

UDAYANA UNIVERSITY PRESS
2012


ii | Bali - Indonesia | 21st - 22nd September 2011

Bali - Indonesia | 21st - 22nd September 2011 | iii

3rd International Conference on Biosciences and Biotechnology
“Maintaining World Prosperity Through Biosciences, Biotechnology and Revegetation”

PROCEEDINGS
2nd International Conference on
Sustainable Technology Development

“Developing Sustainable Technology
for A Better Future”
Bali, October 31st , 2012

Editors:

Putu Alit Suthanaya, PhD
I Nyoman Satya Kumara, PhD

Ngakan Putu Gede Suardana, PhD
Yenni Ciawi, PhD
Dewi Jayanti, PhD

3rd International Conference on Biosciences and Biotechnology
“Maintaining World Prosperity Through Biosciences, Biotechnology and Revegetation”

PROCEEDINGS
2nd International Conference on
Sustainable Technology Development

“Developing Sustainable Technology
for A Better Future”
Bali, October 31st , 2012
Scientific Committee:
Prof. I Wayan Redana (Udayana University, Indonesia)
Prof. Sayiqh (President of World Renewable Energy)
Prof. Dai Kue Choi (Chonbuk National University, South Korea)
Prof. Budhima Indraratna (Univiversity of Wollongong, Australia)
Prof. Jae Kyoo Lim (Chonbuk National University, South Korea)

Prof. Hu Ruihua (Huanghe University of Science and Technology, China)
Prof. Montasser Dewidar (South Valley University, Egypt)
Prof. Alexander Cuthbert (University of New South Wales, Australia)
Prof. Tjok Gd. Tirta Nindhia (Udayana University, Indonesia)
Prof. I Made Alit Karyawan S. (Udayana University, Indonesia)
Prof. I.A. Giriantari (Udayana University, Indonesia)
Dr. Vu Cong Hoa (Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam)
Dr. G.A.M. Suartika (Udayana University, Indonesia)
Dr. W.Gede Ariastina (Udayana University, Indonesia)
Dr. D.M. Priyantha W. (Udayana University, Indonesia)
Dr. I.K.G. Dharma Putra (Udayana University, Indonesia)

Published by:
Udayana University Press
Kampus Universitas Udayana Denpasar

ISBN: 978-602-7776-06-7

iv | Bali - Indonesia | 21st - 22nd September 2011


2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology Development
“Developing Sustainable Technology for a Better Future”

PREFACE
This proceedings compiles all papers presented in the 2 n d International Conference on
Sustainable Technology Development (ICSTD) held at the Udayana University, Bali on 31st
October 2012.
Three plenary presentations were delivered by keynote and invited speakers with international
reputations from Japan, G e r m a n y , S i n g a p o r e and Indonesia and a total of 78 papers (oral
presentation) compiled in this proceedings, which were presented in the conference from thirteen
countries (Indonesia, Japan, Australia, In d i a , Korea, Malaysia, Iran, Egypt, Libya, China, T h a i l a n d ,
S r i L a n k a a n d B a n gl a d e s h ).
We thank those who involve in the organizing committee for their hardworking. While it was a huge
task, it was a privilege for us in editing this proceedings and work together with the referees who reviewed
papers.
We hope that the papers contained in this proceeding will prove useful in developing further study.

Editors

Bali - Indonesia | 31st Oct 2012 | i


3rd International Conference on Biosciences and Biotechnology
2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology Development
“Maintaining World Prosperity Through Biosciences, Biotechnology and Revegetation”
“Developing Sustainable Technology for a Better Future”

FOREWORDS-HEAD
OF ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
I would like to sincerely thank to all of the authors who contribute their papers in this
proceedings. I would therefore give my high appreciation on all of those effort and dedication.
The conference was held by Faculty of Engineering, Udayana University, in relation to the 50th
Udayana University Anniversary and in collaboration with International Institute of Management, Energy
and Environmental Management, University of Flensburg, Germany. This conference was aimed to
gather scientists, academics, engineers and industries in engineering related areas to discuss and
share their expertise and ideas in the field of Sustainable Technology Development. The conference
theme “Developing Sustainable Technology for a Better Future” has appealed participants presenting
their studies on four major fields of Architecture, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and
Electrical Engineering. This 2nd ICSTD also focused on development of technology to achieve
sustainable city. The conference was financially supported by Engineering Faculty of Udayana University
and several sponsors.

I hope this International Conference has created an international networking and collaboration
and open up new ideas in maintaining world prosperity in all aspects in sustainable development.
I will use this opportunity to invite you again to join us in The 3rd International Conference on
which will be held in the year 2014 in conjunction with the anniversary of Udayana University.
Last but not least, I would like to highly appreciate all of the members of the Organizing
Committee for the good teamwork to make the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology
Development (ICSTD-Bali 2012) possible and the team of editors for the hard work compiling and
editing 78 papers presented in this book.

See you again in Bali at 3rd ICSTD 2014
Putu Alit Suthanaya, ST, MEngSc, PhD

vi | Bali - Indonesia | 21st - 22nd September 2011
Bali - Indonesia | 31st Oct 2012 | ii

2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology Development
3rd International Conference on Biosciences and Biotechnology
“Developing
Sustainable Technology for a Better Future”
“Maintaining World Prosperity Through Biosciences, Biotechnology and

Revegetation”

FOREWORDS
RECTOR OF UDAYANA UNIVERSITY
I would like to express my great appreciation to the organizing committee who worked so hard
to make the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology Development (ICSTD-Bali
2012) to happen smoothly. This conference was held in conjunction to the 5 0 t h Anniversary of
Udayana University and being our bi -annual agenda. The main aim of this conference was to
respond the problems related to the sustainability in a city, i.e. reduction of the city’s use of natural
resources and production of wastes, while simultaneously improving its livability.
I was so happy to have you all in Bali which is well known in the world as a favorite tourist destination
as well as recently a favorite site for holding International events, such as International Conference. As this
conference was designed to gather scientists, engineers, practitioners, and industries in Engineering
related disciplines, I expected intense discussion has happened among them so that some brilliant ideas to
be used to improve the quality of human life in a city have been formulated and published in this
proceeding.
Here, I would also like to acknowledge the National and International invited speakers for their
willingness to come miles away to Bali and present their high standard papers. I understand that you all
spent much time for this conference, and therefore I must give high appreciation on all of those effort and
dedication.

I hope this International Conference was an ideal forum for communication and sharing ideas as
well as experience in Engineering-related disciplines in the future. I also hope that this forum served as a
forum for promoting advanced technological development with regard to economic growth, environment
and social welfare.
Finally, I wished you most successful conference and hope that it provided new ideas and strategies
for the application of Engineering in all aspect of our life.

See you again in Bali in 2014
Prof. Dr. dr. I Made Bakta, SpPD.(KHOM)
Rector of Udayana University

viii | Bali - Indonesia | 21st - 22nd September 2011

Bali - Indonesia | 31st Oct 2012| iii

3rd International Conference on Biosciences and Biotechnology
“Maintaining World Prosperity Through Biosciences, Biotechnology and Revegetation”
2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology Development
“Developing Sustainable Technology for a Better Future”


TABLE OF CONTENT
PREFACE.................................................................................................................................... i
FOREWORDS-HEAD OF ORGANIZING COMMITTEE.................................................. ii
FOREWORDS-RECTOR OF UDAYANA UNIVERSITY ................................................ iii

ARCHITECTURE
A 01
(ID 101)

Implementation Concept of Ecological Architecture and Ecotourism
in Wonorejo’s Mangrove Ecotourism, Surabaya ……………………

A-1

M.Nelza Mulki Iqbal, Yeremia Azarya Dimpudus

A 02
(ID 102)
A 04
(ID 106)


Braga Street: A True Representation of Art Deco …………………..

A-9

Adinya Rossiyana and Team

The role of Government/Governance to sustain Heritage sites
in Denpasar ……….…………………………………………………

A-16

Tri Anggraini Prajnawrdhi, Alpana Sivam, Sadasivam Karuppannan

A 05
(ID 112)

Sustainable Development in the Border Region Plan: An
anticipation of border areas development to small towns ………..….


A-25

I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra

A 08
(ID 124)

Learning from Sustainable Landscapes of Death in Bali: Landscape
Planning and Tri Hita Karana ………………….………………………...

A-32

Ni Made Yudantini

A 11
(ID 132)

The Application of The Modular System in The Linear Rise
Residential Buildings ……………………..………………………...

A-40

E. J. Krishna M. O.

A 12
(ID 133)

A 13
(ID 134)

Identification of Pabrik Coklat Tjenderawasih as a Potential
Conservation Object of Authentic Indonesian Jengki Architecture …
Rizky Darmadi, Adiar Ersti Mardisiwi, Alifia Nurrizky
Virrayani
Sustainable Architectural Design of Heinz Frick Home: Coping with
the Global Challenges in the Asian Cities …….……………………..

A-50

A-57

Lo Leonardo Agung Mulyono, Devi Calista Silvanus, and Gunawan Tanuwidjaja

A 18
(ID 145)

Kinds of Decoration of Toraja’s Housing in South Sulawesi
Indonesia …………………………………………………………….

A-70

Hendri Gunawan, Irdham Hirangga

A 20
(ID 150)

Save the Lost World's Monumental Dwelling: Is It Necessary? ….....

A 21
(ID 151)

Roofs of Building in Indonesia as Architecture Local Identity ……..

A 22
(ID 152)
A 23
(ID 155)

Interiority: The Real Soul of Architecture …….…………………….

A-78

DESTIANA RITANINGSIH, VALENCIA TANDY

A-86

Ade Amelia, Ana Fitriyani, Annisa Dienfitriah, Maryam Ahmad Assegaf, Vania
Dwi Amanda Surya

A-94

Nadita Amaliaa, Shilta Finella, Thaza Theresia Georly, Yohana P. F. Silitonga

Corelation between Gunung Padang and Sundanese Architecture ….
Nadia Absharina Idris, Adinda Putri Maharani, Miftah Tri Nur Fauzi

x | Bali - Indonesia | 21st - 22nd September 2011

A-100

A 24
(ID 156)
A 25
(ID 157)
A 26
(ID 158)

Indonesian Airports: A Symbol of Local Representation …….…….

A-108

Lee Maw Jia , Veronica Ng Foong Peng

Overwhelming Presence of Foreign Architecture in China ……..…..

A-116

Michele Lim Chui Yee Jia, Nor Hayati Hussain

The Application of Traditional Malay Architectural Elements in
Modern Museums of Malaysia ……………………………………...

A-124

Lee Shing Yi, Veronica Ng Foong Peng

A 30
(ID 162)

Concepting The Historical Site ‘Braga’ as The Pleasant Main
Pedestrian of Bandung City …………………………………………

A-133

Dewi Anisa Auriani PRIBADI, Indyrra CHRISYADEWI, Mariyam YASMIN, Sheiren
Felicia JAYA

A 31
(ID 163)

Preserving Agriculture and Fish Breeding in Modern Indonesia …..

A 33
(ID 167)

Dual Faces Architecture of Nias …………………………………….

A 34
(ID 168)

Influence Behavior and Environment Towards Dwelling Form and
Spaces in Eastern Indonesia. Case Study : Fak-fak, Papua …..….….

A-141

Dewi Anisa Auriani PRIBADI, Indyrra CHRISYADEWI, Mariyam YASMIN,
Sheiren Felicia JAYA

A-148

Meridiani Trianandari Winanto Ayu Putri, Angga Kusumah Sukarya, Afina Rahmani, Dadi
Satria Ginandjar

A-156

Andreas D. Handoyo, Gabriella Sabatini Wijaya, Irma Paramitha, Steven Ardianto, Samuel
T. Handoyo

A 35
(ID 169)

The Combination Culture of Architectural Features. Case Study:
Residential House and Buddhist Temple in Kampung Karangturi,
Lasem……………………………………………………………...…

A-168

Lola Charista a, Helen Primalia, Carissa, Augusta Diana E, Valeria Theresia W

A 36
(ID 170)

Application of Green Building Concept in Indonesia …..………….

A-178

Forest JIEPRANG, Yoedhistira ANDRI PUTRA, Edu ISKANDAR, Reo FAROGA, Randy
PISON

A 37
(ID 171)

Acculturation In Kampung Kulitan Semarang….…………………..

A 40
(ID 174)

The Heritage Zoning Determination Criteria of Cimahi’s Town
Square and Its Surroundings …….………………………………….

A-184

CERIA Ginting, FAIZAL Rahman, JIMMY Andreas, JULIUS Richard, OCTAVIA
Maryanche, VIVIN Rosalyn

A-192

Ega KARTIKAWATI, Astrid Austranti YUWONO, Pia Praptidita SURATMAN, Rianto
PRABOWO, Wahyu Edi SUWARNO

A 41
(ID 175)

The Landscape of Kampung Naga Developed by the Village
Culture…………………………………………………………….…

A-200

Abdul Said Ahtara, Diba Aththaariq, Iqbal Adam, Oka Kartika, Steffie Prilianty, Prathito
Andy Wisambodhi, Tera Wednes Oktireva Harsa

A 42
(ID 176)

For the Sake of Past, in Bandung We Trust: The Development of
Braga and ABC Street …….…………………………………………

A-208

Annisa Kusumadewi A, Bellarida Febriyanti, Clara Emmanuela, Erna Rosmawati,
Heny Ira Mustika, Meskhi Malida D, Prysha Novika, Rahajeng Sekar Putri

A 43
(ID 177)

Culture Control in Toraja’s Traditional Architecture Development ..

A 44
(ID 178)

Renarrativization of Bengal Jatra: through the Eye of Architecture…

A 45

A-215

Amanda Erika Isdyati, Arina Resyta Rahma, Aszafaika Ladidinanda, Dewanti Ashariani,
Ivan Winanto, Reina Rivenska Dissa, Sayyida Lathifa Tiara Rossyda Sahara

A-221

ASHRAFI, Farhina , DIPTA, Talha Mahmudb, AHMED, Tahsinc ,
ISLAM, Md. Tauhidul

Topography Restoration of Historic City……………………………

A-229

(ID 180)
A 46
ID190
A 47
(ID 121)
A48
(ID 137)

HAN Dong soo, LEE Sung ho

Persitency of Architecture in Traditional Village of Kuta, West Java

A-238

Lucky Fachrurrozi, Cindy Novita, and Team

Sustainable Innovative Design Practice in India…………………….

A-247

Kishor P.REWATKAR, Priyanka K.REWATKAR,

Local Wisdom in Urban Protected Areas: Case of Collective
Consciousness in Caring for Mangrove Forest in Denpasar
Metropolitan Area, Bali Province, Indonesia………………………...

A-258

Hilwati Hindersah

A 49
(ID 191)

Local Wisdom of Kasepuhan Ciptagelar…………………………….

A 50
(ID 192)

Tropical Architecture: Discover The Characteristic Of Indonesian
Vernacular Architecture……………………………………………..

A-266

Emilia Rahmawati, Fachrurrozi Ramadhan, Raden Muhamad Lutfi

A-275

Dian Eka Pertiwi, Mustofa

A Method for Discovering Regional Resources with Five Senses….

A-283

A 53
(ID 198)

Sri Lankan Vernacular Architecture ………………………………

A-293

A 55
(ID 202)

Traditional Architecture Of Nias : It’s Developing For The New
Buildings In The Present Era……………………………………

A 51
(ID 193)

Manami Fujiwara, Kita Yusuke, Maki Onishi

L.M RATHNAYAKEa, P.P.G.D.S.KULATHUNGAb, K. RATHNAHARANc, H.P
JAYAKODYd

A-301

Benonius Servistan Bidaya, Susanti Muvana Nainggolan

A 56
(ID 201)

Understanding and re-incorporating lessons of vernacular
architecture in contemporary Malaysian dwellings……………..

A-309

Amira Nabila bt Raduwan, Chan Huey Hoong, Mohamad Sadeeq bin Mohamad Said,
Ili Syahirah bt Zainal Abidin, Yap Chee Chaw

A 57
(ID 203)

A Method for Discovering Regional Resources with Five Senses
A Case Study in Kyoto Arashiyama……………………………………
Manami Fujiwara, Kita Yusuke, Maki Onishi

A-320

A 58
(ID 205)

For whom we build and preserve? Human-based cultural approach towards
sustainable architectural design and heritage……………………………
LAM Sai Chin

A-330

A 59
(ID 206)

Blue House: Preservation of vernacular architecture and living habitat……
WONG Sze Kan

A-339

A 60
(ID 208)

Adaptive Re-Use: The Conservation of a Building and Restoration of a
Culture………………………………………………………………
H.E MADDEWITHANAa, T.S HEWAGEb, M.S.N De ZOYSAc

A-347

A 61
(ID 209)

Using Plastered Bamboo for Housing as the Innovative Eco-Contruction in
Asia……………………………………………………………………
Patriot Negria, Alicia Tiffanyb, Decia Widyasintac, Henry Hadathiad, Karina
Wiriadidjajae

A-356

A 62
(ID 210)

Student investigation in urban space; Urbanization, regional identity and
Architecture. …………………………………………………………
Bandara V. Y. J1, Abeykoon A. J. M. P. A2, Gunawardhana A. W. D. J3

A-365

A 63
(ID 211)

STAGE HOUSE AS GORONTALO’S VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE…
Inda Putri Julianty, Wadira Syabilla Utami

A-375

A 64
(ID 212)

Introduction to Lasem Architecture, Java’s Forgotten Little China
(Le Petite Chinois) . …………………………………………………

A-383

Luke Theodorius, Auri Evan, Aglis Dhamar

CIVIL ENGINEERING
C 01
(ID 105)
C 06
(ID 117)

Studies on Transport-Modes in the Region of Southern Bali ………

C-1

I Wayan Suwedaa, Achmad Wicaksonob, Indrasurya B. Mochtarc

Characteristics of Sand Sheet Asphalt Mixture Utilizing Waste
Aggregates …………………………………………………………..

C-10

I Nyoman Arya THANAYA, Putu Preantjaya WINAYA , Putu Anggi
WEDAYANTI

C 10
(ID 127)

The Effect Of Rainfall Characteristic Change For The Result Of
Global Climate Change and The Impact To Flood Phenomenon …...

C-18

I Gusti Bagus Sila Dharma, I Putu Gustave Suryantara Pariartha

C 12
(ID 138)
C 13
(ID 139)

Islamic Bank Participation in Indonesia Infrastructure Provision …..

C-24

Ayomi Dita Rarasati, Eric Too, Bambang Trigunarsyah, Fiona Cheung

Identification of Factors of Road Safety Problems in Indonesia
and Recommended Solutions to Improve Road Safety …...…………

C-33

A. Caroline SUTANDI, Efraim Mtimanta SURBAKTI

C 14
(ID 146)

Concrete Wall Panel From Styrofoam Waste with Wiremesh
Reinforcement ……………………………………………………….

C-40

Andi Prasetiyo Wibowo

C 15
(ID 153)

Numerical Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with
Polymer-Modified Mortars …..……………………………………..

C-48

Luthfi M Mauludin, Fransesca da Porto

C16
ID 181

The addition of Canggahwang and Sunduk to the Saka of Balinese
Traditional Houses Increases the Residents’ Safety Arising from
Earthquake Load……………………………………………………..

C-55

I Nyoman Sutarja

C17
(ID 182)

Geometry Non-Linearity and Performance Base Design Procedure
Relevant to Predict the Seismic Performance of Low-Rise Building
and a Structures in a Developing Country (Indonesia)………………

C-61

G.A. SUSILA a, P. MANDAL b & T. SWAILES

C18
(ID

RESTRUCTURING PUBLIC TRANSPORT NETWORK FOR KRENENG
STATION IN DENPASAR CITY
Putu Alit Suthanayaa, Ratih Pradnyawati

C-70

C19
(ID213)

RECLAMATION
ENVIRONMENT
VISION
AS
ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR PORT FACILITY:
Literature Review Case application

AN
C-78

I Nyoman Budiartha R.M

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
M 01
(ID 104)

Fuzzy-PID Ratio Controller of An
Continuously
Variable
Transmission
Application………………….

Electro-Mechanical
for
Automotive
M-1

B. Supriyo, K.B. Tawi, H. Jamaluddin, H. Nasution, A. Budianto, M.S. Che
Kob and S. Ariyono

M 02
(ID 109)

The variation of blade number and the rotational operation in the
various wind occurrence distributions of the clean and renewable
wind power machine …………………………

M-12

Ridway Balaka, Aditya Rachman, Yuni Aryani Koedoes

M 03
(ID 110)
M 05
(ID 120)

Prospect of Iran Natural Gas Export Projects …...……………

M-21

Performance of Diamond Cutting Tool in the Turning Process of
Stainless Steel, Copper and Aluminium ….…………………

M-31

Hedayat Omidvar

Ida Bagus Puspa Indra, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, I Nyoman Gede Antara

M 06
(ID 123)

Time Study Analysis of Food Services Using Man Machine
Mapping

M-42

I Wayan Sukania, Oktaviangel, Julita

M 07
(ID 125)

Comparison Vickers Hardness of Welding Alumunium-MG 5083
with Welded for Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and Tungsten Inert Gas
(TIG) …..

M-48

I Gusti Ngurah Ardana, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, I Made Widiyarta

M 10
(ID 130)

Performance of Repetitive type of Biogas Desulfurizer Made
from Steel Chips
Waste…….………….…………………………………..

M-63

Tjokorda Gde Tirta NINDHIA, Komang Metty Trisna NEGARA, I Made
SUCIPTA, I Wayan SURATA, I Ketut Adi ATMIKA, Dewa Ngakan Ketut
Putra NEGARA

M 12
(ID 142)

A Green Manufacturing Process For Small Vertical Axis Wind
Turbine blade…………..…………………………………………

M-70

Rui-Hua Hu, Ai-Yun Jiang, Zhi-Guo Ma, Cai-Xia Fan, Jing-ChaoZou

M 13
(ID 143)

Study Physical and Mechanical Properties of Vegetal Material on
composite structures………………………………………………

M-76

Abdalla Abdal-hay, Ngakan Putu Gede Suardana, Jong-Woo Kim, Cheol In
Kim, Jae Kyoo Lim

M 16
(ID 154)

CFD as Aiding Tool to Predict Airflow and Thermal Performance
of Buildings.
Case Study: Airflow Pattern and Thermal
Performance in Classroom, University of Atmajaya
……….…………………………
J. Ade Prasetya S.

M-83

M 17
(ID 179)

Effect of chemical treatments on the tensile strength and
flammability of paper mulberry fiber reinforced PLA composites

M-92

Jian-Guo Cui, NPG. Suardana, Hyun-Chel Kim, Jae-Kyoo Lim

M 18
ID 187

Line Assembling Investigation of Three Wheels Bicycle Using
Time Measurement Method at Pt X………………………………

M-101

I Wayan Sukania, Iwan Susanto

M 19
(ID 188)

Tensile And Impact Strength of Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Epoxy
Composites As Alternative Materials For Above Knee Prosthetic
Socket……………………………………………..

M-109

Agustinus Purna Irawan, I Wayan Sukania

M 20
(ID189)

Experimental Study of Dynamic Vibration on Prototype Auditory
Membrane Made of PVDF…………………………………….

M-116

Harto Tanujaya, Susilodinata, Adianto, Hirofumi Shintaku, and Satoyuki
Kawano

M 21
(ID196)

Simulation On Characteristic Of Fluidization Phenomena Using
Waste Particles…………………………………………………..

M-121

I Nyoman Suprapta Winaya, I Nyoman Gede Sujana, I Made Agus Putrawan

M 22
(ID202)

Quality Improvement of Dried Seaweed by Using Cabinet
Dryer……

M-129

I Wayan Surataa, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhiab, I Ketut Adi Atmikac

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
E 01
(ID122)

The Role of University in Improving the Quality Sustainable
Technological Development (IQSTD)……………………………

E-1

Yuda Bakti Zainal, Een Taryana, Rohani Jahja Widodo

E 02
(ID165)
E 03
(ID166)
E 04
(ID194)

Development of Mobile Application for Theater Booking System

E 05
(ID195)

Special Pattern Development for Feature Extraction In Balinese
Print Character Recognition System Base on Localized Arc Pattern
Method

E-9

Andik Setyono , Md. Jahangir Alam, and Amit Roy

Study and Design of the Video for Mobile Communication …….

Andik Setyono
APPLICATION OF HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER TO REDUCE
LOSSES DUE TO HARMONICS DISTORTION: A CASE STUDY IN A CITY
HOTEL
I M. E. Purwa Antaka, W. G. Ariastina, I N. S. Kumara, and R. S. Hartati

E-16

E-24

E-32

AA. K. Oka Sudana; Ni Kadek Ayu Wirdiani; Gusti Agung Ayu Putri

E06
(ID204)

Mixed Reality in Tele-operation Using Virtual Environment
Second Life
I Nyoman Piarsa, Putu Wiryadi Sastraningrat

E-41

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology Development, 2012

M 17 (ID 179)
Effect of chemical treatments on the flammability and tensile strength of
paper mulberry fiber reinforced PLA composites
Jian-Guo Cuia, NPG. Suardanab, Hyun-Chel Kimc, Jae-Kyoo Limd
Department of Mechanical Design, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea
E-mail : choigungook@gmail.com
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Udayana University, Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali 80361 Indonesia
E-mail : npgsuardana@yahoo.com
c
Korea Institute for Knit Industry, Iksan 560-330, Korea
E-mail : adhckim@hanmail.net
d
Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea
Corresponding author : E-mail : jklim@jbnu.ac.kr
a

Abstract: Nature fibers are a major renewable resource material throughout the world
specifically in this topic. In this research, the renewable resource based thermoplastic,
polylactic acid (PLA), is used to prepare paper mulberry fiber reinforced bio-composites with
potential for structural applications. The main objective of this study is to investigate the
effect of chemical treatments on the tensile strength and fire retardant of the natural fiber/PLA
composites. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as the
chemicals for the surface treatments of fibers. The impact of chemical treatments onto the
characterization of paper mulberry fibers was evaluated using Thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tensile test and flammability test were carried out to
evaluate the tensile strength and flame retardant properties of composite. The result showed
that Tensile strength and elastic modulus of fiber/PLA composites increased after NaOH
treatments, except in the case of DAP treatments. DAP treatment showed good effect on the
flame retardant properties of composites.
Key Words: natural fiber, composite, chemical treatment, fire retardant, PLA Composites
1. Introduction.
In the recent decades, the industries are getting more and more interested in environmentfriendly realizations. The research on natural fiber-based composite materials fits well into
this ecological image [1]. A fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is a composite material consisting
of a polymer matrix reinforced with high-strength fibers, such as glass, aramid and carbon [2].
Natural fibers as an alternative reinforcement in polymer composites have attracted the
attention of many researchers and scientists due to their unique advantages over conventional
glass and carbon fibers [3]. The various advantages of natural fibers over man-made glass and
carbon fibers are low cost, low density, comparable specific tensile properties, non-irritation
to the skin, reduced energy consumption, less health risk, renewability, recyclability and biodegradability [4]. These composites materials are suitably applicable for aerospace, leisure,
construction, sport, packaging and automotive industries.
Generally, these natural fibers include flax, hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, coir, kapok, banana,
henequen and many others. Polymer can be classified into two classes, thermoplastic and
thermosetting. Thermoplastic materials currently dominate, as matrices for fibers. The most
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commonly used thermoplastics for this purpose are polypropylene(PP), polylactic acid(PLA),
polyethylene, and poly vinyl chloride (PVC), while phenolic, epoxy and polyester resins are
the most commonly used thermosetting matrices [3,5].
A certain drawback of natural fibers/polymers composites is the incompatibility between the
hydrophilic natural fibers and the hydrophobic thermoplastic matrices. This leads to
undesirable properties of the composites. It is therefore necessary to modify the fiber surface
by employing chemical modifications to improve the adhesion between fiber and matrix [6].
The objective of this study is to investigate the behavior of the paper mulberry fiber reinforced
PLA composites upon two kinds of chemical treatments and characteristics of tensile
properties and environmental effects with potential for further structural applications.
2. Experimental procedure
Fibers
In this research, Paper mulberry fiber was used for fabricating composites materials and
obtained from Thailand. The paper mulberry is a tree in the family Moraceas, native to eastern
Asia. Other names include Dak, Halibun, Kalivon, Kozo, and Tapacloth tree. The bark is
composed of very strong fibers, and can be used for making high-quality paper such as Korean
traditional paper-Hanji. Also, the tender leaves and twigs can be used to feed deer.

(a) Tree

(b) Pulp

(c) mat

Figure 1. Paper mulberry
As Shown in Figure 1 the fibers were obtained from the bark of paper mulberry tree and kept
as the shape of pulp. Then the fibers were processed to the shape of mat for this research.
The length and width of paper mulberry bast fibers were 8.67 mm (average) and 22.5μm
(average), respectively. The cell wall thickness was 5.2μm (average) and fiber length/fiber
width ratio was 385 [7].
Compositions of paper mulberry bast fibers [8] are lignin less than 1%, holocellulose 90 %
and ash 2.4%. Holocellulose mainly consists of cellulose and hemicelluloses.
Matrix
PLA was obtained from Green chemical Co. Ltd in Korea. This type is Ingeo biopolymer
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2003D, a Nature Works LLC product, is a thermoplastic resin derived from annually
renewable resources and is specifically designed for use in fresh food packaging and food
service ware applications. Ingeo biopolymer 2003D is a transparent general purpose extrusion
grade that is used naturally or as part of a formulated blend. This is a high molecular weight
biopolymer grade that processes easily on conventional extrusion equipment.
Table 1 Typical Material & Application Properties
Physical Properties
Ingeo 2003 D
ASTM Method
Specific Gravity
1.24
D792
Melt index, g/10 min(210oC/2,16kg)
5-7
D1238
Clarity
Transparent
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength (Break)
53 Mpa
D882
Tensile Yield Strength
60 Mpa
D882
Tensile Modulus
3.5 GPa
D882
Tensile Elongation
6.0 %
D882
Notched lzod impact
12.81 J/m
D256
Chemicals
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and diammonium phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) were used in this
research. The aim of using NaOH is to improve the interfacial bonding between fiber and
polymer causes higher tensile strength that compared with untreated fiber/PLA composites. In
addition, diammonium phosphate (DAP) was used for increase the fire retardant properties of
composites that compared with untreated fiber/PLA composites. Both chemicals were made in
Japan.
Fiber Characterization
Chemical treatments
In this work, the paper mulberry fibers were washed with water to remove impurities and dust
from the fiber surface, after that the fibers were processed to make the shape of mat. Then
fibers were put into the oven to dry at 70 oC for 12 h. After drying two kinds of chemical
treatments were carried out.
The dried fiber mats were treated immersing in 5 wt% NaOH solution at room temperature for
1 hour and subsequently washed with water to eliminate residual NaOH on the surface of the
fiber and dried in the oven for 24 h at 70 oC.
The fibers were immersed in DAP solutions with 1 wt% of DAP. The mixture of fiber and
DAP solution was then heated in the oven at 160 oC for 1h. After heating, the fibers were
removed from the DAP solution and directly dried in the oven at 70 oC for 24 h without
washing with water [9]. The cooled samples were kept in plastic bags for further use.
Thermal analysis
In this research, the thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) was used to measure thermal
degradation and mass loss of materials. A SDF Q600 instrument was used for TGA of the
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fibers and composites from room temperature to 600 oC at a heating rate of 10 oC/min under
nitrogen gas flowing at 60 ml/min. About 20 mg of sample was used in each test.
X-ray diffraction (XRD)
A Rigaku X-ray diffractometer with a current of 30 mA and a voltage of 40 KV was
employed. The diffraction intensity was measured from 2θ = 5 to 50o, step size was 0.05o and
the scanning speed was 4 o/min. The crystallinity index (Ic) of the fibers and composites were
calculated according to Mwaikambo and Ansell 2002 [10] by using the following eq. 1.

I

c

(%) 

I

( 002 )

I



I

( 002 )

( am )

x 100

(1)

where, I(002) is the maximum intensity of diffraction of the (0 0 2) lattice peak at a 2θ angle of
around 22°, while I(am) is the intensity of diffraction at an angle 2θ ≈ 17º representing of the
amorphous materials in cellulosic fibers where the intensity is at a minimum.
Fabrication of composites
The fiber-weight fraction of composites was determined as 13.5% during making composites.
The composites were fabricated by using a hot press machine (Caver #3912). The sheets of
PLA and paper mulberry fiber mats were arranged layer by layer and put into the mould.
Before using mould, the mould was sprayed with Blue Coat-R release agent to reduce the
adhesion between the composites and the mould. The mold with compounded materials was
placed into the hot press machine. The specimens were heated at 175 oC and under a pressure
of 1.43 MPa for 5 min, then removed from the hot press machine and pressed under the
loading of 40 kg until the mold cooled at room temperature.
Fire retardant testing
The flame retardant properties of the composites were tested according to the ASTM D 63503 [11]. Specimens were determined by the dimensions of 125 mm x 13 mm, then burning
held horizontally in the horizontal burning test. They were ignited by fuel gas at one end point
of the specimen. The burning time from the first mark (25 mm from the ignition end) until the
second mark (100 mm from the ignition end) was measured to calculate the linear burning rate
(V) of the samples. Weight loss rate was calculated by a differentiation of the weight before
and after the burning process divided burning time.
Tensile testing
Tensile test was performed using the Instron Universal Testing Instrument model 4206 with
7.5 kN-load cell. The specimens were tested at crosshead speed of 5 mm/min and carried out
in accordance with ASTM D3039 [12].
3. Results and Discussion
XRD analysis of untreated and treated paper mulberry fibers

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(NH ) (H PO )
4
2 4

(NH ) (H PO )
4
2 4

Intensity (a.u.)

8000

DAP

4000

NaOH
Untreated

0
0

20

2-theta

40

60

Figure 2. X-ray diffractograms of (a) DAP treated fiber, (b) NaOH treated fiber and (c)
Untreated fiber.
The X-ray diffractograms of untreated, NaOH treated and DAP treated fibers can be seen in
Figure 2. It can be seen that all the highest peaks appeared at 22o≤2θ≤23o in three graphs,
which correspond to the 002 crystallographic planes of cellulose. The other lower main peak
appeared 17o≤2θ≤18o at the minimum intensity, which is an intensity of diffraction of the
amorphous material. However, it can be seen three more peaks in the graph of (a) DAP treated
fiber. These are identified as mono ammonium phosphate (NH 4)(H2PO4). The presence of
these peaks may be due to the fibers not being washed, but directly dried after being removed
from DAP solution [9].
The cellulose crystallinity index of untreated, NaOH treated and DAP treated paper mulberry
fibers were calculated using eq. 1 and showed in Table 2. It can be seen from the Table that the
crystallinity index of fiber increased after chemical treatment. It may indicate that the
amorphous lignin and hemicelluloses removed after alkali treatment. However, the surface of
DAP treated fiber affected by ammonium phosphate obviously so that the crystallinity index
of cellulose may also has been affected.
Table 2 Crystallinity index of untreated and treated fiber

Fibers

Untreated
DAP treated
NaOH treated

Iam (2θ=17.6o)
391.7
390.3
811.3

I002 (2θ=22.7o)
1818.9
2312.9
4950.5

Crystallinity index(%)
78.5
83.1
83.6

It is presented that the reactions of cellulose with various chemicals occur in the amorphous
regions and proceed. The chemicals first react with the ends of chain on the surface of the
crystallinites, as it is difficult to diffuse into the crystalline region, resulting in the opening of
some of the hydrogen-bonded cellulose chains [13].
Thermal properties of untreated and treated fibers
The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG)
plots of untreated, NaOH treated and DAP treated paper mulberry fibers can be seen in Figure
3. In the TGA graphs, it can be observed that different weight loss at treated and untreated
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fiber. The slight curve from start to 120 oC was due to the loss of moisture from the fibers.
The decomposition begins at a certain temperature in 200 oC~400 oC, which state that
hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin degradation at 200 oC~315 oC, 240 oC~400 oC, 160
o
C~190 oC, respectively [14-16]. It can be seen that the plot of DAP treated fiber appeared the
first decomposition curve, but remained highest residue at 500 oC. In addition, the plot of
alkali treated fiber presented similar curve with that the plot of untreated fiber. In Figure 3(b),
it can be seen clearly that the decomposition of DAP treated fiber showed the lower peak in
maximum decomposition temperature compared with other two plots, indicating a very slow
decomposition rate. In addition, the highest decomposition rate appeared in alkali treated
fiber. In this analysis, the interval of slow curve could be attributed to the decomposition of
hemicelulose and lignin. The second interval of steep curve could be due to the possible
decomposition of cellulose and lignin [15].

DAP
NaOH
Untreated

110
100

1.8

90

1.6
o

Deriv. Weight ( %/ C)

80

Weight (%)

DAP
NaOH
Untreated

2.0

70
60
50
40
30

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

20

0.0

10
0

100

200

300

400

Temperature ( C)

500

-0.2

600

o

0

100

200

300

400

Temperature( C)

500

600

o

(a) TGA
(b) DTG
Figure 3. TGA and DTG curves for Untreated fiber, NaOH treated fiber and DAP treated
fiber.
Flame retardant of composites
The results of flammability test for untreated, NaOH treated and DAP treated fiber composites
were shown in Figure 4. The figure showed that DAP treated fiber composites has the lowest
linear burning and weight loss rates compared with the other two kinds of specimens. Alkali
treated fiber composites performed similar linear burning rate with untreated fiber composites,
but clearly lower weight loss rate. This result can be explained according to Figure 5. It can be
observed that untreated and alkali treated fiber composites remained some ash after burning.
In contrast, DAP treated fiber composites remain char from the paper mulberry fiber.

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Figure 4. Linear burning rate and weight loss rate of untreated and treated fiber/PLA
composites.

Figure 5. Pictures of composites samples after burning.
Tensile properties
The tensile strength and elastic modulus of Neat PLA and Untreated fiber/PLA, NaOH treated
fiber/PLA, DAP treated fiber/PLA composites are shown in Figure 6. It can be seen that all the
paper mulberry fiber reinforced PLA composites performed higher tensile strength than neat
PLA. After alkali treatment, the tensile strength of composite increased compared with
untreated fiber/PLA composites. It may be due to the removal of hemicelluloses, lignin and
impurities from the surface of paper mulberry fiber so that made surface of fiber rough, which
leads to the better adhesion bonding between fiber and matrix than untreated fiber composites.
In addition, the improvement of crystallinity index of fiber also increased after alkali
treatment, which can cause better adhesion bonding between fiber and polymer. In contrast,
the tensile strength of DAP treated fiber/PLA composites decreased compared with untreated
fiber composites. It could be thought that the DAP treatment made the surface of fiber weak
so that poor adhesion bonding occurred in the interfacial of fiber and matrix. Also, the elastic
modulus of alkali treated fiber composited showed the highest value. The DAP treated fiber
composite performed lower elastic modulus than untreated fiber composite.

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Figure 6. Tensile strengths and Elastic modulus of neat PLA and untreated and treated
fiber/PLA composites
4. Conclusion
In this study, effect of NaOH and DAP treatments on the flammability and tensile strength of
paper mulberry fiber reinforced PLA composites was studied. It can be concluded that:
 XRD analysis showed both NaOH and DAP treatments have increased the crystallinity
index of fiber. TGA analysis showed that DAP-treated fiber has the lowest first
decomposition temperature but its char residue at 500 oC is the highest, also, the
decomposition rate is the lowest. NaOH treatment showed almost the same tendency
with untreated fiber at TGA and DTG.
 The tensile strength and elastic modulus of fiber/PLA composites increased after
NaOH treatment and decreased after DAP treatment compared to that of untreated
fiber composite.
 After fire retardant test, we can see clearly that DAP treatment decreased the linear
burning rate and weight loss rate of composites significantly, also, NaOH treatment
showed good fire retardant property compared with untreated composites. The
appearance of char on the DAP-treated fiber composites is distinct in the there was no
glowing, and the surface morphologies of the fibers were quite firm and still intact
after the flame was removed.
Acknowledgement
This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science
Technology (MEST) and Korea Institute for National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)
through the Human Resource Training Project for Regional Innovation.
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