Altitude And Shading Conditions Affect Vegetative Growth Of Kaempferia parviflora

ALTITUDE AND SHADING CONDITIONS
AFFECT VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF Kaempferia parviflora

EVI
A24070015

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY AND HORTICULTURE
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE

ABSTRACT

EVI. ALTITUDE AND SHADING CONDITIONS AFFECT VEGETATIVE
GROWTH OF Kaempferia parviflora. (Supervised by NURUL KHUMAIDA
and SINTHO W. ARDIE)
Kaempferia parviflora is a native plant of Thailand which potentially
developed in Indonesia because of its pharmacological values. Thus, in order to
develop appropriate cultivation system of K. parviflora in Indonesia, this research
was conducted to study the effect of different altitudes and shading conditions on
the vegetative growth of K. parviflora.
The experiment was arranged in Split-plot Nested design, where the main
plot was altitude with two factors (1 200 m asl at Pasir Sarongge Experimental
Farm and 240 m asl at Cikabayan Experimental Farm), the subplot was three
levels of shading condition (0% shading, 55% shading, and natural shading), and
replication was nested at subplot.
The results showed that there was no significant different in plant height,
number of leaves, and leaf area of K. parviflora grown at 1 200 m asl and 240 m
asl respectively. However, higher altitude affects the color of K. parviflora leaves.
Plants grown at higher altitude (1 200 m asl) had greener adaxial leaf color and
more reddish abaxial leaf color than plants grown at lower altitude. The vegetative
growth of K. parviflora was more affected by shading conditions. Kaempferia
parviflora had taller plant, higher leaf area, and greener adaxial leaf color under
natural shading than under full sun condition. Plants grown under natural shading
and 55% artificial shading also had higher number of leaves at the early vegetative
growth than those grown under full sun condition. Plants grown under 55%
artificial shading showed similar growth with plants grown under natural shading,
except that plants under natural shading had higher leaf area than plants grown
under 55% artificial shading. The best combination between altitude and shading
was of 240 m asl with natural shading. Based on the early vegetative growth,
Kaempferia parviflora was shade plant that can be grown at 240 to 1 200 m asl
without major difference.

BOGOR AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
2012

ABSTRACT

EVI. ALTITUDE AND SHADING CONDITIONS AFFECT VEGETATIVE
GROWTH OF Kaempferia parviflora. (Supervised by NURUL KHUMAIDA
and SINTHO W. ARDIE)
Kaempferia parviflora is a native plant of Thailand which potentially
developed in Indonesia because of its pharmacological values. Thus, in order to
develop appropriate cultivation system of K. parviflora in Indonesia, this research
was conducted to study the effect of different altitudes and shading conditions on
the vegetative growth of K. parviflora.
The experiment was arranged in Split-plot Nested design, where the main
plot was altitude with two factors (1 200 m asl at Pasir Sarongge Experimental
Farm and 240 m asl at Cikabayan Experimental Farm), the subplot was three
levels of shading condition (0% shading, 55% shading, and natural shading), and
replication was nested at subplot.
The results showed that there was no significant different in plant height,
number of leaves, and leaf area of K. parviflora grown at 1 200 m asl and 240 m
asl respectively. However, higher altitude affects the color of K. parviflora leaves.
Plants grown at higher altitude (1 200 m asl) had greener adaxial leaf color and
more reddish abaxial leaf color than plants grown at lower altitude. The vegetative
growth of K. parviflora was more affected by shading conditions. Kaempferia
parviflora had taller plant, higher leaf area, and greener adaxial leaf color under
natural shading than under full sun condition. Plants grown under natural shading
and 55% artificial shading also had higher number of leaves at the early
vegetative growth than those grown under full sun condition. Plants grown under
55% artificial shading showed similar growth with plants grown under natural
shading, except that plants under natural shading had higher leaf area than plants
grown under 55% artificial shading. The best combination between altitude and
shading was of 240 m asl with natural shading. Based on the early vegetative

growth, Kaempferia parviflora was shade plant that can be grown at 240 to 1 200
m asl without major difference.

ALTITUDE AND SHADING CONDITIONS
AFFECT VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF Kaempferia parviflora

The undergraduate thesis is submitted to the Faculty of Agriculture
as partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science

Evi
A24070015

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY AND HORTICULTURE
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE
BOGOR AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
2012

Title :

ALTITUDE AND SHADING CONDITIONS AFFECT
VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF Kaempferia parviflora

Name : EVI
NIM : A2070015

First Supervisor

Second Supervisor

Dr. Ir. Nurul Khumaida, M.Si
NIP.19650719 199512 2 001

Dr. Sintho Wahyuning Ardie, S.P., M.Si
NIP. 19820706 200501 2 001

Head of Department of Agronomy and Horticulture
Faculty of Agriculture

Dr.Ir. Agus Purwito, MSc. Agr.
NIP. 19611101 198703 1 003

Date of Final Test:

BIOGRAPHY

Author was born at 08 September 1990 in Batam, Kepulauan Riau. Author
was first child with two siblings from Irianti and Song Key Dong. Author spends
her childhood in Jakarta.
Author started her formal education at 1995 in SD Nasional I Bekasi, 2001
in SLTP Nasional I Bekasi, and continued to SMA Nasional I Bekasi at 2004. At
2007, author continued her education in Department of Agronomy and
Horticulture, Bogor Agricultural University.
When author was a student at IPB, author joined some committee at
several events like Department of Agronomy and Horticulture Student Orientation
“SEMAI 45” and Faculty of Agriculture Art and Sports Event “SERI-A” at β009,
10th International Sago Symposium and National Seminar of PERHORTI at 2011.
Author became assistant in several classes which were Vegetable Science,
Experimental Design, and Water and Nutrient Management classes.

PREFACE

Author was so grateful to Allah SWT for His blessing so author can
finished this thesis “Altitude and Shading Conditions Affect Vegetative Growth of
Kaempferia parviflora”. This research had presented at PERHORTI National
Seminar of Horticulture at November 2011. Author was lucky enough to get so
much help, so author would like to express her gratitude to these people:
1. Dr. Ir. Nurul Khumaida, M.Si and Dr. Sintho W. Ardie as supervisor who
gave idea, guidance, and advice in the making process of this
undergraduate thesis
2. Dr.Ir. Sudrajat MS. as examiner who gave advise and support so this
undergraduate thesis can be better
3. Prof. Dr. Ir. Bambang S. Purwoko, M.Sc as academic counselor who has
helped author when she was a student of Department of Agronomy and
Horticulture
4. Dad, Mom, Bora, and Irfan, beloved family who gave a lot of supports,
love, and prayers
5. Mr. Juhana, Pasir Sarongge experimental field manager and Mr. Milin,
Cikabayan experimental field manager, with all staff who helped author
did her research
6. Haveel, Afdhol, Andina, Indin, Ardoyo, Nasuha bestfriends considered as
authors own family who gave so much help and support. Tri Handayani,
SP. and Sumiyati, SP. who gave a lot of advice to author. And all AGH 44
friends for kindness and accpetance to author.

Bogor, January 2011

Author

LIST OF CONTENT

Page
LIST OF CONTENT .................................................................................... vii
LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................... ix
LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................ x
LIST OF APPENDIX .....................................................................................xi
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 1
Background .................................................................................................. 1
Objective ...................................................................................................... 2
Hypothesis .................................................................................................... 2
LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................ 3
Member of Kaempferia Genus ..................................................................... 3
Kaempferia galanga ...........................................................................3
Kaempferia rotunda............................................................................. 3
Kaempferia parviflora Wall ................................................................ 4
Altitude Effect on Plant Growth ................................................................... 5
Shading Effect on Plant Growth ..................................................................6
MATERIAL AND METHOD ........................................................................ 8
Time and Place ............................................................................................ 8
Material ........................................................................................................ 8
Method ......................................................................................................... 8
Experimental Treatment .............................................................................. 9
Observation................................................................................................. 10
RESULT AND DISCUSSION ..................................................................... ..13
General Condition ..................................................................................... 13
Morphology of Kaempferia parviflora....................................................... 15
Growth of Kaempferia parviflora ............................................................. 18
Altitude Affect the Early Vegetative Growth of K. parviflora .................. 18
Shading Condition Affect Vegetative Growth of K.parviflora differently 20
Combination of Altitude of Altitude and Shading Treatment .................... 23
Leaf Anatomy of Kaempferia parviflora at Different Treatment .............. 26
Leaf Size....................................................................................... 26
Stomatal Density .......................................................................... 29

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION .......................................................... 31
Conclusion ............................................................................................... 31
Suggestion ................................................................................................. 31
REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 32
APPENDIX ..................................................................................................... 36

LIST OF TABLES

No

Page

1. Recapitulation of Treatments Analysis of Variance ..................................... 15
2. Effect of Altitude on Plant Height, Number of Leaves, And Leaf Length
of K. parviflora .......................................................................................... ...19
3. Effect of Altitude at Abaxial and Adaxial Leaf Color .................................. 19
4. Effect of Shading Conditions on Plant Height ............................................. 20
5. Effect of Shading at Number of Leaves ....................................................... 21
6. Effect of Shading at Number of Plant per Rhizome Planted…………… .... 22
7. Effect of Shading to Adaxial Leaf Color at 16WAP .................................... 22
8. Combination of Treatments at Number of Shoot Emerged, Leaf Area, and
Adaxial Leaf Color.. ..................................................................................... 23
9. Combination of Treatments at Plant Height.. ............................................... 24
10. Effect of Shading Conditions on Leaf Size… ............................................. 27
11. Leaf Thickness of K. parviflora at Different Shading Condition.. ............. 28
12. Effect of Different Altitude at Stomatal Density (per cm2).. ...................... 29
13. Effect of Different Shading Condition at Stomatal Density.. ..................... 30

LIST OF FIGURES
No.

Page

1. Kaempferia parviflora plant ......................................................................... 5

2. Experimental condition ................................................................................. 9
3. Leaf Measurement Equipment .................................................................... 10
4. Score of Abaxial Leaf Color Composition ................................................. 11
5. Pest Control Method Used during the Experiment ..................................... 14
6. Phenotye of K. parviflora ........................................................................... 16
7. Kaempferia parviflora Flower .................................................................... 17
8. Kaempferia galanga Plant .......................................................................... 17
9. Growth of K. parviflora .............................................................................. 18
10. Different growth of K. parviflora on 12 WAP at 240 m asl ..................... 25
11. Physiological Changes Due to Dehydration .............................................26
12. Thickness of K. parviflora at Different Treatment ................................... 28
13. Stomatal Density of K. parviflora ............................................................. 29

LIST OF APPENDIX
No.

Page

1. Climate Data at Darmaga Area during March-July 2011............................ 37

2. Climate Data at Pasir Sarongge Area during March-July 2011 .................. 39
3. Soil Sample Analysis Result ....................................................................... 41
4. Analysis of Variance Result ........................................................................ 43

INTRODUCTION
Background
The use of medicinal plants as herbal drugs is increasing rapidly. Ginger
is the common name given to members of the Zingiberaceae family, a group of
tropical, rhizomatous, herbaceous perennials which have been gained much
notoriety in the list of medicinal plants. The rhizomes of species from this family
are known to have many pharmacological values.
Kaempferia parviflora is one of the plants in the Zingiberaceae family
originated from Thailand. In its origin, K. parviflora is known as kra-chai-dam,
Thailand ginseng, or black galingale (Putiyanan et al., 2008). Recently, K.
parviflora has been reported to possess anti-mycobacterial, anti-plasmodial
(Yenjai et al., 2004), anti-peptic ulcer (Rujjanawate et al., 2005), and anti-viral
protease effects (Sookkongwaree et al., 2006) as well as modulators of multi-drug
resistance in cancer cells (Patanasethanont et al., 2007).

Because of its

pharmacological benefits and the increasing trend of herbal consumption in
Indonesia, K. parviflora is potentially developed in Indonesia.
Studies on the plant adaptation on the local agro-climate are necessary in
order to domesticate K. parviflora in Indonesia. As the member of Zingiberaceae
family, K. parviflora might share similar cultivation system as other member
grown in Indonesia, i.e. ginger (Zingiber officinale), galingale (Kaempferia
galanga), galangal (Alpinia galanga), and turmeric (Curcuma longa). However,
as a medicinal plant, cultivation system should be designed to produce high yield
in biomass as well as in the level of bioactive compound. Previous studies showed
that the level of fenolic compound in the rhizome of K. parviflora was affected by
light intensity (Chansakaow et al., 2005) and by altitude (Pojanagaroon, 2008).
Chansakaow et al. (2005), showed that K. parviflora grown at 60%
shading produce highest fenolic compound, and at 80% shading produce highest
antioxidant. Pojanagaroon (2008) showed that low temperature increased fenolic
compound and coloring material of K. parviflora.
Therefore, as a preliminary step to determine the best cultivation system of
K. parviflora in Indonesia, the effect of altitude and light intensity (shading

conditions) on the vegetative growth of K. parviflora was studied. Two altitude
was used are 240 m asl and 1 200 m asl. Three shading conditions was used as
treatment was no shading, artificial shading (55% shading), and natural shading.
Natural shading treatment was used to compare K. parviflora growth
under natural shading compare and artificial shading. One of best cultivation
criteria was economically profitable. Natural shading could provide shade with
less cost than artificial shading. It can be provided using intercroping system.

Objectives
The objective of this research was to study the effect of altitude and
different shading conditions on the vegetative growth of K. parviflora to
determine the best cultivation practice of this plant in Indonesia.

Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research was that altitudes and shading conditions
will affect K. parviflora physiologically and resulted in different vegetative
growth.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Member of Kaempferia Genus
Kaempferia galanga
Kaempferia galanga is one of the members of Kaempferia genus that
commonly cultivated in Indonesia. Galingale or kencur is a rhizomatous perennial
plant. The rhizomes of this plant produce an essential oil which can be utilized in
the manufacture of jamu, cosmetic industry, food additive, and bioinsecticide.
Galingale is used as expectorant, tonic, cough medicine, bacterial infection,
flatulent, and disentry medicine (Rostiana and Effendi, 2007).
Galingale requires a warm humid climate. It grows well up to an elevation
of 1500 m. A well distributed annual rainfall of 1 500 – 2 500 mm during the
growing period and less rain fall during land preparation and harvesting are ideal.
Rich loamy soil with good drainage is suitable for the cultivation of the crop.
Laterite soil with heavy application of organic matter is also suited. It cannot
stand water-logging. The plant is propagated by division of rhizomes (Joy et al,
1998). Mother rhizomes are better than finger rhizomes for plant propagation
purpose (Rajagopalan and Gopalakrishnan, 1985).

Kaempferia rotunda
Kaempferia rotunda Linn. or indian crocus, known as temu putri in
Indonesia, is another member of Kaempferia genus that commonly used in
Indonesia. Kaempferia rotunda is an aromatic herb with tuberous root-stalk and
very short stem. The leaves are simple, few, erect, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, 30 cm long, 10 cm wide, variegated green above and tinged with
purple below. Flowers are fragrant, white, tip purple or lilac arranged in crowded
spikes opening successively. The plant produces a subglobose tuberous rhizome
from which many roots bearing small oblong or rounded tubers arise (Warrier et
al, 1995).
The rhizomes of Indian crocus or temu putri are widely used as a local
herb to cure tumours, swellings, and wounds. They are also given in gastric

complaints, improves complexion, and cures burning sensation, and insomnia
(Sivarajan and Balachandran, 1994).

Kaempferia parviflora Wall.
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. is indigenous to north-eastern Thailand.
Kaempferia parviflora belong to Kingdom plantae, phylum Anthophyta, class
Monocotyledones, ordo Zingiberales, family Zingiberaceae, genus Kaempferia,
and species K. parviflora. Kaempferia parviflora is rhizomatous herb. Rhizome is
a horizontal underground stems that often serve as a storage organ and a means to
asexual reproduction (Graham et al., 2006).
This plant is best grown at highland about 500-700 m above sea level.
Kaempferia parviflora grow very well in a good aerated soil under mild sunlight.
Old rhizomes aged 11-12 months; germ free should be kept in dry and cool place
for 1-3 months before growing. Fertilizer formula 15-15-15 (N-P2O-K2O) about
125-150 kg/ha is recommended. Harvesting time for the best crop is at 8-9 months
after planting (ICS UNINDO, 2009).
Kaempferia parviflora or Krachai Dam in Thailand, is an indigenous plant
of Thailand which very popular for health promotion in the country. Rhizomes of
K. parviflora have been used as traditional medicine for various medicinal
purposes including ease body pains and gastrointestinal disorders among local
people in the Northeast of Thailand. Many bioactive compounds have been
discovered from this plant rhizome extract. For example, methoxyflavones
isolated from this plant had anti-gastric ulcer activity by experimental models in
rat (Rujjanawate et al., 2005). In addition, the ethanol extract and their flavones
constituents from K. parviflora tincture (called Ya-dong in Thailand) have been
shown to inhibit the P-glycoprotein function in a transfected epithelial cell line
which

may

be

mainly

attributed

to

3,5,7,3′4′-pentamethoxyflavone

(Patanasethanont et al., 2007). Recently, Krachai Dam rhizome extracts also have
excellent antioxidant potential, as evidenced by their ability to scavenge free
radicals. Yenjai et al. (2004) have reported that this plant contained high amount
of flavonoids. These substances have been reported to be functioned as a

neuroprotector against various brain pathological conditions and served as a
valuable resource for treating neuropsychological diseases (Suk, 2005).

a

b

Figure 1. Kaempferia parviflora plant a) whole plant appearance
above the ground and b) Rhizome
Altitude Effect on Plant Growth
There are environmental changes with altitude, such as atmospheric
pressure, temperature, and clear-sky turbidity. These changes cause plant species
diversity. At increasing altitudes, plants are exposed to decreasing average
temperatures and increasing light intensities, so they must have developed
mechanisms, by which to prevent damage caused by chilling, by freezing or by
photodestruction (Ren et al., 1999). Every plant species has it own minimum,
optimum, and maximum temperature. Plant will not grow well below its
minimum temperature or above its maximum temperature (Salisbury and Ross,
1995).
Plant can adapt to low temperature through morphological and
physiological mechanism. Physiological adaptation can occur as alteration in
photosynthesis, respiration, solute transport, or reproduction. At low temperature
plant shows declination of photosynthesis rate as the effect of decreasing
metabolic reaction. Low temperature can also reducing respiration rate because of
stomata closure (Oquist and Martin, 1986). In the other hand, Scott (2008) stated
that plant can adapt at high temperature by lowering its leaves temperature by
transpiration. If water is not available, then cooling process is reduced so plants
are more vulnerable to high temperature damage.
Plant stress induces defense system. This defense system can be alteration
of physical structure or chemical defense. Three major plant chemical defense

systems are terpene, fenolic compound, and nitrogen organic compound (Scott,
2008). Pojanagaroon (2008) showed that low temperature increased fenolic
compound and coloring material of K. parviflora.

Shading Effect on Plant Growth
Light plays important roles on physiological process on plants, such as
photosynthesis, respiration,

growth,

stomata

closure, phototropism, and

germination (Salisbury and Ross, 1995; Taiz and Zeiger, 2002). Light component
that affect plant are light quality, quantity, and photoperiod (Runkle, 2008).
The duration of light in a 24-hour period is known as the daylength or
photoperiod. Light quantity refers to the intensity of light that can be measured
instantaneously or as a daily light sum. Plant growth is primarily influenced by the
average amount of light received each day. In other words, plant growth is
influenced by the number of hours of light and the intensity of light during the
day. Light quality refers to the spectral distribution of light, or the relative number
of photons of blue, green, red, far-red and other portions of the light spectrum that
is emitted from a light source. Some of these portions are visible, whereas others
are not. The energy of each photon is dependent on its wavelength. Photons with a
short wavelength, such as that of ultra-violet (UV), have more energy than
photons with a longer wavelength, such as red light (Runkle, 2008).
Morphogenetic processes, architecture and space sequestration in the
canopy due to intra- and inter-specific competition are controlled by the state of
the phytochrome photoequilibrium that can be derived from the red / far red - ratio
(R/FR; photon fluence rate between 655 and 665 nm divided by photon fluence
rate between 725 and 735 nm) as well as by other photoreceptors with absorption
maxima in the UV-A and blue region (Smith, 2000; Ammer, 2003). After light
has passed through the canopy of a tree there is a reduction in the amount of
energy useable in photosynthesis. There is also an alteration of light quality.
Typically, 90% of the energy contained in the wavelength between 400 and 700
nm is absorbed by a leaf. The remaining of 10% of the light is transmitted through
the leaf and becomes enriched with far-red light (Bartlett and Remphrey, 1998).

Plant ability to adapt at changing environment is determined by genetic
factor. Shade plants have lower photosynthesis rate, lower light compensation
point, and lower point of saturated photosynthesis than sun plants. Lower light
saturation point on shade plant happen because of low respiration rate, so with
only a little nett photosynthesis produced allowed nett CO2 exchange rate become
zero. Lower respiration rate is a basic adaptation, allowing shade plant survive at
low light environment (Salisbury and Ross, 1995).
Shade plant can adjust its leaves to light intensity so at low light condition
chloroplast gather near to epidermis thus leaf color is greener (Taiz and Zeiger,
2002). Sukaesih (2002) suggest that plant height is increase as shading increase,
on the contrary nodes, branches, and trunk diameter is decrease at soybean
(Glycine max). Stem elongation occurs to maximize sun radiation accepted to
maintain photosynthesis rate.
Excess of light intensity can decrease yield. This happen because of three
things, which are; first, chlorophyll is decreased causing yellowish green leaf thus
light absorption rate is low. Second, leaf temperature is increased cause of excess
light intensity so transpiration rate is increased and not balanced with water
absorption, stomata are closed and photosynthesis decreased. Third, light intensity
affect leaf temperature and affect particular enzyme which is deactivated enzyme
that alter sugar to starch, so sugar concentration is high and lowering
photosynthesis rate (Harjadi,1989).
Most Zingiberaceae is shade loving plant. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has
higher yields under 25 % shades and the quality of ginger rhizomes improved
when grown under shade (Nybe and Raj, 2004). Indian crocus (Kaempferia
rotunda) grows wild in shaded areas which are wet or humid. While cardamom
(Elettaria cardamommum) requires moderate shade in cultivation (Joy et
al.,1998).
Shading affect the fenolic compound and antioxidant in K. parviflora.
Chansakaow et al. (2005), showed that K. parviflora grown at 60% shading
produce highest fenolic compound, and at 80% shading produce highest
antioxidant.

MATERIAL AND METHOD
Time and Place
This research was conducted from January to August 2011 at Pasir
Sarongge Experimental Field, Cipanas (altitude 1 200 m above sea levels) and
Cikabayan Experimental Field, Darmaga (altitude 240 m above sea levels).
Examination of stomata and leaf thickness was held at Microtechnique Laboratory
of Department Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor Agricultural University.

Material
Material used in this research were K. parviflora rhizomes which was
provided by PT Ogawa Indonesia, fertilizer containing nitrogen (N), phosphate
(P), and potash (K), manure, Carbofuran, Dithane, Agrept, artificial shading, and
pesticide. Equipment used were bamboo, ruler, weigh scale, camera, SPAD (Soil
Plant Analysis Development), portable leaf area meter LI-3000C, and common
farming tools.

Method
The experiment was arranged in Split-plot Nested design, with altitudes
(1 200 m asl and 240 m asl) as the main plot and shading conditions (0% shading,
55% artificial shading, and natural shading) as the sub-plot and three replications
were nested in the subplot. Every replication is a raised bed 60 x 200 cm sized
containing 39 plants. From each replication, ten examples plant are examined.
Natural shading used for this research was orange tree (Citrus sp.) at Cikabayan
and avocado tree (Perse americana) at Pasir Sarongge.
Mathematical model from design used was:
Yijk = μ + αi + i/k + i + (α )ij + εijk
With: Yijk = examination of i altitude, j shading, and k replication
μ
= average
αi
= k altitude treatment
= replication nested in altitude
i/k
= j shading treatment
i
(α )ij = interaction between altitude and shading treatment
εijk = treatment error

Data was test for normality then tested with F-test. Bartlett test was
conducted to ensure the homogeneity between each condition. All data, except for
abaxial leaf color variable, was tested with Duncan Multiple Range Test using
SAS 9.1.3 software. Adaxial leaf color tested with Kruskall-Wallis test and
homogenity t-test used PAWStatistic 18 Software.

Experimental Treatment
Plant material used in this research was K. parviflora rhizomes which were
received from PT Ogawa Indonesia. Rhizomes with one shoot (+ 2 mm length)
were cut to approximately 15 g, dipped in 2% (w/v) Dithane and 2% (w/v) Agrept
for ten minutes, and air dried for 24 hours. Rhizomes were then planted at 5 cm
depth and 20 cm x 15 cm plant spacing in a raised bed. The raised bed size was
60 cm x 200 cm x 30 cm (width x length x height), thus there were 39 rhizomes
planted in one raised bed.
Manure (30 ton/ha) and compost (30 ton/ha) was applicated on each bed.
Planting was held two weeks after manure application. To homogenize watering
both in volume and frequency, plastic roof was built on each site using bamboo as
its main structure. For 55% shading treatment, paranet was put below the plastic
and surrounded the structure. For natural shading, the plastic roof put below a
tree. Each structure was 2.5 m x 3 m sized upon three raised bed. The
experimental condition are shown in figure 2.

a

b

c

Figure 2. Experimental condition. a) no shading, b) 55% shading, and c)
natural shading
Fertilizer was applied following standard procedure of common galingale,
that are 30 ton/ha manure, 30 ton/ha compost, 300 kg/ha Urea, 250 kg/ha SP-36,
and 250 kg/ha KCl (Rostiana and Effendi, 2007). Manure and compost were

applied on each bed two weeks before planting. Half dosage of urea and full
dosage of SP-36 and KCl were applied at 5 week after planting (WAP) when root
was established. Half dosage of urea was applied at 16 WAP. Weeding was done
manually every two weeks. Pest control was done manually and physically.

Observation
In order to study the growth of K. parviflora, some parameters have been
observed. Variable measured was:
1. Plant growth.
Plant growth was measured every two week by measuring “plant height”,
number of leaves per rhizome planted, number of plants per rhizome
planted, leaf width, and leaf length. First time flower appeared and
rhizome appeared was also noted. All leaf measurement used first leaf
opened of each plant.
a) “Plant height” was measured from land surface to the tip of the
longest leaf because the true stem of this plant is difficult to
determine.
b) Number of leaves per rhizome planted was measured by counting
all leaves produce by one rhizome.
c) Number of plants per rhizome planted was measured by counting
all plant produced by one rhizome.
d) Leaf width and leaf length was measured on first leaf that fully
expanded
e) Specific leaf area measured using portable leaf area meter LI3000C (LI-COR, USA) (Figure 3a)

a

b

Figure 3. Leaf Measurement Equipment. a) Spesific Leaf Area Meter and
b) SPAD

2. Plant physiology and morphology adaptation
This variable was analyzed by measuring the color of abaxial and adaxial
part of the leaf, and stomatal density.
a)

Leaf green level was measured using SPAD-502 plus (Konica
Minolta, Japan) (Figure 3b). Higher value from SPAD indicates greener
color.

b)

Abaxial leaf color composition between red and green was measured
using scoring. The score is ranged between 1 (100% green) to 6 (100%
red). The scoring and composition used to measured abaxial leaf color
shown in Figure 4.

1

2

4

5

3

6

Figure 4. Score of Abaxial Leaf Color Composition. (1= 100% green; 2=
80% green, 20% red; 3= 60% green, 40% red; 4= 40% green, 60%
red; 5= 20% green, 80% red; 6= 100% red) Picture was generated
using BenQ digital camera.
c. Stomatal density was measured using nail coat. Nail coat was swiped
upon leaf surface, dried, taken from leaf surface, then sticked to object
glass, and examined under microscope. Each stomata count manually.
Stomatal density per cm2 counted with formula:

n stomata
L
x

= number of stomata that counted
= microscope seeing area
= stomatal density per cm2

Microscope seeing area was counted with circle area formula:
πd2
π
d

= 3.14
= 1.1 mm (Olympus Microscope with 400X magnification)

3. Environmental factors
Environmental factors observed were temperature, relative humidity, soil
chemistry and structure. Data for temperature and humidity was collected
from Meteorology and Geophysics Institution (Darmaga, Bogor and Pasir
Sarongge, Cipanas) for four month of experiment, and self-measured using
wet-dry thermometer sampled for several days along experiment. Soil
chemistry and structure analyzed at Soil Research Center (Bogor City).

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

General Condition
This research was conducted in two locations, Pasir Sarongge
Experimental Field (1 200 m asl) and Cikabayan Experimental Field (240 m asl).
The different altitude between two locations resulted in different daily
temperature, relative humidity, and different light exposure. Based on data
collected from Meteorology and Geophysics Institution from March to July 2011,
the average day temperature in Pasir Sarongge was 20oC, with maximum
temperature was 27oC, and minimum temperature was 15oC. Cikabayan
Experimental Field had higher daily temperature than Pasir Sarongge. Average
day temperature in Cikabayan Experimental Field was 26oC, with maximum
temperature was 33oC, and minimum temperature was 19oC. The average relative
humidity in Pasir Sarongge Experimental Field (78%) was lower than in
Cikabayan Experimental Field (83%). Pasir Sarongge Experimental Field was
cloudy, thus the average light exposure per day was relatively low (48%). In
contrast, the average light exposure per day was relatively high in Cikabayan
Experimental Field (80%). Data is shown in Appendix 1 and 2.
Soil condition was varied among treatments. Soil was analyzed by
sampling at each site. Because of site of artificial shading and no shading was
near, the soil sample was composted. Site of natural shading treatment was distant
from other treatment at same altitude and had a different type of soil. Thus, there
were four soil sample analyzed: 1 200 m asl without shading and artificial shading
(SR A), 1 200 m asl with natural shading (SR B), 240 m asl without shading and
artificial shading (CB A), and 240 m asl with natural shading (CB B). Sample of
SR A soil texture was loam, SR B silt loam, CB A clay, and CB B was loam.
Texture was determined according USDA texture triangle (Singer and Munns,
2006). Soil texture, structure, and depth influence the flow and quality of
underground and surface water. Clay was smaller particle than silt loam and loam.
Clay had the ability to retain water more than silt loam and loam did. Retaining
water also affected by soil structure. Soil structure is readily altered by
management, especially at the ground surface. Adding manure and compost

altered soil structure and made soil ability to retain water increased. Acidity of
soil samples showed for all sample pH was about 5. Soils have a cation exchange
capacity (CEC), the total amount of exchangeable cations that can be held by a
given mass of soil. The higher CEC means higher amount of cation can be
exchanged thus can be absorb by plants (Singer and Munns, 2006). The highest
CEC was SR B (24.33 cmolc/kg), followed SR A (13.19 cmolc/kg), then CB A
(10.76 cmolc/kg), and the smallest was CB B (10. 61 cmolc/kg). Full soil analysis
result was shown at Appendix 2.
There was no major effect because of disease examined. Destruction
mostly caused by insect. At Pasir Sarongge, insect that became problem was many
kind of caterpillar. The destruction was varied from light to severe. For
controlling this pest, insecticide was given. At Cikabayan, pest that caused most
destruction was grasshopper. Trap was put to decreasing amount of this pest. Trap
was made from yellow plastic and covered with rat glue (Figure 3).

a

b
Figure 5. Pest Control Method Used during the Experiment. Arrowhead
shows a) Yellow Plastic Trap and b) Trapped Grasshopper
Rhizomes were planted following planting space for K. galanga (20 cm x

15 cm) since there was no detailed information for K parviflora cultivation.
However, as the plant grew it seems that K. parviflora need bigger spaces. In
separate experiment, we planted K. parviflora in 30 cm x 30 cm planting space
which seems to be more sufficient.
Bartlett test showed that condition between treatments was homogen, thus
F-test can be done. Recapitulation of treatments analysis of variance was shown at
Table1. Variables including “plant height”, number of leaves, number of plants

per rhizome planted, leaf width, leaf length, leaf area, adaxial leaf color, leaf
thickness, adaxial stomata density, and abaxial stomata density.
Table 1. Recapitulation of Treatments Analysis of Variance
Variable

Plant age
(WAP)

Altitude

Shading
condition

Interaction

CV

“Plant height”

3

*

**

**

37.38

5

*

**

**

32.67

7

ns

**

**

25.11

9

ns

**

**

19.95

11

ns

*

ns

22.28

Number of leaves

Number of plant
Leaf width

13

ns

ns

*

20.5

5

**

**

**

58.53

7

ns

**

**

23.62

9

ns

ns

ns

31.55

11

ns

ns

ns

39.85

13

ns

ns

ns

33.85

11

ns

ns

ns

18.85

13

ns

ns

ns

18.02

9

ns

ns

ns

16.25

11

ns

*

ns

18.1

13

ns

ns

ns

13.2

9

*

*

ns

14.64

11

ns

**

*

10.58

13

ns

ns

ns

16.17

Leaf area

18

ns

**

**

21.58

Adaxial leaf color

18

*

**

*

15.7

Leaf thickness
Adaxial stomatal
density

19

ns

ns

ns

11.99

12

*

ns

ns

27.56

16

*

*

ns

31.69

12

*

ns

ns

16.35

16

ns

ns

ns

20.93

Leaf length

Abaxial stomatal
density

CV: Coefficient of Variance
*: significant at α=5%

ns: not significant
**: significant at α=1%

Morphology of Kaempferia parviflora
Rhizome of K. parviflora from PT. Ogawa Indonesia was received in two
periods. However, it was found that the phenotype of the plant was different from
the plant germinated from rhizomes that have been received at the beginning;
hereinafter refer to as the first phenotype. Plant germinated from the first
phenotype grew faster than the second phenotype (rhizome that received later).

Only one week after germination, plant from the first phenotype formed several
leaves. In contrast, plants germinated from later phenotype grew slowly by
forming only one leaf after four weeks in the field. Both phenotypes showed
similarities, in the color of rhizome and in the color and shape of flower. The most
significant different between them is their shoot phenotype. The first phenotype
had narrower leaf than the later phenotype which had broader leaf (figure 6a and
6b). The other differences observed were the petiole, stem, and leaf color.
The first phenotype had longer petiole, less green leaf color, and no
purplish color at the abaxial part of the leaves. Furthermore, the first phenotype
had slightly smaller and flat-shaped stem. The first phenotype of K. parviflora
was planted at individual pot at Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga.

a

b

c

d

Figure 6. Phenotype of K. parviflora, a) First Phenotype Plant, b)
Narrower Leaf of First Phenotype, c) Second Phenotype Plant
and d) Broader Leaf of Second Phenotype
The second phenotype of K. parviflora is shown in Figure 6 (c and d). The
plane of disitchy of leaves is parallel to rhizomes. This plant had single blade leaf.
The leaf was broadly elliptic with rounded base, 8-21 cm long, and 5-11 cm wide.
The border of the leaf was wavy and often red. Adaxial part of K. parviflora type
leaf was dark green to green, and abaxial part was gradation of red and green. The
Adaxial part color and the composition between red and green on abaxial part of
leaf was vary depend on environment acclimation.
Inflorescence appears on the terminal of the stem between the leaves.
Graham et al. (2006) stated that inflorescence are cluster of flowers with one main

flower stalk, the peduncle, from which emerge many secondary flowers stalks,
termed pedicels, each with flower as it tip. Kaempferia parviflora have one to four
flowers from one inflorescence. Flower of K. parviflora are white with purple
spot. The flower is irregular or bilaterally symmetrical; the flower can be cut only
along one plane to produce equal halves. Plant, inflorescence, and flower are
shown in Figure 7.

a

b

Figure 7.

Kaempferia parviflora Flower,
Inflorescence and b) Flower

a)

Arrowhead

shows

Cross section of K. parviflora rhizome is orbicular or ellipse and have a
circle line in the center. The flesh color is violet to blackish purple. Rhizome
contains bud that will grow to individual plant. As dormancy broken, a shoot
appear from this bud. The energy needed to form this shoot taken from the
rhizome.
Kaempferia parviflora can be distinguished with the K. galanga or
galingale, the common herbaceous plant from Indonesia, from the absence of
purplish color that K. parviflora has in its leaf and stem, the color of the rhizome,
and also from the flower. Galingale has a bigger flower (about 2.5-3 cm) than K.
parviflora and have ribbon-like petal flower (Figure 8).

a

b

Figure 8. Kaempferia galanga Plant. a) Rhizome and b) Appearance above
the Ground (Rostiana and Effendi (2007))

Growth of Kaempferia parviflora
Kaempferia parviflora was propagated using rhizome. Bud appeared from
this rhizome and elongated. Inside this bud, leaf primordial and inflorescence was
formed. The root appeared near the bottom side of the shoot. The rhizome became
smaller as the shoot grew longer then leaf expanded. After the leaves expanded,
flower bloomed. Some plant has only one leaf while other can have two to three
leaves. Then, new plant grew from another bud on the rhizome or from the base of
the plant. The plant then formed a new rhizome which harvested. The speed of
growth was different depend on the treatment given. The sequence of K.
parviflora growth is shown in Figure 9.

a

b

c

d

e

Figure 9. Growth of K. parviflora from Rhizome to Expanded Leaf, a) Rhizome
Planted, b) Shoot Emerged, c) Folded Leaf, d) One Leaf Opened Other
Leaf Folded, and e) Leaves Opened.
Altitude Affect the Early Vegetative Growth of K. parviflora
The results showed that different altitude affect the early vegetative
growth of K. parviflora. As shown in Table 2, plants grown at Cikabayan
Experimental Field (240 m asl) had higher “plant height” and higher number of
leaves until 5 WAP compared to plants grown at Pasir Sarongge Experimental
Field (1 200 m asl). At 9 WAP, plants grown at Cikabayan Experimental field
also had longer leaf than those grown at Pasir Sarongge Experimental Field.
Altitude only affects the early vegetative growth of K. parviflora. At 7
WAP, “plant height” and number of leaves showed no significant different. At
early stage of K. parviflora growth, this plant used nutrition stored in the rhizome
through respiration process. Respiration process is temperature dependent. For
many species of plants, Q10 reaction usually 2.0 to 2.5 at temperature between 5
and 25oC. If temperature goes higher until 30 or 35oC, respiration rate still
increased, yet slower (Salisbury and Ross, 1995). Higher temperature at low
altitude made respiration rate of K. parviflora higher. Thus, K. parviflora grew

faster at low altitude. At high altitude the growth was slower and after the growth
reached a critical point, altitude showed no different effect on “plant height”,
number of leaves, and leaf length.
Table β. Effect of Altitude on “Plant Height”, Number of Leaves, and Leaf
Length of K. parviflora
Age (WAP)
3
5
7
9
11
13
“Plant height” (cm)
1 200 m
0.83b
4.94b
9.23
11.86
12.8
15.09
240 m
2.28a
9.44a
11.86
12.85
15.93
17.41
F-test
*
*
ns
ns
ns
ns
Number of leaves
1 200 m
#
0.07b
0.43
0.87
1.34
2.04
240 m
#
0.3a
0.68
0.95
1.82
2.48
F-test
*
ns
ns
ns
ns
Leaf length (cm)
1 200 m
#
#
#
13.34b
12.88
13.77
240 m
#
#
#
12.14a
11.97
12.61
F-test
*
ns
ns
Note: numbers followed by the same letter in the same columns are not significantly
different based on DMRT at level α = 5%
* significant at P < 0.05; # not observed; ns not significant
WAP: week after planting
Altitude (asl)

Leaf color was affected by altitude. As shown in Table 3, both adaxial and
abaxial leaf color showed different response at different altitude. Higher value of
abaxial leaf color means higher composition of red color to green. Higher value of
adaxial color means greener color. At 1 200 m asl, abaxial leaf color had more red
composition than 240 m asl. Adaxial leaf color also greener at 1 200 m asl.
Table 3. Effect of Altitude at Abaxial and Adaxial Leaf Color
Altitude (asl)
1 200 m
240 m
F-test

Abaxial leaf colora
12 WAP
14 WAP
13.11a
12.28a
5.89b
6.72b
**
*

Adaxial leaf color
16 WAP
34.95a
32.31b
*

Note: numbers followed by the same letter in the same columns are not significantly
different based on DMRT at level α = 5%
a
Analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test; *significant at 0.01 < P < 0.05; **significant
at P < 0.01.
WAP: week after planting

Abaxial leaf color of K. parviflora has reddish color that appeared mostly
at high altitude. Red coloration occurs commonly in the vegetative organs of
vascular plants. This coloration is due to the accumulation of anthocyanin.
Anthocyanin has function of photoprotection or free radical scavenging (Lee and
Collins, 2001). Leaves commonly synthesize anthocyanins during the nascent
and/or senescing stages of their ontogeny, or upon exposure to environmental
stressor such as drought, strong light, and low temperature. In those situations,
plants probably at their most vulnerable to the effect of oxidative stress.
Anthocyanin have the potential to mitigate photoinhibitory and photooxidative
damage in the leaves by reducing the incidence of high-energy quanta striking the
chloroplasts, and by scavenging free radicals before they cause structural injury to
membranes (Neill and Gould, 2003).
Anthocyanin is one of flavonoid that becomes the reason why K.
parviflora planted. Anthocyanin is well known as antioxidant. The high content of
leaf anthocyanin on K. parviflora at high altitude maybe has a correlation to
anthocyanin in its rhizome, but it needs further analysis after the rhizome
harvested.
Shading Conditions Affect Vegetative Growth of K. parviflora Differently
Shading affects vegetative growth of K. parviflora at “plant height”,
number of leaves per rhizome planted, number of plant per rhizome planted, leaf
size, and leaf color. Plants grown under natural shading condition had taller plants
than those grown under 55% artificial shading and full sun conditions at their
early growth until 7 WAP (Table 4).
Table 4. Effect of Shading Conditions on “Plant Height” of Kaempferia
parviflora
Plant age (WAP)
7
9
11
-----cm----0%
0.52 c
3.02 c
5.52 c
7.46 b
11.22 b
55%
1.57 b
6.62 b
11.25 b
13.79 a
15.10 ab
Natural
2.59 a
11.93 a
14.87 a
15.82 a
16.76 a
Note: numbers followed by the same letter in the same columns are not
different based on DMRT at level α = 5%.
Shading

3

5

13
14.59 b
16.21 ab
18.94 a
significantly

The increased stem elongation is thought to allow the plants to place their
leaves above their neighbors, increasing light interception. Light that has passed
through a canopy of leaves has a reduced red to farred ratio (R : FR). Via the
phytochrome family of photoreceptors, plants are able to detect this change in
light quality and respond morphologically (Maliakal et al, 1999). Bron et al.
(1999) implies that the increased of leaf area observed at leaf grown under low
R:FR had no consequence on shoot biomass accumulation. In contrast to light
quality, low irradiance reduced the leaf mass per unit area and improved petiole
elongation. Simulated canopy shading (high levels of far-red light) induced these
plants to allocate more of their resources to growing taller. This correlation did
not hold for “shade plants,” which normally grow in a shaded environment. Shade
plants showed little or no reduction in their stem extension rate as they were
exposed to higher R/FR values (Taiz and Zeiger, 2002).
Shading conditions showed different effects on number of leaves only at
the early stage of growth until 7 WAP (Table 5). After 8 WAP, plants grown
under natural shading, 55% artificial shading, and full sun conditions had similar
number of leaves. As shown in Table 5, until 7 WAP plants grown under natural
shading condition had the highest number of leaves, followed by those grown
under 55% artificial shading, and under full sun condition.
Table 5. Effect of Shading at Number of Kaempferia parviflora

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