A Study on Old and Modern English Used in the Play of drama Oedipus Rex Sophocles

A STUDY ON OLD AND MODERN ENGLISH USED IN THE PLAY OF DRAMA OEDIPUS REX SOPHOCLES
A PAPER BY SOFIAN LASMARISI SIHOMBING REG.NO. 112202064
DIPLOMA-III ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA MEDAN 2014
1
Universitas Sumatera Utara

It has been proved by Supervisor,
Drs. Chairul Husni, M.Ed.TESOL. NIP.195708031984041 004 Submitted to Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of North Sumatera In partial fulfiment of the requirements for DIPLOMA (D-III) in English
Approved by Head of Diploma III English Study Program
Dr.Matius C.A.Sembiring.M.A. NIP. 195211261981121 001
Approved by the Diploma III English Study Program Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of Sumatera Utara as paper for the Diploma (D-III) Examination
2
Universitas Sumatera Utara

Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfiment of the requirements for the D-III Examination of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of North Sumatera.
The examination is held on June 2014 Faculty Of Cultural Studies, University of North Sumatera Dean,
Dr.Syahron Lubis, M.A NIP. 19511013197607 1 001

Board of Examiners 1. Dr. Matius C.A.Sembiring, M.A. (Head of ESP) 2. Drs. Chairul Husni, M.Ed., TESOL (Supervisor) 3. Drs. Umar Mono, Dipl. Tran., M. Hum. (Reader)

Signature .................... .................... …………….

3
Universitas Sumatera Utara

AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
I am, SOFIAN LASMARISI SIHOMBING, declare that I am the sole author of this paper. Except wh ere the reference is ma de in the text of this paper, this paper contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which i have qualified for or awarded another degree. No other person‘s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another degree in any tertiary education.
Signed : ........................... Date : ...................2014
i
Universitas Sumatera Utara

COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name

: SOFIAN LASMARISI SIHOMBING

Title of Paper

: A STUDY ON OLD AND MODERN ENGLISH

USED IN THE PLAY OF OEDIPUS REX BY

SOPHOCLES

Qualification

: D III / Ahli Madya

Study Program

: English

I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the reproduction at the discretion of the Librarian of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of North Sumatera the understanding that users are made aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia.

Signed : ............................... Date : ........................2014

ii
Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRACT
This paper is dealing with Old English and Modern English. Old and Modern English are the aspects of language. When we talk about Old and Modern English, it means that we discuss about the structures of the language. The problem to be answered in this writing is stuctures of Old English still used in Modern English. In this writing of this paper, the author of the paper using the method of library and internet. All data collected, analyzed and interpreted for materials conclusion in the writing of this paper.
iii
Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRAK
Dalam penulisan kertas karya ini, penulis menggunakan metode perpustakaan dan internet. Semua data yang dikumpulkan, dianalisis, dan diinterpretasikan untuk bahan kesimpulan dalam penulisan kertas karya ini.Tulisan ini memuat tentang bahasa inggris Kuno dan bahasa inggris Modern di dalam drama. Bahasa inggris Kuno dan bahasa inggris Modern adalah salah satu bagian dari bahasa. Bila kita membicarakan tentang Bahasa inggris kuno dan bahasa inggris Modern, maka kita tidak terlepas dari tata bahasa tersebut. Yang merupakan masalah dalam tulisan ini adalah apakah penggunaan tata bahasa bahasa inggris Kuno masih digunakan di dalam bahasa inggris Modern.
iv
Universitas Sumatera Utara

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I would like to thank and praise the Almighty God for blessing and giving me health, strength and ease to accomplish this paper as one of the requirements to get Diploma III from English Diploma Study Program, Faculty of Cultural Studies , University of North Sumatera.
Special thanks go to my beloved parents, dad: Hotman Sihombing and mom: Resdi Manik for supporting, loving, caring, praying and believing in me. I‘m proud to be your daughter. I love you.
Thank you to Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A., as The Dean of Faculty of Culture Studies.
Thank you to Dr. Matius C.A Sembiring, MA as The Head of English Diploma Study Program.
Thank you to Drs. Chairul Husni, M.E.d. TESOL as my supervisor, and Drs. Umar Mono, Dipl. Tran., M. Hum. as my reader who gives me corrections and advices to finish this paper.
Thank you Mrs.Fauziah Putri S.H for your helps during me as Student of English Diploma.
Thank you my lovely sister: Lisna Hayani and my lovely brothers: Agus Manto, Rolas Miduk, Pardomuan and Edi Gunawan for all of motivation and advices.
Thanks for all of D-III English 2011 students, specially B-Class. For my amazing friends: Eko Siswanto, Lastriawati Purba, and Lilis Handayani.
v
Universitas Sumatera Utara

Thanks for my lovely friends,Elviana Ambarita, Wilan Sitanggang, and Zulvery Manik. Thanks for all of we‘re doing together, guys. And also thank for my friends, Shyti Hasanah, Rocky Simajuntak, and Riski Siregar for helping me to get the solusions about this paper. Thanks a lot.
Thank for my best friends, Wira Anastasya Purba and Rumada Pane , thank for this sweet friendship. To make me crazy and make me feel that our is happiness.
And finnaly, I do realize that this paper is still far from being perfect. Therefore, I welcome any constructive and suggestions towards this paper.
Medan, June 2014 The Writer,
SOFIAN SIHOMBING Reg. No. 112202064
vi
Universitas Sumatera Utara

TABLE OF CONTENTS
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION ......................................................................... i COPYRIGHT DECLARATION..................................................................... ii ABSTRACT...................................................................................................... iii ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................ iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................. v TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................... vii

1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3

INTRODUCTION Background of Study .............................................................................. 1 The Problem of Study ............................................................................. 3 The Scope of Study................................................................................. 3 The Purpose of Study.............................................................................. 3 The Method of Study .............................................................................. 4 Research Method .................................................................................... 4 Data Collecting Method.......................................................................... 5 Data Analyzing Method.......................................................................... 6

2. 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Old English ............................................................................................. 8 Middle English........................................................................................ 9 Early Middle English .............................................................................. 9 Modern English..................................................................................... 11 How Old and Modern English are Related ........................................... 12 Old English different from Modern English ......................................... 15

3. ANALYSIS OF OLD AND MODERN ENGLISH 3.1 Old English ........................................................................................... 17 3.2 Modern English..................................................................................... 20

4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 25 4.2 Suggestion............................................................................................. 25
REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 26
APPENDICES................................................................................................. 27

vii
Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRACT
This paper is dealing with Old English and Modern English. Old and Modern English are the aspects of language. When we talk about Old and Modern English, it means that we discuss about the structures of the language. The problem to be answered in this writing is stuctures of Old English still used in Modern English. In this writing of this paper, the author of the paper using the method of library and internet. All data collected, analyzed and interpreted for materials conclusion in the writing of this paper.
iii
Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRAK
Dalam penulisan kertas karya ini, penulis menggunakan metode perpustakaan dan internet. Semua data yang dikumpulkan, dianalisis, dan diinterpretasikan untuk bahan kesimpulan dalam penulisan kertas karya ini.Tulisan ini memuat tentang bahasa inggris Kuno dan bahasa inggris Modern di dalam drama. Bahasa inggris Kuno dan bahasa inggris Modern adalah salah satu bagian dari bahasa. Bila kita membicarakan tentang Bahasa inggris kuno dan bahasa inggris Modern, maka kita tidak terlepas dari tata bahasa tersebut. Yang merupakan masalah dalam tulisan ini adalah apakah penggunaan tata bahasa bahasa inggris Kuno masih digunakan di dalam bahasa inggris Modern.
iv
Universitas Sumatera Utara

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study Language is a medium of communication. It is an important thing in
human life, since without language, we cannot make interaction. By using language someone could make statements, explainor report something and keeping social relations among the other person.
Language is used for many purposes. It can information from one mind to another in the world especially English language. Language, human,beings, society, and culture cannot be separated one another. Without the present of language human beings can do nothing. Therefore of course a habit will not appear and so a society. A habit can be seen through the society, and the products of the habit can be said as the culture of the society. So it can be understood clearly the language will be used by a member of society and the habits of the society‘s members are called the culture of the society. The habits or the culture of the a society usually in herit by the generation of the society.
Owen (2006:1) says that language can be defined as a socially shared combinations of those symbols. Language which is governed by the provisions in question as above is a cultural and also grammar, language has a very close relationship with grammar where language is a series of rules to learn grammar rules governing for forming a sentence.
So to analyze the sentences in the drama, Old and Modern English is needed to help us understand what makes sentences and paragraphs clear and
1
Universitas Sumatera Utara

interesting . Old and Modern English can be a part of literature discussions, when we read the sentences used in stories as drama.
Old English is prior the beginnings of English, the inhabitants of Great Britain spoke primarily Celtic languages. During the later part of the 5th century, three tribes invade England from Western Germany and Denmark. These tribes spoke a similar languge that, over says, develop into Old English.
Modern English began in the 15th century, the transition from Middle Eglish to Modern English began. Much of the transition was due to the expansion of the British Empire throughout the world and to the development of printing. The printing press and increase in publishing of books drove the standardization of the language. spelling grammar was formalized due to the publication of various literary works and pamphlets.
The drama which will be discussed in this paper was written by Sophocles (born c. 496 B.C.E. in Colonus near Athens, Greece.., died after 413) was one of the three major authors of Greek tragedy. Of his 123 plays, only seven survive in full. We are fortunate that one of these is Oedipus Rex (in Greek, Oidipous tyrannos), written soon after 430 B.C., which the accient Greeks themselves considered his best work. Oedipus rex is famous for its smooth and suspenseful plotting, its cosmic ironies and the philosophical questions its raises about the limits of man‘s power and ambitions.
The translation by Sir George Young (1837-1930), he called it Oedipus Tyrannus is not only very accurate. But also preserves the feelings of the original Greek to a great extent. The verse forms are reasonable English equivalents; the
2
Universitas Sumatera Utara

diction-lightly archaic in the blank verse dialogues, heightened and more involuted in the stanzaic choruses admirably reflects the hieratic nature of Sophocles‘ drama. He concerned with problems of the Greek text and its interpretation have been omited. Several new, very brief footnotes have been added, identifying some Greek and concepts for readers less familiar with classical mythology and lore.
Finally, the research of this paper focuses on the Old and Modern English in the drama written by Sophocles entitle Oedipus Rex. This is the background as well as the reason why this paper focus on the analyzing the Old and Modern English. 1.2 The Problem of the Study
Referring to the explanation of the background of the analysis above, problems that writer like to analyze of Old and Modern English used in the play of Oedipus Rex Sophocles. The writer wants 1) To find out the words Old English 2) To find equal the words Old English to Modern English 1.3 The Scope of the Study
Based on the problem of study, writer will find out the words used in the play of Oedipus Rex by Sopcholes. 1.4 The Purpose of the Study
The writer has chosen Sophocles drama Oedipus Rex as the subject of her paper, because she wants to analyze the words used in the drama.
3
Universitas Sumatera Utara

1.5.1 Method of the Study 1) Research Method
The method used in this paper is a library research. The writer collects some data to support the analysis, finding the related data to the research then narrowing the collecting data of the library research to the related element which are about the Old and Modern English. Besides that, the writer also uses internet for search some imformation about Old and Modern English. 2) Data collecting Method
In process collecting of the data, the writer obtained the supporting data from several books as the sources of the data, the primary source of the datawhich is being discuss in this paper, is the drama written by sophocles entitle oedipus rex sophocles published by Dover Publication, Inc, New York in 1991.This drama as the primary source of the data that this paper used to obtain Old and Modern English in the drama to analyze. The secondary data is drawn from others books as the references which the books are the most concerned about the Old and Modern English in the play work especially drama. And then, the third data is based on internet with clearly website.
Several steps are applied in the data collecting procedure for this paper. Firstly, the data acquisition from the drama is gathered by reading the drama. The entire drama is read while identifying the Old and Modern English in the drama based on the person reprensented itself, then marked the Old and Modern English. Secondly, the secondary data are gathered from several books that related to the topic of this paper. The related books that concern to the subject matter
4
Universitas Sumatera Utara

being analyzed are used as the source of the idea to support the analysis of this paper and also to give additional information and statement that can be drawn for this paper the important information from these books are marked and underlined so that it can be used to support the analysis of this paper, these books finally also used as the references for this paper. 3) Data Analyzing Method
The data analyzing procedure is applied when all the primary data from the drama is collected and selected, as the data from the drama is in a form of written text, which concern about the words Old and Modern English used in the drama that has been choosen to the most significant data, then the data will be be interpreted and to be brought into this paper as the subject matter of the analysis, that is the Old and Modern English from the drama. Next, the analysis will be stated by explaining the Old and Modern English based on the definition and the classification which reflected in Old and Modern English used in the play of drama Oedipus Rex Sophocles.
5
Universitas Sumatera Utara

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
We often hear people delivering opinions about different languages: French is romantic Italian musical. For the students of language, such impressionistic judgements are not very useful. Rather, to describe a language we need to explain how it goes about doing the work that all languages must do; and it is helpful to compare it with other languages especially members of the language groups it belongs to.
Language may be compared in a number of ways. Every language has its own repertory of sounds,as known by all students who have had so struggle to learn to pronounce a foreign language. Every language also has its own rules for accentuating words and its own patterns of intonation, the rising and falling pitch of our voices as we speak. Every language has its own vocabulary, of course, though when we‘re lucky we find a good bit of overlap between the vocabulary of our native language and that of the language we‘re learning. And every language has its own way of signalling how words function in utterances of expressing who performed an action, what the action was, when it took place, whether it is now finished or still going on, what or who was acted upon, for whose beneft the action was performed and so on.
Based on above description there are three kinds of English language, namely Old English, Middle English and Modern English.
6
Universitas Sumatera Utara

2.1 Old English

Old English is prior the beginnings of English, the inhabitants of Great

Britain spoke primarily Celtic languages. During the later part of the 5th century,

three tribes invaded England from Western Germany and Denmark. These tribes

spoke a similar language that, over says, develop into Old English.

There are three about Old English

1) The Indo-Eorupean languages

The Indo-Eorupean languages do certain things in much the same way. For

example, they share some basic vocabulary. Consider these words for ―father‖ :

Old English :

foe

Latin

: pater

Greek

: pater

Sanskrit : pitr

We can easily see the resemblance among the latin, greek and sanskrit

words. We may begin to understand why the Old English word looks different

from the others when we compare these words for ―foot‖:

Old English :

fot

Latin

: pedem

Greek

: poda

Sanskrit : padam

If we suspect that Latin ―p‖ will always correspond to Old English ―f‖,

we are right, more or less. Torecognize that the Indo-Eorupean languages share a

7
Universitas Sumatera Utara

good bit of vocabulary, through the changes that all languages go through often bring it about that the same word looks quite different in different languages. 2) The Germanic languages
Perhaps the most important development that distinguishes the Germanic languages from others in the Indo-European family is the one that produced the difference, illustrated above, between the ―p‖ of Latin and the ―f‖ of Old English faeder. 3) West Germanic and Low German
The West Germanic languages differ from North and East Germanic in number of features which are not very striking in themselves, but quite numerous. For example, the consonant [z] became [r] in North and West Germanic.
Low German is defined in part by something that did not happen to it. This non-event is the ‗high german consonan shift‘, which alterd the sounds of high german dialects as radically as Grimm‘s Law had altered the sounds of Germanic. Students of Modern German will recognize the effects of the High German consonant shift in such pairs as English eat and German essen, and English sleep and German schlafen. Another important difference between high German and Low German is that the Low languages did not distinguish person in plural verbs.
In grammar, Old English was much more highly inflected than Modern English is. That is,there were more case endings for nouns, more person and number and number endings for verbs, a more complicated pronoun system, various endings for adjectives, and so on. Old English nouns had four casesnominative, genitive, dative, and accusative. Adjectives had five- all these and an
8
Universitas Sumatera Utara

instrumental case besides. Present day English has only two case for nounscommon case and possessive case. Adjectives now have no case system at all. On the other hand, we now use a more rigid word order and more structure words ( prepostions, auxilieries, and the like) to express relationships than Old English did. 2.2 Middle English
The invaders from the northern regions of France brought a form of French with them. The new language became the official languabge of the government, trade and the rulling class. The division of the classes began to include linguistics, with the upper or noble classes speaking French, while the lower classes spoke Middle English. This contiuned until the 14th century when English once more became the common language. Middle English changed considerably over the centuries to include a number of French words in the vocabulary. 2.2.1 Early Middle English
Early Middle English (1100–1300) has a largely Anglo-Saxon vocabulary (with many Norse borrowings in the northern parts of the country), but a greatly simplified inflectional system. The grammatical relations that were expressed in Old English by the dative and locative cases are replaced in Early Middle English with prepositional constructions. This replacement is, however, incomplete: the Old English genitive "-es" survives in the modern Saxon genitive—it is now called the "possessive": e.g., the form "dog's" for the longer "of the dog". But most of the other case endings disappeared in the Early Middle English period,
9
Universitas Sumatera Utara

including most of the roughly one dozen forms of the definite article ("the"). The dual grammatical number (expressing exactly two of a thing) also disappeared from English during the Early Middle English period (apart from personal pronouns), further simplifying the language.
Deeper changes occurred in the grammar. Gradually, the wealthy and the government Anglicised again, although Norman (and subsequently French) remained the dominant language of literature and law until the 14th century, even after the loss of the majority of the continental possessions of the English monarchy. The new English language did not sound the same as the old; for, as well as undergoing changes in vocabulary, the complex system of inflected endings Old English had, was gradually lost or simplified in the dialects of spoken Middle English. This change was gradually reflected in its increasingly diverse written forms as well. The loss of case endings was part of a general trend from inflections to fixed word order that also occurred in other Germanic languages, and therefore cannot be attributed simply to the influence of French-speaking sections of the population: English did, after all, remain the language of the vast majority. It is also argued[7] that Norse immigrants to England had a great impact on the loss of inflectional endings in Middle English. One argument is that, although Norse- and English-speakers were somewhat comprehensible to each other, the Norse-speakers' inability to reproduce the ending sounds of English words influenced Middle English's loss of inflectional endings. Another argument is that the morphological simplifications were caused by Romano-Britons who were bilingual in Old English and either Brittonic (which lacks noun case) or
10
Universitas Sumatera Utara

British Latin (which may have lacked noun case, like most modern Romance languages). 2.3 Modern English
Modern English began in the 15th century, the transition from Middle Eglish to Modern English began. Much of the transition was authority to the expansion of the British Empire throughout the world and to the development of printing. The printing press and increasing in publishing of books drove the standardization of the languge. spelling grammar was formalized due to the publication of various literary works and pamphlets.
Barnet (1967 : 64) say that Modern English was also the period of the English Renaissance when people develoved, on the one hand, a keen interest in the past and, on the other, a more daring and imaginative view of the picture. Modern English has made many features of Modern English perfectly familiar to many people down to present times, even though we do not use these features in present day speech andwriting. It is not always realized, however, that considerable sounds changes have taken place between early Modern English and the english of the present day. Modern English did succeed in establishing certain attiudes which, though they haven‘t had much effect on the development of the language itself, have certainly changed the native speakers feeling about the language.
When we speak English now, we must specify whether we mean American English, British English, and Australian English, Indian English, or what, since the diffrences are considerable. The American cannot go to England
11
Universitas Sumatera Utara

orthe Englishman to America confident that he will always understand and be understood. 2.4 How Old and Modern English are related
Old and Modern English are very related. Modern English are very related to Old English, though in different way, for old and Modern English are really different stages in the development of a single language. The changes that turned Old english into Middle English and Middle English into Modern English took places gradually, over the centuries and there never was a time when people perceived their language as having broken radically with the language spoken a generation before. It is worth mentioning in this connection that the terms Old English, and Modern English are themselves modern, speakers of these languages all would have said, if asked that the language they spoke was English.
There is no point, on the other hand in playing down the differences between Old and Modern English, for they are obvious at a glance. The rules for spelling Old English were different from the rules for spelling Modern English, and that accounts for some of the difference. But there are more substantial changes as well. The three vowels that appeared in the inflectional endings of Old English words were reduced to one in Middle English and then most inflectional endings dissappeared entirely. Most case distinctions were lost, so weremost of the endings added to verbs, even while the verb system became more complex, adding such features as a future tense, a perfect and a pluperfect. While the number of endings was reduced, the order of elements within clauses and
12
Universitas Sumatera Utara

sentences became more fixed, so that, it came to sound archaid and awkward to place and object before the verb, as Old English hadfrequently done.
The vocabulary of Old English was of course Germanic, more closely related to the vocabularyof such languages as Dutch and German than to Frenchor Latin. The viking age, which culminated in the reign of the Danish king Cnut in England, introduced a great many Danish words in to English but these were Germanic words as well.the conquest of England by a French speaking people in the year 1066 eventually brought about immense changes in the vocabulary of english. During the Middle English period, English borrowed some ten thousand words from French, and at the sme time it was friendly to borrowings from latin , dutch and flemish. Now relatively few Modern English words come form Old English; but the words that do survive are some of the most common in the language, including almost all the grammar words‘ (articles, pronouns, prepositions) and a great many words for everyday concepts. For example, the words in this paragraph that come to us from Old English
Some of the Modern English which come Old English : Eald (old), brodor (brother), hus (house), nett (net), riht (right), widuwe (widow), wiftman (woman), half (loaf), apostle (apostol), chalk (cealc), wine (win), monk (munuc), gefaran (act), onettan (active, be), gelyfed (advanced), ongean (again, against), eall (all), mid (amid), hatheart (angry), deor (animal), ahwear (anywhere), gretan (approach), fyrd (army), gelendan (arrive), beon (be), leger (bed), geliefan (believe), deore (beloved), betera (better), begeondan (beyond), lean (blean), blestian (bless), blowan (bloom), blodig (bloody), blawan (blow), bat (boat), ban
13
Universitas Sumatera Utara

(bone), brieg (bridge), beorht (bright), byrnan (burn), ciese (cheese), breost (chest), betynan (close), heretoga (commander), bisgu (concern), belucan (contain), coc (cook), scieppan (create), cyrm (crry), cuckoo (geac), astandan (get up), acennan (give birth), alecgan (give up), abugan (give away), awedan (go mad), abugan (yield), wage (war), anbidian (wait ), abaedan (ward off ), ansund (whole), amyran (wound), awritan (write), ahebban (raise), awestan (ravage), alysan ( release), aferran (remove), areccean (render), ahreddan (rescue), anwealda (ruler), asecgan (say), ahreddan (save), asendan (send), andgit (sense), assettan (set), anfeald (simple), asingan (sing), anlepe (single), ansund (sound), arian (spare), afylan (stain), astandan (stand up), abrecan (storm), asteccan ( stretch out), atteon (ateon), awendan ( translate), asmeagan (understand). 2.5 Old English different from Modern English
First of all, Old English was spoken most recently almost a thousand years ago. Languages just do change, gradually and inevitably, over time, a phenomenon that linguistics has a fairly hard time explaining, and certainly predicting. But there are a couple of factors that affected the English language that tended to hasten linguistic change in English. (In contrast, Icelandic, a language quite similar to Old English in many ways, has undergone very little change, so that Icelandic children read the Viking sagas in school without need for much adaptation or special apparatus such as glossing.)
The first factor that tended to make English change rapidly is the arrival in England, over a period of a couple of hundred years from the 850s onwards, of a fairly large number of people who spoke Old Norse, and the arrival over a period
14
Universitas Sumatera Utara

of another couple of hundred years of a bunch of people who spoke Old French. This wouldn't have made much of a difference if these people had simply assimilated to the English-speaking population, but they didn't, they maintained their own languages and probably even insisted on them. Moreover, the groups who spoke these languages had prestige, whether locally in the "Danelaw" in the case of the Viking settlers who spoke Old Norse, or nationally in the case of the Norman conquerors--which meant that there was some pressure for Englishspeaking people to learn and even to prefer the other languages. Under these conditions, various kinds of linguistic mixture occurred: phonological, lexical, syntactic, and so on. In other words, English took on sounds, words, and ways of constructing sentences from these other languages.
The second important factor producing rapid language change was the fact that for approximately two hundred years after the Norman conquest, English was hardly a written language at all, since almost all writing went on either in the language of the ruling Norman invaders (French) or in the international language of the church, of diplomacy, and of learning (Latin). (In fact, for a further hundred years after that, English was still not a prestigious language, although it was beginning to be a written language again.) Writing normally acts as a kind of brake to language change, since literate people are influenced in their linguistic habits not only by what they hear but by what they read, which is liable to be stuff from some time ago. Without writing, and exposed to influence from other languages with which it was mixing, English changed rapidly. By the time of Chaucer (end of the 14th century) when it was reestablishing itself as a prestige
15
Universitas Sumatera Utara

language in England, English had adopted hundreds of words from French and quite a few from Old Norse, and had undergone important simplifications in its system of inflections.
Whether as a result of language mixture, or for some other reasons (linguists disagree), there was later a lot of sound changes in the English vowel system. During a period perhaps from about 1450 to about 1750 c.e. the change called the Great Vowel Shift occurred. It accounts for the quite startling differences in pronunciation between Modern English "long" vowels and Old English long vowels--most of the consonants stayed pretty much the same, and so did the short vowels.
So to sum up, Modern English is different from Old English because languages just do change over time, because linguistic change was accelerated during a period of contact with other languages and the removal of written language from the equation, and because phonological change, especially the Great Vowel Shift, was added to lexical change (all those loan words) and syntactic/inflectional change.
16
Universitas Sumatera Utara

3. ANALYSIS OF OLD AND MODERN ENGLISH
3.1 Old English There are some Old English which is find in the play of Drama Oedipus Rex.
We can see Old English on bold words in the sentences 1) Thou Do thou old man since ‗tisthy privilege to speak for these, say in what case ye stand if of alarm or statisfication with my readness. (Oedipus:1) And that, without instruction or advice of our imparting; but of heaven it came thou art named, and known, our life‘s establisher. ( Priest :2) 2) Thyself By the Ismenian hearth oracular and the twin shrines of Pallas.** Loe the city Labours-thyself art witness-over deep already, powerless to uprear her head out of the abysses of a surge of blood. (Priest:2) 3) Didst With a fair augury didst thou shape for us our furtune then, like be thy prowess now! (Priest:3) Even as thou didst adjure me, so my king, I will reply. I neither murdered him, nor can point out the murderer. (I senator: 10) 4) Yea Well, I will have it all to light again. Right well did Phoebus, yea and well may you insist on this toward the dead. (oedipus:5) Do you know from whom you are? Yea, you are ignorant that to your own you are an enemy, whether on earth, alive, or under it. ( Tiresias : 15)
17
Universitas Sumatera Utara

5) Hast Thou hast not spoken loyally, nor friendly toward the state that bred thee, cheating her of this response.(Oedipus:12) Wherefore do thou not sparing augury, either through birds, or any other way thou hast of divination-save thyself, and save the city, and me; save the whole mass by this dead corpse infected. (Oedipus: 12) 6) Ay Ay, cast in my teeth matters in which you must allow my geratness! (Oedipus:16) All she may wish for she obtains of me, and make I not a third, equal with you? Ay, there appears your friendships falsity. 7) Nay Nay,‘twereall one to me to throw away a friend, a worthy one, and one‘s own life, which most of all one values.(Creon:22) Now, understand it well; seek this, you seek my death or exile! Nay, by the sun god, first of all Gods in heaven! 8) ‘Twas For even though the matter were not now by heaven enjoined you, ‘twas unnatural for you to suffer it to pass uncleansed. (Oedipus:10) Why ask who ‘twas he spoke of? Nay, never mind- never remember it- ‗twas idly spoken! 9) ‘Tis So was it said; but in our present need ‘tis better to enquire what we must do.(Creon:51)
18
Universitas Sumatera Utara

But I will never go, to meet my parents there! O son, ‘tis plain you know not what you do! (Messenger : 36) 10) Ere My liege, we had a leader, once, over this land, called Laiu- ere you held the helm of state. (Oedipus:30) Tomorrow‘s moon shall not pass over us, Ere O Cithaeron we shall magnify in thee the lap the womb of Oedipus. (Chorus: 39) 11) Thy Next Artemis thy sister, of this nation keeper, high seated in the encircling shrine, filled with her praises, of our market place. (Chorus:7) 12) Thee For Heaven‘s sake, if thou hast knowledge, do not turn away, when all of us implore thee suppliant! (Senator:12) 13) Cans’t And on the earth-thou cans’t not see the city, but knowest no less what pestilence visit it. (Oedipus:11) 14) Thus I think he comes with cheer; he would not, else, thus be approaching us with crown on brow, all berries of the bay. (Priest:4) 15) Dost For Phoebus- if thou dost not know it from the messengers-to us who sent to ask him sent word back that from this sickness no realease should come. (Oedipus:12)
19
Universitas Sumatera Utara

16) Cam’st Fellow, how cam’st thou hither? Dost thou boast so great a fronf of daring, as to come under my roof, the assassin clear of me. (Oedipus:20) 17) Woulds’t God of heaven! What woulds’t thou do unto me! (Oedipus:27) 18) O’er But why should men be fearful, o’er whom fortune is mistress, and foreknowledge of nothing sure? (Jocasta:35) 19) E’er If e’er before, when mischieft rose upon the state, ye quenched the flames of evil, putting them away, come-come today! (Chorus:7) 20) Whoe’er Whoe’er he be, I order that of this land, whose power and throne are mine, not ertertain him, none accost him, none cause him to share in prayers or sacrife offered to heaven, or pour him lustral wave. (Oedipus:9) 3.2 Modern English
Based on Old English which can from in the play of Drama Oedipus Rex, we can see the equal this Old English on bold words. They are 1) You Wedlock, wedlock, you gave me being, you raised up seed again to the same lineage, and exhibited in one incestuous flesh son-brother-sire,bride, wife, and mother. (Oedipus:49)
20
Universitas Sumatera Utara

Ah my poor children, what you come seek is known already-not unknown to me (Oedipus:3) 2) Myself And for myself I pray, if with my knowledge he should become an inmate of my dwelling, that I may suffer all that I invoked on these just now. (Oedipus:10) From others, by the mouth of messengers, I have myself come hither, Oedipus, known far and wide by name. 3) Do Or do you think that children were a sight delectable for me to gaze at, born as they were born? Do you uprouse me; rather deem of me as one that wept often, and often came by many ways through labyrinths of care. 4) Have This be the last time I shall gaze on thee, who am revealed to have been born of those. (Oedipus:42) Do me this favour:; hear me say as much as you have said and then yourself decide.( Creon:20) 5) Yes Yes if the truth has any force at all. (Tiresias:14) Yes father, yes: that is what always scares me. (Oedipus:36) 6) No No, not at all. Why, Loxias declared that I should one day marry my own mother. (Oedipus:36)
21
Universitas Sumatera Utara

I fear your frown for you possess no power to kill me; but I say to you the man you have been seeking, threatening him. 7) It was It was not mine; another gave it me. (Old man:41) He seeing her, with a groan Looses the halter; then when on the ground Lay the poor wretch, dreadful it was to see what followed. (2 Messenger:45) 8) Before Their former pristine happiness indeed was happiness before; butt in this hour shame. (2 Messenger:46) I think he is no other than that peasant whom you were taking pains to find, before but she could say as well as any one Jocasta (1 Senator:38) 9) Ever A blessing ever be on hers and her, who is, in such a perfect sort, his wife! (Messenger:33) 10) So So shall you see me, as of right, with you venging this country and the God together. (Oedipus:6) So great a front of daring, as to come under my roof, the assassin clear of me, and manifest pirate of my royalty? ( Oedipus: 20) 11) Come Wherefore, Lycean Phoebus, unto thee-for thou art very near u-i am come. (Jocasta:33)
22
Universitas Sumatera Utara

When he who plots against me in the dark comes swiftly on, I must be swift in turn. (Oedipus:22) 12) Will That he will cast himself forth of the land, abide no more at home under the curse of his own cursing. (2 Messenger:46) I will pay him the reward, and favour shall be his due beside it. (Oedipus:9) 13) Over My liege, we had a leader, once, over this land, called Laius-ere you held the helm of state.(Creon:4) 14) Whoever But mine I shall dispel this plague-spot; for the man whoever it may be, who murdered him, lightly might hanker to serve me the same. (Oedipus:6) Measure the new by knowledge of the old, but is at mercy of whoever speaks, if he but speak the speak the language of despair. 15) Your How could your robber have dared so far-except there were some pratice with gold from hence?(Oedipus:5) You cannot hurt me, nor any other who beholds the light, your life being all one nigtht. (Oedipus:14) 16) It is Its mother‘s most unnatural bearing-bed. (2 Messenger:45) For just it is not, to hold bad men for good, good men for bad, to no good end. (Creon : 22)
23
Universitas Sumatera Utara

17) Can Pray you, fear nothing; for my mistery no mortal but myself can underbear. ( Oedipus:50) But he lacks force, and guidance; for his sickness is more than man can bear. (2 Messenger:46)
There are some words Old English which is have a meaning in modern English but the meaning not used in the play of Oedipus Rex. 1) If’t I will declare no fother. Storm at this, If’t please you, to the wildest height of anger! (Tiresias:13) In modern English, the meaning of If’t is If it. 2) Where’er Your voice, not his, makes me compassionate, pleading for pity; he, where’er he be, shall have my hatred. In modern English, the meaning of where’er is where ever. 3) ‘twere Good my lords; in good time, I see her come to you from the palace; with her aid ‘twere meet to appease your present difference. (1 Senator:23) In modern English, the meaning of ‘twere is it were. 4) Gav’st For I lament, even as from lips that sing pouring a dirge; yet early it was thou gav’st me to rise and breathe again, and close my wathcing eyes.(Chorus:44) In modern English, the meaning of gav’st is gave or give.
24
Universitas Sumatera Utara

4. Conclusion and Suggestion
4.1. Conclusion In drama Oedipus Rex,Old and Modern English are very clearly different.
Old and Modern English are really different stages in the development of a single language. The changes that turned Old English into Modern English took places gradually, over the centuries and there never was a time when people perceived their language as having broken radically with the language spoken a generation before. But Old English words still widely in Modern English. 4.2. Suggestion
After analyzing of Oedipus Rex Sophocles, I hope the reader can understand about the Old and Modern English and get more knowledge. I also expect that the readers want to read and discuss Sophocles drama. Finally I hope that someday there will be other students want to discuss the different aspects of Oedipus Rex Sophocles.
25
Universitas Sumatera Utara

REFERENCES
Chapman, Raymond.1982. The Language of English Literature. London: Edward Arnold.
Baker, Peter S.1952. Introduction to Old English.Singapore: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dean, Leonard & Wilson, Kenneth.1963. The Play of Language.USA: Oxford University Press,Inc.
Gill, Richard. 1985. Mastering English Literature.London: Mcmillan
Jacobus, Lee A. 1993. The Bedford Introduction to Drama. London: Charles H.Christensen.
Jacobus, Henry E. 1995. Introduction to Reading and Writing.New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Kennedy, X.J. 1991. Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama. London: Harper Collins Publisher.
Kardimin, Akhmad. 2005. Smart English Grammar. Yogjakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Kottler, Barnet & Marthin Light. 1967. The World Of Words. New York: Purdue University.
Roberts, Edgar & Henry E. Jacobs. 1987. Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Rogers, Pat.1990. The Oxford Illustrated History of English Literature. London: Oxford University.
Sembiring, Matius. 2014. Buku Pedoman Program D3 Studi Bahasa Inggris. Medan: University of North Sumatera.
Simon, & Schuster. 1989. English Grammar Princiiples and Facts. New Jersey: Prentice HallInc.
Taylor, Richard. 1989. 1981. Understanding The Elements of Literature.London:Macmillan.
26
Universitas Sumatera Utara

APPENDICES
The Biography of Sophocles
Sophocles was born c. 496 B.C.E. in Colonus near Athens, Greece. He grew up during the most brilliant intellectual period of Athens. Sophocles won awards while in school for music and wrestling, and because of his constant activity he was known as the "Attic Bee." His music teacher was Lamprus, a famous composer. Tradition says that because of his beauty and talent, Sophocles was chosen to lead the male chorus at the celebration of the Greek victory over the Persians at Salamis.
Electra (418–414 B.C.E. ) is Sophocles's only play whose theme is similar to those of the works of Aeschylus ( Libation Bearers ) and Euripides (484– 406 B.C.E. ; Electra ). Again Sophocles concentrates on a character under stress: a worried Electra, anxiously awaiting the return of her avenging brother, Orestes. In Philoctetes (409B.C.E. ) Odysseus is sent with young Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, to the island of Lemnos to bring back Philoctetes with his bow and
27
Universitas Sumatera Utara

arrows to help capture Troy. Neoptolemus has second thoughts and refuses to deceive the old man. Philoctetes clearly shows how man and society can come into conflict and how society can toss aside an individual when it does not need him.
Oedipus at Colonus (401 B.C.E. ), produced after Sophocles's death, is the longest of his dramas. It brings to a conclusion his concern with the Oedipus theme. Exiled by Creon, Oedipus becomes a wandering beggar accompanied by his daughter Antigone.
The Greek playwright Sophocles was responsible for several improvements in the presentation of drama. His tragedies (plays in which characters suffer because of their actions and usually die) rank him among the greatest Greek classical dramatists. Life
Sophocles, the son of Sophilus, was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica, which was to become a setting for one of his plays, and he was probably born there.[2][6] He was born a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC: the exact year is unclear, although 497/6 is the most likely.[2][7] Sophocles was born into a wealthy family (his father was an armour manufacturer) and was highly educated. Sophocles' first artistic triumph was in 468 BC, when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus.[2][8] According to Plutarch, the victory came under unusual circumstances. Instead of following the usual custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present
28
Universitas Sumatera Utara

to decide the victor of the contest. Plutarch further contends that following this loss Aeschylus soon left for Sicily.[9] Although Plutarch says that this was Sophocles' first production, it is now thought that his first production was probably in 470 BC.[6] Triptolemus was probably one of the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival.
In 480 BC Sophocles was chosen to lead the paean (a choral chant to a god), celebrating the Greek victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis.[10] Early in his career, the politician Cimon might have been one of his patrons, although if he was, there was no ill will borne by Pericles, Cimon's rival, when Cimon was ostracized in 461 BC.[2] In 443/2 he served as one of the Hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, helping to manage the finances of the city during the political ascendancy of Pericles.[2] According to the Vita Sophoclis, in 441 BC he was elected one of ten strategoi, high executive officials that commanded the armed forces, as a junior colleague of Pericles, and he served in the Athenian campaign against Samos; he was supposed to have been elected to this position as the result of his production of Antigone In 420 BC, he welcomed and set up an altar for the image of Asclepius at his house, when the deity was introduced to Athens. For this, he was given the posthumous epithet Dexion (receiver) by the Athenians.[12] He was also elected, in 413 BC, one of the commissioners (probouloi) who resp

Dokumen baru

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

104 3204 16

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

37 806 43

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

37 721 23

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

16 467 24

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

25 621 23

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

54 1067 14

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

55 973 50

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

15 587 17

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

24 856 30

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

36 1063 23