AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH MADE BY THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP MUHAMMADIYAH 06 DAU MALANG

AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING
DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH MADE BY THE SECOND
YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP MUHAMMADIYAH
06 DAU MALANG

THESIS

By:
FENTI UTIA DEWI
(06360172)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
FEBRUARY 2011

AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING
DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH MADE BY THE SECOND
YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP MUHAMMADIYAH
06 DAU MALANG
THESIS
This thesis is submitted to meet one of requirements to achieve
Sarjana Degree in English Education

By:
FENTI UTIA DEWI
(06360172)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
FEBRUARY 2011

This thesis writing by Fenti Utia Dewi was approved on January 15, 2011

By:

Advisor I,

Advisor II,

Riza Elfana., S.Pd., M.A

Ahmad Thohir Yoga., M.Pd., M.Ed

i

This thesis was defended in front of the examiners of the Faculty of Teacher
Training and Education of University of Muhammadiyah Malang
and accepted as one of requirements to achieve
Sarjana Degree in English Education
on Januari 27, 2011

Approved by:
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
University of Muhammadiyah Malang
Dean,

Drs. H. Fauzan, M.Pd

Examiners:

Signatures:

1. Dra. Thatit Manon Andini., M.Hum

1. ............................................

2. Drs. Djarum

2. ............................................

3. Riza Elfana., S.pd., M.A

3. ............................................

4. Ahmad Thohir Yoga., M.Pd., M.Ed

4. ............................................

ii

MOTTO AND DEDICATION

Ingatlah, sesungguhnya pertolongan Allah itu dekat.
(Al-Baqarah: 214)

Jangan bimbang menghadapi macam-macam penderitaan,
karena makin dekat cita-cita kita tercapai, makin berat
penderitaan yang kita alami.
(Panglima Besar Jendral Soedirman)

I dedicated this thesis to:
My beloved Father and Mother
My two beloved sisters, Lia and Dian
iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Alhamdulillahi Robbal Alamin, all praise to be Allah SWT, the merciful
and charitable. Because of his guidance, blessing, and affection, I can finish this
thesis.
I would like to express my great appreciation and thanks to Mrs. Riza
Elfana., S.Pd., M.A, my first advisor and Mr. Ahmad Thohir Yoga., M.Pd.,
M.Ed, my second advisor, for their invaluable guidance , suggestions, and advice
during the consultation period, and also their comments and corrections during the
completion of this thesis.
Second, I dedicated my sincere appreciation to all of the lectures of
English department who given supply of knowledge during my study at
University of Muhammadiyah Malang. My sincere gratitude is also expected to
the teacher of SMP Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang, Mr. Alfan who had given me
the opportunity to conduct the research.
Next, my deepest thanks and appreciation should go to my beloved father
and mother, who always pray and support me morally and financially so that I am
able to finish my study, I also thanks, to my two lovely sisters (Dwi Aprilia and
Dian Fitriani) who teach me what the meaning of life actually so that I can be
strong, be patient, be brave, believe, and always positive thinking.
My special thanks to my special one, Sugiyanto, for your help, your time,
and your affection. I am sure that my thesis will not finish on time without your
sincere help.
Last but not least, I would like to give my thankful to my friends, Grindilf
(Gita, Riva, Dina, Iroh, Nita, Lisa), Linda Elisabet, Lely, Rima, 39’ crews (Lilik,
Anik, Sari, Jyum, Dizta, Izzah, Dilla, etc.) and all of my friends that I cannot
mentioned here for their beautiful moment, supports and motivations.
Finally, I hope that thesis will be useful for the readers. May Allah bless
them. Amin.

Malang, Januari 2011

Fenti Utia Dewi

iv

AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING
DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH MADE BY THE SECOND YEAR
STUDENTS OF SMP MUHAMMADIYAH 06 DAU MALANG
ABSTRACK
Some linguistic practitioners said that among four basic skills in English,
writing is the most complicated one. Furthermore, the students will make such
kind of errors not only in vocabulary and spelling but also in grammar. Students’
errors are common and natural since it is impossible for foreign language learners
to avoid erronouse in learning language skills. The researcher analysis the
students’ grammatical errors in writing descriptive paragraph because most of
second year students of SMP Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang still had difficulties
in constructing a good sentence in the paragraph.
This study used descriptive quantitative research because the aim of this
study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of each type of errors in
students’ writing descriptive paragraph. The population of this study was writing
paragraph of second year students of SMP Muhammadiyah Dau and 30 students’
writing paragraph from VIII B Class as the sample of this study. This study used
documents to collect the data. The documents of this study were students’
compositions. The writer took some steps to analyze the data namely identifying
and classifying, and determining the frequency of occurrence the errors.
From the data analysis, the students made 230 errors from 30 students’
composition. The types of errors were 86 errors (37,39%) of omission, 23 errors
(10%) of addition, 89 errors (38,70%) of misformation, and 32 errors (13,91%) of
misordering.
Based on the total percentage of each type of errors, it was concluded that
the dominant errors in descriptive paragraph made by the second year students of
SMP Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang was misformation error. This error was
caused by overgeneralization in which the students made the deviate structure
based on their experience in the first language into the target language, ignorance
of the restriction, and incomplete application of rules.
Key words: errors, writing, descriptive paragraph
Malang, January 2011
The Advisor I,

The Writer,

Riza Elfana., S.Pd., M.A

Fenti Utia Dewi

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL

...................................................................... i

LEGALIZATION
MOTTO

............................................................... ii

.......................................................................... iii

DEDICATION

.................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT

............................................. iv

.................................................................... vi

TABLE OF CONTENT

.................................................. vii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study

............................................. 1

1.2 Statement of the Problems

........................................... 4

1.3 Purpose of the Study

................................................... 4

1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope and Limitation

............................................. 4

.................................................. 5

1.6 Definition of the Key Terms

........................................ 5

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELEAD LITERATURE
2.1 Writing

..................................................................... 7

2.2 Types of Writing
2.2.1 Narrative

....................................................... 7
.......................................................... 8

2.2.2 Procedure

................................................ 8

vii

2.2.3 Report

.................................................... 8

2.2.4 Recount

.................................................. 9

2.2.5 Descriptive
2.3 Grammar
2.4 Error

............................................. 9

.................................................................. 9
......................................................................... 10

2.4.1 Types of Error

................................................. 12

2.4.1.1 Error Type Based on Linguistic
Category

............................................. 12

2.4.1.2 Error Type Based on Surface Strategy
Taxonomy

........................................... 13

2.4.1.3 Error Type Based on Comparative
Taxonomy

........................................... 15

2.4.1.4 Error Type Based on Communicative
Effect Taxonomy ................................. 16
2.5 Sources of Error
2.6 Error Analysis
2.7 Previous Studies

........................................................ 18
........................................................... 19
....................................................... 20

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design

..................................................... 22

3.2 Population and Sample
3.3 Data Collection

............................................. 23

........................................................ 24

viii

3.3.1 Research Instrument

...................................... 24

3.3.2 Procedures of Data Collection
3.4 Data Analysis

....................... 25

........................................................... 25

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Findings

................................................................... 27

4.1.1 Types of Errors

............................................. 27

4.1.1.1

Errors of Omission

.............................. 27

4.1.1.2

Errors of Addition ................................ 28

4.1.1.3

Errors of Misformation ......................... 29

4.1.1.4

Errors of Misordering ........................... 30

4.1.2 Frequency of the Occurrence of Errors
Made by the Students
4.2 Discussion

.................................... 30

............................................................... 32

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Conclusions

............................................................... 34

5.2 Suggestions

................................................................ 35

5.2.1 For English Teachers
5.2.2 For the Students

........................................... 35

................................................... 35

5.2.3 For the Next Researcher
REFERENCES
APPENDIXES
ix

...................................... 36

REFERENCES
Ary, Donald, Jacobs, Lucy Cheser, Razavieh, Asghar. 2002. Introduction to Research
in Education: Fourth Edition. USA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning, Inc.
Azar, Schrampfer Betty. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Second
Edition. USA. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Byrne, Donn. 1984. Teaching Writing Skills: Fifth edition. Essex: Longman Group
Ltd.
Brown, H. D. 1980. Principles of Learning and Teaching. First Edition. Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Brown, H. D. 2000. Principles of Learning and Teaching. Fourth Edition. Addition
Wesley Longman, Inc.
Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy. Second Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi.1997. Pengajar Bahasa Inggris; Teknik, Strategi, dan Hasil
penelitian. Malang: IKIP Malang Press.
Dulay, Heidi, Burt, Marina & Krashen Stephen. 1982. Language Two. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Hall, Eugene J. 1993. Grammar For Use. A realistic Approach to Grammar Study for
Intermediate and Practical Application. Jakarta. Indonesia.
Indriatiningsih. 2002. An analysis of Spelling and Grammatical Errors Made By
Students of English Department at UMM. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang:
University of Muhammadiyah Malang.
Maulidiyah, H. 2008. Grammatical Errors in the First Year Students’ Writing Task of
SMP Negeri 6 Malang. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang: State University of
Malang.
Mufarocha, S. 2009. An Analysis on The Subject-Verb Agreement Errors in Writing
Paragraph Made by Fourth Semester Students of English Departrment at
University of Muhammadiyah Malang. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang:
University of Muhammadiayah Malang.
Martin. J, Lee. 1980. The five Hundred Word. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Crimmon, Mc and James M. 1984. Writing With A purpose. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company
Narsumi. 2000. Grammatical Problems in Writing a short Paragraph Based on The
Pictured Series of The Third Year Students of SLTP Negeri 2 Srengat.
Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang.
Oshima, Alice & Hogue, Ann. 1999. Writing English Academy: Third Edition. New
York: Longman.
Raimes, Ann. 1983. Techniques in Teaching Writing. New York: Oxford University
Press.
Sridhar, S. N. 1980. Contrastive Analysis, Errors Analysis and Interlanguage, in
Croft Kenneth (ed), Reading on English as a Second Language. Cambridge,
Winthrop Publisher, Inc.
Sudijono, Anas. 2008. Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo
Persada.
Veit, Richard. 1986. Discovering English Grammar. USA. Dallas. Geneva, Illionis.
Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Palo Alto. Houghton Mifflin Company.

1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the
problem, the purpose of the study, the significance of the study, scope and
limitation, and the definitions of the key terms. Each section is presented as
follows.

1.1 Background of the Study
As an international language which is used for communicate by people
around the world, English has an important role in many fields. One of those is
education. English is one of the main subjects which is taught in the school. There
are four skills that must be mastered by students through the process of learning.
They are speaking, reading, listening and writing.
Between those four skills, writing is considered as difficult skill in its
acquisition. As stated by Byrne, writing is translating thought into language that
requires some components like grammar, vocabulary, mechanic and rhetoric. The
combination of these components makes the skill of writing a complex one
(1984). Students find it difficult to express and combine their opinion in written in
a good arrangement and good structure, particularly in term of organization and
language use (grammar). Commonly, in term of organization, the students could
not organize their idea well. The language use (grammar) is considered a primary
problem in students‟ writing. As we know that without a good grammar, meanings
and ideas may not deliver properly and misunderstanding might exist. Also, one
of the problems that often appear is the choice of words. There are many students

1

2

who do not know how to use the correct words to make a good sentence, or in
other words they still have a lack of vocabulary.
It is inevitable for students who learn foreign language to make errors in
their learning process. Dulay (1982: 138) defined that “Errors are the flawed side
of learner speech or writing”. All students surely ever make some errors as a part
of their learning process. Errors may appear when students do not acquire the
foreign language rules. As there might be some rules which have not been
acquired yet, the errors may be made by the students. Otherwise, committing of
errors is evidence that the students are acquiring and learning the language.
Furthermore, understanding students‟ errors are useful for students themselves
because they can understand the problem they find such as in some components of
English like vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation and grammar.
One of the English components which is recognized difficult to learn by
students is grammar. Nevertheless, grammar mastery needs to be mastered by
students in terms of delivering English language correctly. According to Veit
(1986: 1), “Your grammar is what enables you to understand the very words you
are now reading as well as to speak and write words and sentences of your own”.
While Hall (1993) has stated that studying a grammar helped one to learn about a
language. Moreover, understanding grammar will help students in constructing
their writing paragraph well and correctly because English and Indonesian
language have different rules. If students are able to write properly, they can
express and deliver meanings and ideas more comprehensively.
There are many reasons why students often make grammatical errors in
their writing. It is supported by Maulidiyah (2008) who studied about grammatical

3

errors in students‟ writing task. She found that the existence of differences
between grammar rules in English and those in Bahasa Indonesia. For example,
English has concept of tense for verb and subject agreement, while grammar in
Indonesia does not have any. Then, in English the formation of regular plural
nouns and irregular ones is different but not in Bahasa Indonesia. Besides, Bahasa
Indonesia does not have gender pronouns and its pronouns are not as various as
English in which pronouns depend on their position in the sentence.
According to Dulay et al (1982: 138) studying students‟ errors serves two
major purposes: (1) providing data from which inferences about the nature of the
language learning process can be made; and (2) indicating, to teachers and
curriculum developers, which part of the target language students have most
difficulty producing correctly and which error types detract most from a learners‟
ability to communicate effectively. For students, realizing their own errors is
significant to their language learning activity. They can learn to make
improvement from their errors.
Based on the reasons explained above, the writer would like to conduct a
research on grammatical errors in writing descriptive paragraph made by the
second year students of SMP Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang in academic year
2010/2011.

4

1.2 Statements of the Problem
1. What types of grammatical errors are found in writing descriptive
paragraph of second year students of SMP Muhammadiyah 06 Dau
Malang?
2. What is the frequency of occurrence of each type of grammatical errors in
writing descriptive paragraph of second year students of SMP
Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang?

1.3 Purpose of the Study
Based on the statement of the problems above, the purposes of the study are:
1. To classify the types of grammatical errors which are found in writing
descriptive paragraph of second year students of SMP Muhammadiyah 06
Dau Malang.
2. To know the frequency of occurrence of each type of grammatical errors in
writing

descriptive

paragraph

of

second

year

students

of

SMP

Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang.

1.4 Significance of the study
It is hoped that the result of this study will be useful for the teachers and
the students. For the English teachers, it will give them information and
understanding about the students‟ errors on the use of grammar in composing
writing paragraph. Besides, by knowing the types of errors the teachers can
evaluate their material, develop appropriate teaching techniques and give more
attention to the students in making good and correct in their writing paragraph on

5

the use of grammatical errors, so that the students‟ weakness in errors can be
minimized.
For the students, the result of the study will help them to know and realize
their errors in using grammar in their writing. By realizing their errors, they will
be more aware on the use of grammar in composing their paragraph. Furthermore,
it will help students to improve their ability in understanding grammar patterns
and writing descriptive paragraph more effectively.

1.5 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this study is focused on the grammatical errors in writing
descriptive paragraph and the limitation of this study is second year students of
SMP Muhammdiyah 06 Dau Malang in academic year 2010/2011.

1.6 Definition of the Key Terms
To avoid misinterpretation of the key terms used in this study, it is
essential to give definitions as follow:
1. Grammar: a person‟s subconscious language knowledge. Whenever we speak
or write English or we understand someone else speech or writing, we use our
English grammar (Veit, 1986). Grammar in this study is grammar consist of
principle or rules which is taught to the students in junior high school.
2. Error: a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker
reflects the competence of the learner. Errors are systematic, consistent
deviance characteristics of the learner linguistic system at a given stage of
learning (Brown, 2000: 217).

6

3. Descriptive writing: kind of writing to convey our dominant impression at a
person, a place or even to a reader in order that they are able to use their sense
about something (Martin, 1980). Descriptive writing is a strategy for
presenting a verbal portrait of a person, place or thing. It can be used as a
technique to enrich other form of writing or as a dominant strategy for
developing a picture “how it looks like”. (McCrimmon, 1984: 163)
4. Writing: a process of putting ideas down on paper to transform thought into
words, to sharp main ideas, and to give structure and coherent organization
into writing. (Brown: 2001)
5. Paragraph: a basic unit of organization in writing in which a group of related
sentences develops one main idea. (Oshima & Hogue, 1999: 16)

Dokumen yang terkait

Dokumen baru