The Fern of West Timor East Nusa Tenggara

H E lyER%$OF WEST TIMOR
EAST N U S R TENGGARA

MARIA TEWESIA LONGA RLJMA
BIOIOG! - 99433

"THE POST GRADCJATE PROGRAM
BCrGCaR INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE
2802

TUHAN DEICAT PADA SETIAP ORANG
YANG EERSERU ICEPADA-NYA,
PADA SETlAP ORANG YANG
EERSERU ICEPADA-NYA DALAM ICESETIAAN

THE FERN OF VdEST TIMOR
EAST NUSA WFdGGARA

i.ME POST GRADUATE PRQC2RAiV
BCjGQR iNSTKTIISTE OF AGR!Ci=U%.TURE

ABSTRACT
The study on Pteridophytes in West Timor was conducted in January to
September 2001. The identification of collected specimen and cytological observation
were perfomed in Herbarium Bogoriense Bogor. The objectives are to make an
inventory to the pteridophytes species and their distribution on different ecosystem
types.
Based on this study there are 58 species belonging to 36 genera. They are
Achrosticum (1 species), Adiantum (5 species), Amphineuron (3 species), Asplenium
(4 species), Athyrium (1 species), Belvisia (1 species), Botrycium (1 species),
Ceratopteris (1 species), Christella (4 species), Ctenitis (1 species), Ctenopteris (1
species), Cyathea (1 species), Davallia (2 species), Dennstaedtia (1 species),
Diplazium (2 species), Doryopteris (1 species), Drynaria (2 species), Dryopteris (1
species), Gleichenia (1 species), Heterogoniurn (1 species), Humata (1 species),
Lycopodium (1 species), Microlepia (1 species), Microsorium (1 species),
Nehprolepis (2 species), Oleandra (1 species), Platycerium (1 species), Pleocnemia
(1 species), Pteris (5 species), Pyrrosia (1 species), Sellaginela (1 species), Selliguea
(1 species), Sphaerostephanos (2 species), Tectaria (1 species), Trichomanes (1
species), and Vittaria (1 species).
There are various fiecquency distribution patterns of fern species in West
Timor which are depended on their ecosystem. The savanna ecosystem has a lower
number of species (12 species), and the mixed tropical monsoon forest ecosystem (26
species), and montane ecosystem (30 species) have higher number species of fern.
Cytological observation show that, at West Timor there are no different on
chromosome number in different ecosystem types. Based on cytological study from
eight species show that Adiantum cuneatum 2n = 60; Christella parasitica 2n = 140;
Drynaria sparsisora 2n = 74 in two ecosystem types (savanna and mixed tropical
monsoon forest); and on the other hand chromosome number of Nephrolepis
biserrata 2n = 82 and Pteris vittata 2n = 60 at the three ecosystem type.

ABSTRAK

Penelitian tumbuhan paku ini, dilakukan dari bulan Januari sampai September
2001. Identifikasi spesirnen yang dikoleksi dan pengamatan sitologi dilakukan di
Herbarium Boeoriense Boeor. Tuiuan ~enelitian ini adalah untuk meneetahui
keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan paku dan pola persebarannya, pada berbagai tipe
ekosistern rnelalui pendekatan ekologi, morfologi, dan sitologi.
~erdasark& hasil peneliti& diperoleh 58 jenis tumbuhan paku yang
tergolong dalam 36 marga yaitu : Achrosticum (1 jenis), Adiantum (5 jenis),
Amphineuron (3 jenis), Asplenium (4 jenis), Athyrium (1 jenis), Belvisia (1 jenis),
Botrycium (1 jenis), Ceratopteris (1 jenis), Christella (4 jenis), Ctenitis (1 jenis),
Ctenopterzs (1 jenis), Cyathea (1 jenis), Davallia (2 jenis), Dennstaedtia (1 jenis),
Diplazium (2 jenis), Doryopteris (1 jenis), Drynaria (2 jenis), Dryopteris (1 jenis),
Gleicheniu (1 jenis), Heterogonium (1 jenis), Humata (1 jenis), Lycopodium (1 jenis),
Microlepia (1 jenis), Microsorium (1 jenis), Nehprolepis (2 jenis), Oleandra (1 jenis),
Platycerium (1 jenis), Pleocnemia (1 jenis), Pteris (5 jenis), Pyrrosia (1 jenis),
Sellaginela (1 jenis), Selliguea (1 jenis), Sphaerostephanos (2 jenis), Tectaria (1
jenis), Trichomanes (1 jenis), dan Vittaria (1 jenis).
Di Timor Barat terdapat pola variasi jenis yang beragam, pada setiap tipe
ekosistem tempat diiana tumbuham paku hidup. Tipe ekosistem savana memiliki
jumlah jenis yang paling sedikit (12 jenis), sedangkan tipe ekosistem hutan monsun
tropis campuran merniliki jumlah jenis yang banyak (26 jenis), demikian pula pada
tipe ekosistem pegunungan memiliki jumlah jenis yang paling tinggi (30 jenis).
Pengamatan sitologi menunjukkan bahwa di Timor Barat perbedaan tipe
ekosistem tidak mempengaruhi jumlah kromosom. Jumlah kromosom Adiantum
cuneatum 2n = 60; Christellaparasitica 2n = 140; Drynaria sparsisora 2n = 74, pada
dua tipe ekosistem (savana dan hutan monsun tropis campuran), sedangkan jumlah
kromosorn Neprolepis biserruta 2n = 82, dun Pteris vittata 2n = 116 pada tiga tipe
ekosistern (savana, hutan mosun tropis campuran dan pegunungan).

-

-

0

-

SURAT PERNYATAAN
Dengan ini, saya menyatakan bahwa Tesis dengan judul :

THE FERN OF WEST TIMOR
EAST NUSA TENGGARA
Adalah benar merupakan hasil karya saya sendiri dan belum pernah
dipublikasikan oleh orang lain.

Bogor, Mei 2002

1

Maria Teresia Longa Ruma

THE FERN OF WEST TIMOR
EAST NUSA TENGGARA

Thesis submitted for the Master Degree
At
The Graduate School Bogor Institute of Agriculture

THE POST GRADUATE PROGRAM
BOGOR INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE
2002

Thesis Title

: THE FERN OF WEST TIMOR

Name
Reg. Number
Study Program

: Maria Teresia Longa Ruma
: 99433

EAST NUSA TENGGARA
: Biology I Plant Taxonomy

Appoved by
Supervisor Committee

Prof. Dr. Ir. H. Edi Gubardia. MSc.
Supervisor

Dr. Dedv Darnaedi, MSc.
Supervisor

Day of Graduation

:

2 8 FFF

CURRICULUM VITAE

Maria Teresia Longa Ruma was born in Ngada - Flores on April 16, 1967, the
fourth daughter with ten brothers from father Johanes Ruma and mother Juliana Beo.
She passed her Elementary school in 1980, Junior High School (SMPK
Slamet Ryadi Soa - Flores) in 1983, and Senior High School (SMAN 435 Bajawa Flores) in 1986. She was graduated from the Faculty of Teacher Training and
Education in Nusa Cendana University in Kupang in 1991.
.

'

In 1993, she was started working in University of Nusa Cendana Kupang as

an Lecturer. Since 1999, she received scholarship program from DUE to continue her
study on Biology program, sub program Plant Taxonomy at Graduate school of
Bogor Institute of Agriculture.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to record my thanks to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Ir. Edi Guhardja,
M.Sc. (IPB), Dr. Dedy Darnaedi, M.Sc. for their advices, guidance and
encouragement throughout the thesis. Thank for their kindness, patience and all hard
work in the correction my thesis.

I would like to thanks to Director of the Post Graduate Program of Bogor
Institute of Agriculture and Head of Biological Study Program for opportunity given
to me to undertake this study. I am also grateful to Dr. Irawati, Head of Herbarium
Bogoriense, for granting me permission to conduct research and providing some
facilities; Drs. Uway Warsita Mahyar, Ujang Hapid, Melani and all the technicians of
Herbarium Bogoriense who helped me to provide the herbarium specimens,
cytological observation and equipment during my work in Herbarium Bogoriense;
Head of library and all librarian (mbak Rina, pak Tiyono) in the Herbarium
Bogoriense who helped me to provide some literatures.
I would like to thank to Rector of Nusa Cendana University, Dean of Teacher
Training and Education Faculty of Nusa Cendana University in Kupang, who gave
me the chance to take the Post Graduate Program. Particularly, I would like to thank
to the Development for Undergraduate Education (DUE) Project through the Local
Project Implementation Unit (LPIU) Undana, for giving me scholarship for a master
degree at the Post Graduate Program of IPB.
vii

I would like to thank to all of my friends, especially for Dra. Maria Teresia
Danong,MSi, Ir. Yucundianus Lepa,MSi, Drs. Nikolaus T. Saka,MSi, Dra.Yulianthy,
Kristina Moi Nono,SSi, mbak Wiwi, bu Asma, pak Darmadi, Yel, Nia, Linda, Eny,
for giving me support and motivation in my study,
Many thanks and love for my parents, bapa Jan and mama Juli; my father - in

- law bapa Bastian and mama Len; my sister ibu Opi, kak Sintha, Heny, pak Vinsen
and his family, Wempi, Frans,Damian, Marlin, Eman, Santy, Menty; my brother - in
-law ma Ona, ma Beth, ma Rick, Ellen, Yo, Emy and his family, also Rosy for moral
support, praying and love along my study.
My very special thank to my husband Endy and my children Sonya and Sofia
for most of all his love, support, advice, and patient being there separated fiom his
family and awaiting until my study was finished.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER
...........................................................................
ABSTRACT
................................................................
ABSTRAK
.....................................................................
LEGALIZATION
................................................................
CURRICULUM VITAE
.......................................................
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS
........................................................
LIST OF FIGURE ................................................................
LIST OF TABLE
................................................................
INTRODUCTION ................................................................
Background ................................................................
................................ ;. ..............................
Objectives
Benefits
................................................................
METHODOLOGY ................................................................
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
..............................................
Introduction .........................................................................
Distribution .........................................................................
Taxonomy
.........................................................................
Key to the genera of ferns in West Timor East Nusa Tenggara........
1. Achrosticum
.......................................................
2. Adiantum
.......................................................
3. Amphineuron
.......................................................
4. Asplenium
5. Athyrium
6 . Belvisia
7. Botrycium
8. Ceratopteris
9 . Christella
10. Ctenitis
11. Ctenopteris
12. Cyathea
13. Davallia
14. Dennstaedtia
15. Diplazium
16.Doryopteris
17. Drynaria
18. Dryopteris
19. Gleichenia
20 . Heterogonium
2 1. Humata
22. Lycopodium
23. Microlepia
24. Microsorium

.i.
i1
...

111

v
vi
vii
ix
xi
xii
1
1
5

5
6
9
9
15
17
17

19
20
23
25
27
28
29
29
30
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
44
45

25. Nephrolepis
.......................................................
26. Oleandra
.......................................................
27. Platycerium
.......................................................
28. Pleocnemia
........................................................
29. Pteris
.......................................................
30. Pyrrosia
.......................................................
3 1 . Sellaginela
.......................................................
32. Selliguea
.......................................................
33. Sphaerostephanos .......................................................
34. Tectaria
........................................................
35. Trichomanes
.......................................................
36. Vittaria ................................................................
CONCLUSSION
................................................................
REFFERENCES
................................................................
APPENDIX
...............................................................

LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1. Site of Fern inventory
................................................. 8
Figure 2. Chromosome number of pteridophytes at two ecosystem types ....... 13
Figure 3. Chromosome number of pteridophytes at three ecosystem types .... 14

LIST OF TABLE
Table 1. List of chromosome number of pteridophytes ..... ..................
12
Table 2. List of pteridophytes species at West Timor in the three ecosystem types
...........................................................................
15

INTRODUCTION

Background
Indonesia is one of the countries which has the highest diversity of flora in the
world. One of the flora groups that has a high diversity is fern. Until to day, the group
of fern are less of interest compared with the other groups; although many species of
fern have significant economic and ecological benefit for human life.
Ferns have been relatively abundant in the fossil record from the carboniferous
period to the present. To day, ferns number about 11,000 species; they are the largest
group of plants other than the flowering plants, and the most diverse (Raven et al.,
1992). Of the 11,000 species, 1300 species are prediceted in Malesia region which
mostly the archipelago of Indonesia (Sastrapradja e! al., 1979).
Fern have limited distribution areas, but some have a wide distribution areas.
They can fastly grow covering empty lands. Fern can be found in coasts, mangrove
forest, lowlands forest, swampy lands, ricefields, dry fields, gardens and high
mountains; it also can be found at steep mountain sides, river sides, or near trees.
Generally, the fern prefer to live at humid places, especially on higlands. The number
of species and populations at the places like these are relatively higher than those on
the lowlands (Sastrapradja e! al., 1979).
The fern has various benefit to human life. The role on economic aspect can be
seen that some species of fern have enchantment and beautiful son structure, so they
are grown as decoration plants in pot. The species which are bred as decoration plants,

such as Asplenium nidus, Adiantum sp., Platycerium, Angiopteris evecta, Lycopodium

cernuum, Nephrolepis sp., Cyathea and Pteris. In some regions such as West Java and
West Sumatra, ferns are consumed as food. The species which are consumed as food
are Nephrolepis hirsutula (as vegetable spice), Tectaria coadunate (its young fronds
used as vegetable, it can also be eaten as raw vegetable) Stenochlaena palustris (the top
of the leaf is edible as raw vegetable, also it can be used as spice for vegetable), and

Phymatosorus nigrescens is also edible. Heyne (1987), it is known that many species
of ferns have benefit as medicines. This means that fern potency as medicines need to
be improved. Manicham (1992), recorded that some species can be used as traditional
medicine, such as Diyopteris hirtipes (rhizome can be used as anthelmintic), Pteridium

aquilinum (the rhizome can be used as anthelminyic, prevents diarrhea, inflammation
of interior cavity and mucus membrane), Hypolepis glandulifera (fronds can be used as
abscess paste), Nephrolepis auriculata (fronds can be used to ease cough), Asplenium

nidus (sedative medicine), Drynaria quercifolia (for cough and dyspepsia medicine),
Azola pinnata (for boifertilization) and Salvinia molesta species can be used as pulp in
paper industry.
Several species of fern such as Alsophila and Cyathea, their stem usually are
used as wall layer plate, orchid growing media, a@ also can be used as house pillar.
The outer surface of the stem fern has leaves scars which is interesting so that it can be
used as handicraft material and decoration ornamen. The dry leaves are also used as the
complement of dry flowers decoration or ornamen.

Some species of fern are composition of animal food or probably used as food
material by human or cut and dry out for. Lycopodium which is climbing is used in
making bouquet for party, they spora can be used to demonstrate the length of sound
wave for physical experiments (Polunin, 1994).
From ecological aspect, the fern prefer wet and humid place so that this plant
became ground plant and contribute important role in the sustaenability of the
ecosystem, and also in hydro-orological functions.
West Timor is one part of the Timor Island, with 14.394,OO km2 area, which
located at 123" 18' - 125' 12' east and 8' 56' - 10' 22' south latitudes. Generally
climate type is B to F (Schmidt & Fergusson, 1951) with the largest area in E climate
type (49%). Area with this type of climate is semiarid area which is affected by dry and
wet season, where rainy season is very short (November-Maret), and long dry season
(April-October). Rainfall is between 500 - 3000 mmlyear, with average of rainy day 30

- 130 daysfyear, maximum temperature is 31,6' and minimum 21,s" C (Anonimous,
1998).
Based on the climate and rainfall, West Timor has various type of ecosystems
and in general as seasonal forest type, but in several area belong to rain forest type
which are spread around mt. Mutis and mt. Timau. Generally West Timor has E
climate type which occurs in part of the east coast of Kupang regency and the biggest
part of mountain area is D climate type, while at the northern part of Timor Tengah
Selatan is B climate type (mt. Mutis) (Anonimous, 1998). The variations of ecosystem
types which occurs at West T i o r are : Payau forest (mangrove), with specific genera

such as Rhizopora, Bruguiera, Avicenia, and Sonneratia; Mixed Tropical Monsoon
Forest, with specific genera such as Tectona grandis, Eucalyptus, Pterocarpus, Acacia
leucoceploea, Schleichera oleosa, and Tamarindus indica; savanna with specific
genera such as Borrasus, Corypha, Acacia, Eucalyptus, and Casuarina; Montane, with
specific genera such as Eucalyptus (ampupu) (Kmtawinata, 1977 and Monk, et al,
2000).
The first fern specimens in the Lesser Sunda Island (LSI) were collected by
French botanist in Timor in 1801; this island was much visited in those days by
expeditions to Australia and Pacific. Posthumus (1944), mentioned that there are 290
species of the fern in LSI. Since that moment research has not been conducted. French
botanists who visited Timor (Posthumus, 1944) are : Antoine Guichenot (]Sol), L.TH.
Leschenault (1803), CH. Gaudichaud-Beaupre (1818), A.Zippe1(1828), J.B. Spanoghe
(1833-1834), J.E. Teysmann (1854), FR. Naumann (1875), Mrs. M.E. Walsh-Held
(1929), C.N.A. De Voogd (1933-1937), and S. Bloembergen (1939).
Based on the specimens in Herbarium Bogoriense, fern specimen from Timor
still few in number, so that it is important to conduct the research to find out the species
diversity of fern species, especially at West Timor. Also still few researchers who
visited Tinior island to collect the fern.

Objectives
This research is to understand the diversity of fern species at West Timor and
the distribution pattern, at different ecosystem types through ecological, morphological,
and cytological approaches.

Benefits
The expected result is to make identification key of fern at West Timor and
understand the consept of species and genera by using ecological, morphological, and
cytological characters. Data and information which are obtained, are expected to be
used as the basic data in using and developing the potential of fern resources.

METHODOLOGY
Location
The research was carried out in eight months, from January to September 2001.
Taking and collecting specimens were done at West Timor (Fig. 1) based on ecosystem
types which Kupang regency represents mangrove ecosystem, savanna ecosystem, and
mixed tropical monsoon forest, and Timor Tengah Selatan regency represents montane
ecosystem types. Ecological observation was carried out in the field, morphological
observation and specimen identification and also cytological observation were carried
out at Herbarium Bogoriense Puslit Biologi LIP1 Bogor.
Equipment and Material
Equipment and material were used for collecting specimens are altimeter, stek
shears, compas, loupe, camera, alcohol 70%, plastic bag, label, and stationary. While to
make cytological preparate are fern, object glass, cover glass, hydroxyquinolin, HzS04,
HCL, orcein, tweezers, draple plat, and spirtus lamp.
Methods
The mothods used in this study are exploration and description, by collecting
fern samples at several locations wich represent ecosystem types at West Timor.
Ecology
At savanna ecosystem types exploration was conducted by cruising Oenesu and
Baumata watershed, other wise for mixed tropical .monsoon forest, exploration route
begins from Oekabiti village and Camplong village. Data sampling at these two
ecosystems are based on distance of the inter plots (20 m). At the montane ecosystem

(mt. Mutis), the exploration cruising route begins from Fatumnasi village at the altitude
1500 m asl. and ended at the altitude of 1800 m as]. at Oenino forest. Data sampling
was done using 5 x 5 square sampling method, with 20 m distance, for savanna and
mixed tropics monsoon forest ecosystem types, but at montane ecosystem (mt. Mutis)
sampling was based on site altitudes, with 50 m interval.
Beside collecting herbarium specimens as the material research, the vegetation
analysis was also done to complete the information of diversity and population of fern
at West Timor.
Morphology
The fern specimens which collected were observed and recorded on their
morphological characters. Grouping are based on morphological characters such as
living characters, leaves shape, site and son shape. Identification of species was done
based on their specific morphology, using Holnum (1966) as a reference, and compared
with the specimens collected at the Herbarium Bogoriense Bogor. The arrangement of
the identification key each genera and species was based on Vogel(1987).
Cytology
The fern which were found at two or three ecosystem types, were taken and
planted for cytological study, both on meiosis and mitosis periods. Unfortunately
meiosis study could not be conducted since there were no fertile leaf. In the mitosis
study chromosomal number was identified at the cytology laboratory Herbarium
Bogoriense. The method used in making cytological preparate follows Darnaedi (1994)
which was a modification of Manton (1950).

Fig. 1. Site of Fern inventory

+ Exploration directions and sampling collection.

8

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Introduction
Based on the specimens collected (127

collection numbers) from

43

sampling sites in field there are 58 species of pterydophytes belonging to 36 genera,

Achrosticum (1 species), Adiantum (5 species), Amphineuron (3 species), Asplenium
(4 species), Athyrium (1 species), Belvisia (1 species), Botrycium (1 species),

Ceratopteris (1 species), Christella (4 species), Ctenitis ( l species), Ctenopteris (1
species), Cyathea (1 species), Davallia (2

species), Dennstaedtia (1 species),

Diplazium (2 species), Doryopteris (1 species), Drynaria (2 species), Diyopteris (1
species), Gleichenia (1 species), Heterogonium (1 species), Humata (1 species),

Lycopodium (1 species), Microlepia (1 species), Microsorium (1 species),
Nephrolepis (2 species), Oleandra (I species), Platycerium (1 species), Pleocnemia
(1 species), Pteris (5 species), Pyrosia (1 species), Selaginella (1 species), Selligua
(1 species), Sphaerosthephanos (3 species), Tectaria (1 species), Trichomanes (1
species), and Vittaria (1 species).
The various frequency distribution pattern of fern species in West Timor are
depended on the ecosystem type where they live. There are physical conditions that
effected the frequency distribution of fern. The montane ecosystem type is the higher
frequency of the epiphytic fern and higher various of the fern.
The savanna ecosystem type has the lower number of species of fern (12),
and mixed tropical monsoon forest ecosystem type (26) and montane (30) has higher

number of fern species. The mixed tropical monsoon forest ecosystem type are
dominated by Christella, Sphaerostephanos, and Pteris. The montane ecosystem is
dominated by Pteris and Asplenium, these genera has many species.
There are two species who are tolerant at three ecosystem types, those are

Nephrolepis bisserata, Pteris vittata. There are five species which are tolerant at two
ecosystem types namely

Adiantum cuneatum, Drynaria sparsisora, Christella

parasitica, Sphaerostephanos unitus (savanna and mixed tropical monsoon forest),
Asplenium nidus (mixed tropical monsoon forest and montane), Davallia solida live
in savanna and montane ecosystem.
There are species which specialized only in one ecosystem. In savanna
ecosystem (5 species) those are Amphineuron opulentum, Amphineuron terminans,

Diplazium esculentum, Drynaria pleuridioides, and Heterogonium wigmanii. In
mixed tropical monsoon forest ecosystem (19 species) those are

Acrostichum

aureum, Adiantum caudatum, Adiantum soboliferum, Adiantum philippense,
Amphineuron immersum, Aslenium polyodon, Ceratopteris thalicthroides, Christella
arida, Christella papilio, Christella subpubescens, Ctenitis vilis, Diplazium
polypodioides, Dryopteris heterocarpa, Microsorium scolopendria, Platycerium
coronarium, Pleocnemia

olivacea, Pteris

longipinula, P.

venulosa, and

Sphaerostephanos invisus. Species found only in montane ecosystem (26 species) are
Adiantum hispidulum, Asplenium aethiopicum, Asplenium normale, Athyrium
asperum, Belvisia validinervis, Botrycium lanuginosum, Ctenopteris Jirscafum,
Cyathea alternans, Davallia trychomanoides, Dennstaedtia scandens, Doryopteris

concolor, Gleichenia linearis, Humata repens, Lycopodium proliferum, Microlepia
speluncae, Nephrolepis hirsutula, Oleandra musifolia, Pteris cretica, P. scabripes,
Pyrosia chiystii, Sellaginela inaequalifolia, Selliguea enervis, Sphaerostephanos
porphyricola, Tectaria dissecia, Trichomanes gracile, and Vittaria elongaia.
At the mixed tropical monsoon forest (MTMF) ecosystem was found an
uniqueness, that is Achrosticum aureum which live in here. This is because in MTMF
the physical condition support it with the existiny swamp for they life. This is an
uniqueness for MTMF ecosystem in West Timor. Futher research is needed to find
out the affect of environment factors to their life. Mangrove ecosystem does not have
fern species.
Based on cytology of Drynaria sparsisora which live on different ecosystem
(savanna and mixed tropical monsoon forest), does not have different chromosome
number, at both ecosystem types with the chromosome number 2n = 74. Adiantum

cuneatum which show at different ecosystems, (savanna and mixed tropical monsoon
forest) does not have different chromosome number, at both ecosystem with
chrornosorne number 2n
number 2n

=

=

60. Christella parasitica has the same chromosome

140, in two ecosystem types (savanna and mixed tropical monsoon

forest). Pteris vittata at three different ecosystem

does not have different

chromosome number, 2n = 116; Nephrolepis biserrata has chromosome number 2n
= 82, at different ecosystem it does not have different

chromosome number.

The making of cytology preparate of Adiantum

cuneafum, Cristella

purasifica. Diynaria sparsisora, Nephrolepis biserrata, and Pteris viftata are a new
record for chromosome number which come from West Timor, because the research
about chromosome number of these species has not been done before. Chromosome
number of Christellaparasitica is the new cytological record.

No

Savanna

Mixed Tropical

Montane

Monsoon forest
1.

1

1 MTL
I

parasitica
sparsisora
biserrata
5.

Pferis viftafa

I

2n = 60

2n = 60

Adiantum cuneafurn

111

1 MTL 112
I

I

I

2n = 140

2n = 140

MTL 113,114

MTL 115,116

2n = 74

2n = 74

MTL117,118

MTL119

2n = 82

2n = 82

2n = 82

MTL120,121

MTL122

MTL 123

2n= 116

2n= 116

2 n = 116

I MTL 124,125 1 MTL 126

I MTL 127

Table 1. Chromosome number of pteridophytes at the three ecosystem type of
West T i o r

Fig. 2. Chromosome number of pteridophytes at two ecosystem types; a. savanna
ecosystem type;b. mixed tropical monsoon forest ecosystem type,
1. m
a pmisora 2n = 74
2. Christellapmas'tica 2n = 140
3. Adanturn cuneatwn 2n = 60

Fig. 3. Chromosome number of Pterydophytes athr-t ecosystem type; a. savanna
ecosystem type,b. mixed tropical monsoon forest ecosystem type, c. montane
ecosystem type
I. Nephrdepis biserrata 2n=82
2. Pteris vitfata 2n = 116

Distribution
Genera and species of pteridophytes at different ecosystem in West Timor

Table 1. List of pteridophytes species at West Timor.
As listed in table I., there are two species tolerant in three
ecosystem types namely Nephrolepis biserrata and Pteris vittata, six species tolerant
in two ecosystems those are Adiantum cuneatum, Asplenium nidus, Christella

parasitica, Davalia sollida, Drynaria sparsisora, and Sphaerostephanos unitus.
Many species only tolerant in one ecosystem types, 5 species tolerant only in
savanna ecosystem, 19 species tolerant only in mixed tropical monsoon forest
ecosystem. and 26 species tolerant only in montane ecosystem.

Taxonomy
Key to the genera of Pteridophytes in West Timor
1 a. Aquatic ferns ...............................................................................

2

............................................................................ 3
2 a. Leaves pinnate ....................................................... 1. Achrostichum
b. Leaves tripinnatifid ..................................................... 8. Ceratopteris
12. Cyathea
3 a. Tree-ferns .....................................................................
b. Herbaceous ferns ......................................................................... 4
4 a. Epiphytes .................................................................................
5
b. Terestrial ..............................................................................
14
b . Terestrial ferns

5 a. Leaves simple

.......................................................................... 6
b . Leaves lobed, simply pinnate .................................................... 7
6 a. Rhizome scales latticed ...............................................................
8
b . Rhizome scales not latticed .........................................................

9

......................................... 4. Aspleniurn
b. Sori linear along the submarginal vein ................................. 36. Vittaria
8 a. Fertile fronds acrostichoid .......................................................... 10
b. Fertile fronds not acrostichoid ...................................................... 11
9 a. Sporangia confined to the narrow apical part of frond................. 6. Belvisia

7 a. Sori linear or oblique to midrib

b. Sporangia over whole surface of frond ............................................ 12
10 a. Sori close to each side of the midrib, not terminal on the veins

.................................................................................
26.Oleandra
b. Sori near edge, terminal on the vein ..................................... 21. Humata
11 a. Distinct "neast leaves" at the base ...................................... 17.Drynaria
. .
b. Leaves all slmllar ...................................................................
13
12 a. Lamina simple, sori round or linear

.....................................30.Pyrrosia

b . Lamina variously, dichotomously divided, sori forming large
spreadmg patches

........................................................

27 Platycerium

...................................
........................................

13 a . Sori whole of fionds or medial veins

32.SeNiguea

b . Sori only at the margin of frond

13 Davallia

14 a . Rhizome scales not latticed .........................................................
b. Rhizome scales latticed

............................................................

15
16

....................... 15.Diplazium
.............................. 5Athyrium

15 a. Double son not connected at their distal ends
b. Double sori connected at their distal ends

16 a. Fronds pinnate ..........................................................................
b. Fronds pinnatifid .......................................................................

17

19

............................................. 25.Nephrolepis
b . Pinnae not joint to the rachis .......................................................18

17 a. Pinnae joint to the rachis

1 8 a. Basal pinnae deeply lobed, basal basiscopic lobe

............................................................................

not largest

20.Heterogonium

b . Basal pinnae lobeb or not; if lobeb basal basiscopic lobed largest

.................................................................................... 34.Tectaria
19 a. Fonds bipinnate ......................................................................
20
b . Fronds tripinnate or more divided ............ .'.................................... 22
20 a. Son quite continuous along edge ................................... 16.Doryopteris
b. Sori otherwise

......................................................................

21

.......................................... 11.Ctenopteris
b . Sori not terminal on the veins ........................................ 28.Pleocnemia
a . Primary rachis - branches forked ................................................ 23
b. Primary rachis not forked ............................................................ 25

21 a. Sori terminal on the veins
22

23 a. The whole rachis covered by short pina

........................ 14.Dennsraedtia
b. The whole rachis not covered by short pina ...................................... 24
24 a. Lateral veins simple or once forked .................................. 19.Gleichenia
b . Lateral veins forked at least twice ............................................... 26
25 a. Sporangia massive, spores trilete .....................................7.Bomcium
b . Sporangia solitary, spores tetrahedral .................................... 10.Ctenitis

26 a. Lamina simple .......................................................................
b. Lamina pinnately divided .............................................................
27 a. Pinnae sessile oblique .....................................................

28

29. Pteris

b. Pinnae deeply lobed ..............................................................

28 a. Sori median or supramedian on vein

27

29

........................ 33.Sphaerostephanos

b. Sori terminal on the vein ............................................. 23. Microlepia
29 a. Frond monomrphic or dimorphic .................................................... 30
b. Frond simple ...........................................................................
30 a. Sori on the surface of reflexed marginal flaps

31

.........................2. Adiantum

............................. 32
................................ 31. Sellaginela

b. Sori on the surface not protected by reflexed margin

31 a. Leaves very small, imbricate, oblong

b. Leaves numerous small, not imbricate, linear-lanceolate ..... 22. Lycopodium

.................................3. Amphineuron
b. Sori distributed unlobed parts of the pinne ...................................... 33

32 a. Sori confined to the pinnae lobes
33 a. Sori median or supramedian

............................................. 9. Christella

b. Sori parallel to the midrib or on the veins ......................................... 34
34. a. Sori in one to several irregular rows between costa to margin ...24Microsorium
b. Son at the ends of margin ............................................................

35 a. Lamina largest, deltoid, bipinnate

35

....................................18.Dryopteris

b. Lamina small, linearis, tripolitea .............. :. .................. 35.Trichomanes
I. Achrosticum Linnaeus.
Sp. PI., 2 : 1068 (1753)

Stock stout, erect, covered with large scales and bearing thick fleshy streetroots which have a loculiar cortex. Scales broad, not peltate at the base, not hairy.
Fronds large, simply pinnae; pinnae stalked, narrowly oblong or lanceolate, fleshy,
the lower ones always sterile, a varying proportion of upper ones fertile. Fertile
pinnae somewhat smaller than sterile, the whole lower surface covered with
sporangia. Spora tetrahedrad, without perispore, clear-translucent, colourless.

1. Achrosticum aureum Linn. Spec. PI. 2: 1069, 73. (1753). Bedd., Handb. 440;
Holttum, Rev. F1. Mal. 2(1966) 409.
Rhizome erect, densely covered by scales all over. Stipe up to 35 cm long, dark
brown and scaly at the base. Lamina up to 2 m, oblong, simply pinnae; pinnae up to
90 cm long, base narrowly cuneate, oblique, margin entire. Pinnae many, simple,
only the upper ones fertile. Sterile pinnae oblique; fertile pinnae shaped like sterile
but smaller. Texture coriaceous, pinnae glabrous all over above and below. Sori
acrostichoid.
Distribution and ecology. A pantropic species. It is abundant in mangrove in all
parts of Malaya (Holttum, 1966). West Timor it grows in mixed tropical monsoon
forest, it grows on terrestrial swamp on open places, at elevation 500 m sea level.
Uses. In Malaya and Bomeo, the rhizome is pounded and grated and is applied as a
paste to wounds and boils. Fertile fronds are used for syphilitic ulcers in Bomeo,
Rhizome usehizome used for and bladder complaints in China (Manicham, 1992), in
Timor the leaves used for the vegetable and for the roof.
Specimen examined. MTL 006; 009.
2. Adianturn Linnaeus
Sp. PI. : 1094 (1753)
Rhizome creeping or suberect. Scales usually narrow, not peltate at the base,
concolorous. Stipe slender, nearly black, often polished, sometimes more or less
hairy. Frond simply pinnate to tripinate, sometimes almost dichotomously branched.
Leaflets fan-shaped to parallelogram shaped, subentire or more or less deeply lobed.
Sori on the under surface of small reflexed marginal flaps, the sporangia attached
along the veins which are continued into flaps.
Key to the species

...............................2
b. Fronds dichotomously, hispid, coriaceous ;. ......................A. hispidulum

1 a. Fronds pinnately branches, glabrous, herbaceous

2 a. Fronds rooting by apical bud, pinnae densely hairy all over ......A. caudatum
b. Fronds not rooting by apical bud, pinnae glabrous

.............................. 3

3 a. Pinnae on slender stalks; stalks to 1 cm or more long

......... A. philippense

b. Pinnae almost sessile ......................... :.....................................
4 a. The young leaves many brown colour ...............................
b. The young leaves not brown colour ............................

4

A. cuneatum
A. soboliferum

2. Adiantum philippense L., Sp. PI. 1094. (1753). - A. Iunulatum Brun., Fl. Ind.
235. (1768). Bedd,. Handb. 82; Holttum, Rev. Fl. Mal. 2 (1966) 598.
Stock short, erect or suberect, bearing a tuft of fionds. Stipes nearly black,
polished, grooved, glabrous, 10

- 26 cm long.

Fronds 10 - 30 cm long. Simply

pinnae, alternate pinnae on each side of rachis. Leaflets born on slender black stalks,
the lowest stalks longest, pinnae 2-3 cm long and 1-1,s cm wide. Texture thin. Sori
rounded and entire the lobes.
Distribution and Ecology. Throughout the tropics of the Old World; Malaya; Java

(Holltum, 1966).In West Timor : it is grows on rocks in open places, in mixed
tropical monsoon forest, at elevation 600 m sea level.
Uses. This species usually for the ornamental species.
Specimens examined. MTL 028% 028b, 032a, 032b; Jaag 110,679, 1344.

3. Adiantum hispidulum Sw., Schrad. Journ. 180012 : 82. (1801). Bedd., Handb. 86;
F. S. I. T. 3; Holttum, Rev. FI. Mal. 2 (1966) 603.
Stock short, erect or suberect, bearing many fronds close together. Stipe slender,
nearly black, more or less scaly towards base, up to 40 cm long. Fronds
dichotomously branched, the basal dichotomy not quite equal; each primary branch
forked again and the outer branch of the second forking forked once or twice again,
the whole fiond up to 25 cm long. Texture thin but firm. Son on circular reflexed
flaps attached at the base of small sinuses in the upper and outer edges of the leaflets
the flaps.

Distribution. From east Africa and Southern India, through Malaysia to Polynesia
and New %eland,Java (Holttum, 1966).In West Timor grows in montane, at elevation
1550-1600 m sea level.
Uses. For the ornamental plants.
Specimens examined. MTL 072; 108; Forbes 3593; 3476; Teysmann 16408; Jaag
1131, 1126; Afriastini 1596 A.
4. Adiantum caudatum L., Mantissa 308 (1771). Bedd., Handb. 83; Holttum, Rev.
F1. Mal. 2 (1966) 599.

Rhizome short, erect, bearing a dense tuft of fronds. Stipes up to 7 cm long, dark
purple to nearly black. Fronds up to 22 cm long, simply pinnae with many close
subsessile pinnae. Texture of pinnae thin but stiff; both surfaces more or less densely
hairy. Sori on the apices of the lobed, the reflexed flaps almost circular or somewhat
elongate.
Distribution. Very widely in the Old World tropics, from Africa to the Pacific;
Malaya (Holltum, 1966). In West Timor grows in mixed tropical monsoon forest, at
elevation 600 m sea level.
Specimens examined. MTL 38; Holltum 20497; Borsum 2538
5. Adiantum cuneatum Langsd. Et Fisch., PI. Vot. Russes Monde 23, T. 26. (1810)
nom. Illeg.
Rhizome short, creeping, pale brown. Stipes compact, 17 - 22,s cm long, dark
brown to black, flexible if dark brown, scaly at the base. Fronds 15 - 22 cm long.
Lamina deltoid

-

ovate, 3,5 - 8,5 cm long, usually tripinnate, very rarely

quadripinnate. Texture thin herbaceous. Sori two to seven to each pinnule, rounded or
reniform, born at the semiorbicular or circular notches.
Distribution. Throughout Tropical area. In West Timor it is grows in two ecosystem
type savanna and mixed tropical monsoon forest, at elevation 200-600 m sea level.
Uses. Ornamental plants.

Specimens examined. MTL 11, 14a, 14b; Jaag 1070; Backer 2472.
Cytology. 2n = 60 (MTL 111,112).

Adianrum soboliferum Wall. apud. Hk., Spec. Fil. 2 : 13 (1851); - Adiantum
metteni Kuhn., Fil. Afi. 65. (nom. Nud.); Hk. Et Bdk., Syn. Fil. Ed. 2 472 (1874);
Holttum, Rev. F1. Mal. 2 (1966) : 298.
Stock short, erect or suberect, bearing a tuft of fronds. Stipes 2,5 - 10 cm
long, nearly black, polished, grooved, glabrous. Fronds 10 - 20 cm long. Simply
pinnate. Rachis and pinnae stalk with shoot crisped hairs on the upper. Lowest pinnae
broader, less crescent - shaped. Texture thin. Sori shorter, rounded and entire the
lobes.
Distribution. Throughout the Tropics of the Old World, Northern Malaya. (Holttum,
1966). In West Timor grows in mixed tropical monsoon forest, at elevation 500 m sea
level.
Specimens examined. MTL 12,16a, 16b; Posthumus 3681,3418; Forbes 3753.
3. Amphineuron Holtturn
Blumea 19 : 45 (1971); Blumea 23 : 205 (1977)
Caudex erect, short - long creeping; scales narrow, setiferous. Stipe minutely
hairy, scaly at the base. Lamina often very large, pinnate, pinna in most species
deeply lobed; basal pinnae much narrowed at the bases; aerophores at the bases of
pinnae, usually narrowly elliptic and discolored; not swollen; veins pinnae in the
pinnae lobes, simple, basal veins either free and passing to the margin separately. Sori
in most species median or supramedian.
Key to the species

.................................................. A. terminans
b. Rhizome short creeping ................................................................ 2
a. Basal pinnae reduced ...................................................A. opulentum
b. Basal pinnae not reduced ...............................................A. immersum

1 a. Rhizome long creeping

2

7. Amphineuron immersum (Bl.) Holltum in Nayar and Kaur, Comp. To Bedd.
(1974). 203; Holttum, Fl. Mal. 1 (1959) 547.
Rhizome erect. Stipe 29-39 cm long, green when living. Fronds 31 - 55 cm long.
Lamina 5,s - 17 cm long, and 1 - 2,l cm wide, fertile at a much smaller size; pinnae
close, drying pale - olivaceous, lobed 2 mm from costa, lobes, except distally, almost
at right angles to costa, separated by wide sinuses; upper surface with hairs on costae.
Texture thin. Son supramedial, in depressions in the lamina.
Distribution. Assam, Hainan, Southern Thailand; throughout Malesia; Queensland;

New Hebrides, New Caledonia (Holttum, 1959). In West Timor grows in mixed
tropical monsoon forest, at elevation 500 m sea level.
Specimens examined. MTL 13a, 13b, 15a,15b; de Voogd 2047; Meijer 10609.

8. Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf.) Holttum. Blumea 19 (1971). 45; Holttum, F1.
Mal. I (1959) 548.
Caudex short - creeping. Stipe 26 cm long, rufescent. Fronds 32 - 38 cm long.
Lamina 6 - 11 cm long, and 1 - 1,5 cm wide, a pair of much - reduced basal pinnae;
apex of frond narrowly acurninate, deeply lobed in its basal part and grading into the
upper pinnae; lobed of pinnae 4 rnm from costa.
Sori confined to lobes of pinnae, supramedial, in slight depressions.
Distribution. East Africa; Seychelles; S. India and Ceylon; Burma, Thailand;

Malesia; N. Queensland; island of the Pacific to Tahiti; naturalized at various places
in tropical America Holttum, 1959). In West Timor grows in savanna, at elevation
250 m sea level.
Specimens examined. MTL 46,50a, Sob, 53a, 53b; Jaag 114; Teysmann 16416.

9. Amphineuron terminans (Hook.) Holltum. In Am. Fern. J. 63 : 82. (1973);
Holttum, F1. Mal. 1 (1959) 545.
Rhizome creeping. Stipes up to 40 cm long, flushed dull reddish, glabrescent
abaxially, basal scales, dark brown and denselly scaly at the base, glabrous above.
Frond up to 60 cm long. Lamina 10-24 cm long, 1- 2,l cm wide, apex acuminate
edges, lobed 5 mm fron costa. Texture herbaceous; thin, soft. Sori close to margins of
lobes, not on lower veins.
Distribution. Ceylon and S. India; Burma to Hainan and Macao; throughout Malesia;
Queensland. (Holltum, 1959). In West Timor grows in savanna, at elevation 300 m
sea level.
Specimens examined. MTL 43a, 43b; Jaag 272,266,305; Posthumus 3 109.

4. Asplenium Linnaeus
Sp. P1.2 : 1078 (1753)
Rhizome stout, erect or short creeping, bearing a close group of stipes or rossete
of fronds at apex, epiphytic; scales usually small, thin dark and clathrate. Stipes
black, dark purplish - brown. Fronds simple, pinnae or more finely disected, with
free veins. Lamina pinnate; pinnae narrowly cuneate at the lower base and cuneate or
truncate at the upper base; the apex subtruncate or narrowed gradually to long
acuminate from the base. Sori usually rather long, along and on the auricle.

Key to the species.
A. nidus

1

b. Frond otherwise

...................................................................

2

...............................................A. aethiopichum
b. Stipe and rachis glabrous ....................................................
3

2 a. Stipe and rachis scaly
3

a. Pinnae narrowly lobed ................................................
b. Pinnae sermlated

........................................................

A. polydodon
A. normale

10. Asplenium nidus L. Spec. PI. 2 : 1079 (1753).; Holltum, Rev. F1. Mal. 2 (1966)
419.
Rhizome stout, erect, with thin dark clatrate, scales 2 - 3 cm long and 0,2 - 0,5
cm wide, bearing a rossete of fronds at apex, and below with numerous hairy roots.
Stipes black, 2 - 3 cm. Fronds simple, to about 90 cm long. Narrowed gradually and
acuminate to the apex. Prominent midrib raised on the lower surface. Texture of frond
coriaceous. Sori linear, long, on both lateral vein branches.
Distribution and Ecology. Tropics of the Old World (Holttum, 1966). In West
Timor this species is altitudinally widespread. It grows epiphytically on trees, in
mixed tropical monsoon forest and montane, at elevation 600-1800 m sea level. The
species rare.
Uses. It is used as a deputative and sedative in Philippines (Dixit and Vohra 1986);
also used as ornamental plaiting (Fosberg 1942).
Specimen examined. MTL 22,47.
11. Asplenium aetiophicum (Bum. f.) Bechere in caudoliea, 6: 23 (1935).
Rhizome erect or suberect, densely clothed by scales inter mingled with long
wooly hairs. Stipes 0,5 - 28 cm long, dark brown, densely clothed by scales on hairs.
Fronds 17 cm long. Lamina bipinnate. Texture subcoriaceous; abaxial and adaxial
side of the pinnae and rachis densely covered by long, slender, soft scales. Sori up to
1 cm long. narrowing at the ends.
Distribution. South India (Palni, Kolli, Shavaroy hills). In West Timor it grows in
montane, in shaded places, at elevation 1500 m sea level.
Specimen examined. MTL 63; Posthumus 3576
12. Asplenium normale Don. Prodr. F1. Nepal. 7 (1825); Holttum, Rev. F1. Mal. 2
(1966) 436.
Rhizome short, creeping with close group of stipes narrow entire dull scales 0,s
cm long. Stipes 3 - 6 cm long, dark pusplish - brown. Fronds 6 - 20 cm long. Lamina

7- 25 cm long, 1,5-2,5 cm wide. Pinnae 1-1,4 cm long. The upper base truncate an
slightly auricle, the lowes base narrowly cuneate, the apex subtruncate. Texture of
pinnae thin but finn. Sori one on the auricle and a few other on distal part of the
pinnae.
Distribution. East Africa, Tropical Asia, Polynesia to Hawai (Holtturn, 1966). In
West Timor grows in montane ecosystem type, in shaded places, at elevation 17001800 m sea level.
Specimens examined. MTL 87,94; JPM 579; Surbeck 88.
13. Aspleniumpolyodon G. Foster. Prod. 80. (1786); sledge, Bot. J. Soc. 84 : 4 (1982)

Rhizome erect. Stipes tufted 16 - 25 cm long, dark brown to black, scaly at the
base, soft, pale brown. Fronds 15 - 64 cm long. Lamina lanceolate. Terminal pinnae
trilobed or bilobed. Texture subcoriaceous. Son linear, median or submedian along
the veins, paralllel, uniformly distributed.
Distribution. South India, North Africa, Madras. In West Timor grows in mixed
tropical monsoon forest, at elevation 600 m sea level.
Uses. The plant is used in enlargement of the spleen, incontinence of urine, calculus,
jaundice and malaria in Noah Africa and Madras (Manicham, 1992).
Specimens examined. MTL 26a, 26b; 33.

5. Athyrium Roth
Tent. F1. Germ. 3 : 58 (1799)
Rhizome short, erect, fairly stout, bearing a tuft of fronds; scales pale to dark not
laticed ,edges entire or toothed. Stipes relatively stout, bearing papillae or spines near
the base or throughout. Lamina simple to bipinnate, broadly ovate to oblonglanceolate, thin; pinnae pale or dark green, glabrous. Texture herbaceous. Sori
elongate, along the veins, sometimes on both side

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