THE INFLUENCE OF TOP DOWN APPROACH ON READING COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT OF THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF SOCIAL PROGRAM OF SMUN I JOGOROGO NGAWI IN THE 1999/2000 ACADEMIC YEAR

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THE INFLUENCE OF TOP DOWN APPROACH ON READING
COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT OF THE THIRD YEAR
STUDENTS OF SOCIAL PROGRAM OF SMUN I
JOGOROGO NGAWI IN THE 1999/2000
ACADEMIC YEAR

THESIS

By :

NIM. 9302107178

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FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
JEMBER UNIVERSITY
JANUARY,2001



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Reading is the window of the world

Where there is a will, there is a way
(proverb)

DEDICATION

l dedicate this thesis to:

1. My beloved Mother and Father,
2. My beloved Sisters and Brother,
3. My beloved lecturers,
4. My beloved Almamater.

APPROVAL
The Influence ofTop Down Approach on Reading Comprehension Achievement
Of the Third Year Students of Social Program of SMUN I Jogorogo
Ngawi in the 1999/2000 Academic Year

THESIS

Proposed for being defended to the examiner team as one of the requirements to
obtain S 1 Degree at English Program , Department of Language Art,
the Faculty of Teacher Training And Education,
Jember University
By

Nama
: Anis Suswarini
Identification Number: 9302107178
Level
: 1993
Department
: Language and Art Education
Program
: English Education
Place of Birth
: Magetan
Date of Birth
: January, 5 th 1975

Approved by

Consttltp.nt ll

Consultant 1

Drs. HM. Sjakir Hadie, KS. MSA
NIP. 130 325 916

Drs.

ャゥ エセ L@

MA

NIP. 131 877 579

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APPROVAL O F EXAMINER'S TEAM

This thesis is defended in the front of the examiners team and received by
faculty of Teacher T raining and Education, Jember University.

On

: Wednesday

Date

: January 3 l , 200 l

Place : Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Jember Univers1ty

Examiner's Team

Chairwoman,



O ゥカヲエセオ@

Drs/ Budr Setyono,MA
Nip. l-3'1 877 579

Ora. Wiwiek lstianah, M. Kes MEd
Nip. 131 472 785

Members :
I. Dra. Wiwiek Eko B, M.Pd
NIP. 131 475 844
2. Drs. HM Sjakir Hadie. Ks MSA
NIP. 130 325 916



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ACKNO\VLEDGEMENTS

It 1s only under the guidance and blessing of Allah SWT this thesis enti tled"
The lnlluence or Top Down Approach on Reading Comprehension Achievement of
the Thi rd Year Students of Social Program of SMUN I .logorogo Nga\\ i in The
1999/2000 academic yea r" has finall y bl.!cn completed.
On this occasion, the writer would also like to express the deepest
appreciation and si ncere thanks to:
1. The Dean of Faculty or Teacher Training and Education , Jember
University:
2. The Chairwoman of Language and Arts Department of Faculty of
Teacher Training and Education, Jember
uョゥカ・イウ

ゥエ ケセ@

3. The Chairman of English Program or Faculty of Teacher Training and
Education, Jember University:
4. The first consultant v.. ho has give n the valuable guidance in composing
this thesis;
5. The second consultant who has given the valuable guidance in composi ng
this thesis;
6. The Principal ofSMUN I Jogorogo Ngawi:
7. The English teacher of SMUNI Jogorogo Ngawi:
8. The administrative staff of SMUN l Jogorogo Ngawi;
Fi nall y, the writer hopes that this thesis will provide some advantages to the
readers. Any criticism, suggestion and input that contribute to the improvement of
thts thesis would be highly appreciated.
January, 200 1

The Writer

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE
MOTTO

II

DEDICATION

Ill

APPROVAL

IV

APPROVAL OF
EXAMINERS TEAM

.................................. ............... ...................................

v

ACKNOWLEDGEM!2NT ............ ....... ..... ............ .............................. ················

\I

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OJ- TABLE
ABSTRACT

VII
\Ill

IX

INTRODUCT ION
I. I Research Background ............... .......... ....................................... .............. ..
1.2 Research Problem ............................................................ ...... ................. .

2

1.3 Operational De!inition ............. ................. .... .. ........................................ ..

2

1.3.1 Top Down Approach ....... ...... ........................... ........ ...................... ..
1.3.2 Bottom-up Approach ............... .............................. .. ....... ................. .

3

I 3.3 lnteracti' e Approach ............. .. ....................... ................. ............... ..

3

1.3.2 Reading Comprehension Achievement. .. ..................... ......... .. ...... .. .

.)

I A Objective of the Research ................ ......... ........ ...................... ......... ...... .

.)

I .5 Signiticancc of the research .. .. ......... .. ...... ...... .. ............ ........................... ..

3

1.5.1 For the English Teache r of SMUN Jogorogo Ngawi .. .................. .

3

1.5.2 For the Students of SMUN Jogorogo Ngawi ........... ...................... .

3

1.5.3 For other Researcher .................................. .. ......................... ..... .. ..

4

...,

..,

II : REV IEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESIS
2. 1 The Nature of Top Down Approach.... .....................................................

5

2. 1.1 Building Background Knowledge.. .................................................

6

2.1.2 The Activating Background Knowledge ........................................ .
2.2 The n。エオイセ@

7

of Bottom-up Approach ...................................................... ..

9

2.3 The Nature of Jnteractive Approach ....................................................... ..

9

2.4 Reading Comprehension ....................... ... ............................................... .
2.4. 1 Comprehending Words .................................................................. ..

1I

2.4.2 Comprehending Sentences ............................................................ ..

12

2.4.3 Comprehending Parabrraph ... ........................................................ ...

12

2.5 The Influence of Top Down Approach on Reading Comprehension ..... ..

13

2.6 The Hypothesis

14

................................................................................... .

lll : RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Research Design ................... ..... .................. .. ....................................... .

15

3.2 Area Determination Method .................................................................... .

16

3.3 Respondent Detennination Method ....................................................... ..

16

3.4 Data Collecting Method ........................................................................ .

16

3.4.1 Test

................................................................... ................ .

17

3.4.2 lnterview

l7

3.4.3 Documentation ............................................................................... .

18

3.5 Data Analysis Mt!thod ............................................................................. .

18

IV : RESULT AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Result Report

19

4.2 The Respondent of the Research.............................................................

19

4.3 The Teaching Learning Process Conducted by the writer ......................

20

4.4 Collecting Data

21

.................................................... ...............................

4.4.1 The Result of the Test Before Conducting the Treatment .............

21

4.4.2 The Result of the test after Conducting the treatment....................

22

4.5 Data Analysis

......... .................. ............................................... ..........

24

4.6 Discussion and Interpretation ...... ... ........ ..... ... ...... ......... ............ .............

29

V : CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1 Conclusion

··························································· ·························

30

5.2 Suggestion

····················································································

30

BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLE

f NO

1

EXPLANATION
PAGE
23
I 1. The score or tl;e posttest on reading comprehension
I
a_chievement of the exeerimental group and_c_o__n_tr_o_J. . .,g_ro_u. .e_
. . _____,___ __
I
25
L.
The analysis of the posttest on reading comprehension
I
achievement or the experi ュセョエ。ャ@
group.
3. ' The analysis of the posttcst on reading comprehension
26
L - - ·achievement of the control group_._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___._______,

r

"--

ABSTRACT

An is Suswarini, January 2001, The lnfluem:e of Top DO\vn Approach on
Reading Comprehension Achievement of The Third Year Students of Social
Program ofSMUN I Jogorogo Ngawi in The 1999/2000 Academic Year.
Thesis, English Program, Language and Art Department, Faculty of
Teacher Training and Education, Jember Universi ty.
Consultants: I). Drs. HM Sjakir Hadie, Ks MSA
2). Drs Budi Setyono, MA

As one of the language sk ills, reading is considered as the most important
skill in learning language. Since reading is important in improving other skills, the
way to learn it should be improved. Some experts explain about the usefulness of top
down approach on reading. So in thi s research, the writer tries to solve the problem"ls
there any influence of using top down approach on reading Comprehension
achievement"? Based on the reason, this research aimed to test whether or not there is
a significant innuence of using Top down Approach on reading comprehension
achievement of the third year students of soc ial program of SMUN I Jogorogo Nga'' i
.The data needed in thi s research were collected by applying the test , the interview,
and the documentation. The data of the research were analyzed by usi ng t-test. The
result of data analysis found that in reading comprehension the statistical value was
higher than critical value. This showed that there is a significant intluence of usmg
Top down approach on reading comprehension achievement of the third year students
of SMUN I Jogorogo Ngawi in the 1999/2000 academ ic year. Thus, it is suggested to
the English teacher to explain top down approach to the students.
Key Words: Top Down Approach, Reading Comprehension Achievement.

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1.1 BHckground of the Research

As a means or communication, English is widely spoken all over the world
as an tnternationallnnguage. It plays a very important role in many aspect of lire,
such as in politics, technology, education, commerce and so forth. Especially in
education, english is regnrded as the lirst foreign language. It is based on the
decree of Minister of Education and culture no. 096/ 1967 which states that
English is the first foreign language (Aiwasilah, 1993 : 146). English as a foreign
language also plays a more important role in Indonesia than the other foreign
languages such as German, Arabic, Japan, French and Chinese. According to the
1994 English curriculum for SMU English is a compulsory subject in senior high
school that functions as an instrument for irnproving the student's capability in
science, technology, culture and art (Depdikbud, 1993: I)
In learning English as one for compulsory subject, the students should
master the four language skills: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reading
is considered as the most important skill in learning language, by reading
someone gets not only information or knowledge but also enjoyment. Meanwhile,
reading is a key to educational success because every aspect of learning uses
reading as a major component. Through reading we can enrich our view, provide
us with varied experience and stimulate our creativity. In short, reading makes us
to be informative people. Many attempts have been made to improve the student's
reading ability; however, the facts show that the students still find problems and
difficulties when trying to get the main point of the text, because they must not
only comprehend and interpret the text but also remember what they have read.
Teaching reading to tht:: English foreign language students is a very
essential part. The teacher should have many experience about teaching reading
and the teacher should find the effective method in teaching it because there arc
many methods in teaching reading, such as bottom up, top dovvn, interactive
approach. Mcneil ( 1991 : 16) argues that reading comprehension is the process of
using one's existing knowledge (schemata) to interpret text in order to construct

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