AN ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSLATION OF SEXUAL TERMS IN THE MOVIE “THE UGLY TRUTH”

AN ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSLATION OF SEXUAL TERMS IN THE MOVIE “THE UGLY TRUTH”

THESIS Submitted as a Partial of the Requirements for Sarjana Sastra Degree of English Department Faculty of Letter and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University

By: NOVIKA TRISKY HARDIKA C0306006

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS AND FINE ARTS SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2012 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS AND FINE ARTS SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2012

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PRONOUNCEMENT

Name : Novika Trisky Hardika

NIM : C0306006

States truthfully that the thesis entitled “Analysis of Translation Technique and Quality of Sexual Terms in the Movie Entitled The Ugly Truth ” is originally written by the researcher. It is neither a plagiarism nor made by others. The statements which do not belong to the researcher are written in quotation and included within the bibliography.

If in the future it is proved that the reseacher cheats, the researcher is ready to accept the academic sanction.

Surakarta, May 2 nd 2012

The researcher

Novika Trisky Hardika Novika Trisky Hardika

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MOTTO

God is with me. Nothing to worry.

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DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to: My beloved Papah & Ibu

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

All praise is due to Allah SWT for giving all of the knowledge. I also would like to say thank you to all of the followings for making all this possible.

1. Drs. Riyadi Santoso, M.Ed, Ph.D. as the dean of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts for approving my thesis.

2. Drs. Agus Hari, M.A., Ph.D. as the head of English Department for supporting the completion of my thesis.

3. Prof. Drs. MR. Nababan, M.Ed, M.A., Ph.D. for being my thesis supervisor and teaching me the valuable knowledge and skill of translation.

4. All of my lectures in English Department of UNS, thank you for teaching and educating me.

5. My beloved parents, my sisters (mbak Shinta and mbak Shanty), and my little brother, Shoffin. I thank for all the prayers and supports. I am so happy to have you all as my family. One day, I will make you proud. I promise.

6. Love of my life, Sayidillah Akhmad, S.E. Thank you, thank you, thank you. You are amazing.

7. Cindy, Ikha, Ayud, Nina, Dian, Faat, Diva, and Elita. You guys are the best gank ever. Thank you for always supporting me, all the good and bad times we have been through together.

8. Mbak Puspa, VIP (mas Itok and Pondra), Tim Mie Ayam. Thank you guys. You rock!! Lol.

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9. My second family, mbak Lina, mbak Ita, mbak Lidya, Mandez. You guys are crazy. Thank for the warmth and comfort, laugh and cry, friends and family. I love u. Itu!

10. My boo (Dila, Lala, Rini, Beka, Ata, Anita, Ima), Vendra, Bimo, Wisnu., and all of my ED 06 friends. You guys are awesome. Such a nice class we had together. My angel in heaven, Wulan. I miss you so much hunny. This is for you, for us.

11. The big family of @SELISOLORAYA. Never thought that we have been through this far. Thank you for all the adventures. Keep going guys. Keep cycling. Go Green!

12. All the raters that have made time for filling out my questionnaires and sharing your knowledge and experience. It means alot.

13. All the wonderful people that can not be mentioned one by one. Thank you for making my thesis possible.

Surakarta, May 2 nd 2012

The researcher

Novika Trisky Hardika

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A BSTRACT

Novika Trisky Hardika. 2012. An Analysis of The Translation of Sexual

Terms in the Movie “The Ugly Truth ” . Undergraduate Thesis. Surakarta: English Department. Faculty of Letters and Fine Art, SebelasMaret University.

This research discusses about the translation techniques of sexual terms in the movie The Ugly Truth and the assessment quality in terms of accuracy and acceptability.

The research design is descriptive qualitative that uses two kinds of data sources. The first is in the form of document consisting of the VCD of the movie The Ugly Truth , script, and su btitle of the movie’s dialogue. The second are from the closed-ended questionnaires about the assessment quality of the translation fulfilled by three raters who are competent in the field of translation. There are 102 data obtained from data sources.

There are two results of this research. First is the presence of eight techniques used in sexual terms translated in the movie. They are literal (37.25%), adaptation (3.92%), borrowing (24.51%), calque (9.80%), addition (0.98%), subtraction (9.80%), synonym (12.75%), and particularization (0.98%). The second is the findings that there are 57 data (55.88%) are accurate, 36 data (35.29%) are less accurate, and 9 data (8.82%) are inaccurate. There are also 65 data (63.73%) are acceptable, 29 data (28.43%) are less acceptable, and 8 data (7.84%) are unacceptable.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSLATION OF

SEXUAL TERMS

IN THE MOVIE “THE UGLY TRUTH”

Novika Trisky Hardika 1 Drs. Agus Hari Wibowo, M.A, Ph.D. 2

ABSTRACT

2012. An Analysis of The Translation of Sexual Terms in the

Movie “The Ugly Truth”. Undergraduate Thesis. Surakarta: English Department. Faculty of Letters and Fine Art, SebelasMaret University. This research discusses about the translation techniques of sexual terms in the movie The Ugly Truth and the assessment quality in terms of accuracy and acceptability. The research design is descriptive qualitative that uses two kinds of data sources. The first is in the form of document consisting of the VCD of the movie The Ugly Truth, script, and subtitle of the movie’s dialogue. The second are from the closed-ended questionnaires about the assessment quality of the translation fulfilled by three raters who are competent in the field of translation. There are 102 data obtained from data sources. There are two results of this research. First is the presence of eight techniques used in sexual terms translated in the movie. They are literal (37.25%), adaptation (3.92%), borrowing (24.51%), calque (9.80%), addition (0.98%), subtraction (9.80%), synonym (12.75%), and particularization (0.98%). The second is the findings that there are 57 data (55.88%) are accurate, 36 data (35.29%) are less accurate, and 9 data (8.82%) are inaccurate. There are also 65 data (63.73%) are acceptable, 29 data (28.43%) are less acceptable, and 8 data (7.84%) are unacceptable.

Mahasiswa Jurusan Sastra Inggris dengan NIM C0306006 2 Dosen Pembimbing Mahasiswa Jurusan Sastra Inggris dengan NIM C0306006 2 Dosen Pembimbing

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Research Background

It cannot be denied that translation is instrumental in the development of science and technology today. Lots of texts, books and other written media are deliberately translated to increase knowledge and support in-depth study of a science or technology. This is where the role of the translator is very big. Translator is not only required to be able to change text from one language into another language, but also to send the right message from the source text into the target text. If the translator cannot convey the message properly, misunderstandings are possible to occur.

It does not stop at that point. A translator must also be able to make the target text as natural as the source text. In order to achieve such results, the translator needs to learn and understand cultures, the culture of the country of origin of the source text, and culture of the country of origin of the target text. If this can be achieved, then the translation result will look natural, not contrived, and it will be easier to understand because the reader will feel like he is reading texts originating from its territory.

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As explained by Haltom Basil and Ian Mason (1990: 223) in their book entitled Discourse and the Translator:

Most obviously, the translator has not only a bilingual ability but also a bi-cultural vision. Translators mediate between cultures (including ideologies, moral systems, and socio-political structures), seeking to overcome those incompatibilities which stand in the way of transfer meaning.

Therefore, the translator must also understand well the culture of the languages involved in the translation process when it comes to translate the terms that are considered sensitive by the target readers for example, sexual term which is considered taboo and vulgar in Indonesia.

Sex, one word might reveal a lot of questions and statements. Maybe some people will react indifferently and ordinarily when they hear that “sex” word but in our environment that still adhered to western cultures, the “sex” word is considered vulgar and taboo for many people. These days, Indonesia is facing an intense period of development, those in terms of economic, politic and socio- cultural development. One aspect of social changes marked in Indonesia is related to sex. Teenagers and young people change their attitudes, ideas, and behaviors in relation to sex. A number of associated social problems have emerged such as

high rates of unplanned teen’s pregnancy, high rates of transmission of Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV/AIDS, and a general lack of understanding

about sex. These aspects reveal a lack of a sufficient Sexual and Reproductive Health Education program across schools of Indonesia. Along with changing times, much less supported by the introduction of advanced technology, a lot of about sex. These aspects reveal a lack of a sufficient Sexual and Reproductive Health Education program across schools of Indonesia. Along with changing times, much less supported by the introduction of advanced technology, a lot of

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western cultural influences coming into our country and then change the mindset of people about things that are taboo and vulgar like sex itself.

There are so many elements of western culture coming into our country and in between cannot escape the element of sex. Novels, music, and movies are some of the media elements that are more frequently exposed to sex itself. Sex in the movies for example, is regarded as an important insertion although the film did not raise the same theme. Although just a kiss or hug affectionately, it can be separated from the romantic side of sex.

The writer wishes to discuss the sexual terms in the film, is not to highlight vulgar side of these terms. It is because there is still little discussion about these terms, they have ambiguous meaning, and Indonesian language only has sexual terms far fewer than the sexual terms used in the United States that uses English as their mother language. The sexual terms are also commonly used in medical science and psychology field. The examples of sexual terms used in medical science are syphilis, vagina, penis, etc. While, the examples of sexual terms used in psychology are puberty, pedophilia, sexophobia, etc.

The writer would like to eliminate the slight feeling of taboo and vulgar terms in discussing sex and a glimpse of it for educational purposes and it is not due solely to pay attention to the vulgar only. Here are some examples of sexual terms taken from the movie The Ugly Truth: The writer would like to eliminate the slight feeling of taboo and vulgar terms in discussing sex and a glimpse of it for educational purposes and it is not due solely to pay attention to the vulgar only. Here are some examples of sexual terms taken from the movie The Ugly Truth:

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1. Context : This utterance is spoken by a saleswoman who is offering

Abby Richter a cocktail dress.

Data number : 048/ TUT/ 00:36:18

SL

: Vag says you're trying too hard.

TL : Kalau kau perlihatkan, itu tandanya kau putus asa.

The word vag above is a continuation of the vagina that is popular language in the source language is abbreviated such a manner. Moreover in the subtitle, the word is adapted and compensated into a new expression. It makes the results of the translation is acceptable but not accurate.

2. Context : Mike Chadway addressed to two sexy girls who walked

with him speaks this utterance.

Data number : 028/ TUT/ 00:28:15

SL

: I smell threesome.

TL

: Aku mencium threesome.

The word threesome is not changed at all from the source language into the target language. This is called borrowing, often done if there is no equivalent word in the target language. The use of this borrowing could be accurate but may

be less acceptable to some people who still lay with the term. Whereas, if it is described in the Indonesian language it then becomes three people who perform a sexual activity at the same time .

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3. Context : Mike Chadway to Abby Richter says the sentence when

they talk about Abby's sex life.

Data number : 075/ TUT/ 00:47:07

SL : Abby, what could be more personal than you flicking your

bean?

TL

: Apa yang lebih pribadi dari masturbasi?

The phrase flicking bean in the source language is translated as masturbasi. This is done because of flicking bean is an idiomatic phrase to masturbasi. Therefore, the term is acceptable and accurate.

The movie was chosen because the film has a number of data needed to meet the standards of research data and because the movie does not present many sex scenes.

B. Research Limitation

The scope of this research is limited to the analysis of the techniques used by the translator in translating sexual terms in subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth from English into Indonesian language and its quality in terms of accuracy and acceptability.

C. Problem Statement

According to the background, thus the researcher made an analysis related to the movie The Ugly Truth by raising two questions: According to the background, thus the researcher made an analysis related to the movie The Ugly Truth by raising two questions:

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1. What techniques does the translator use in translating sexual terms in subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth from English into Indonesian language?

2. How is the translation quality of sexual terms in subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth from English into Indonesian language?

D. Objectives of the Research

This analysis of sexual terms in subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth has two objectives, they are:

1. to find out the techniques used by the translator in translating sexual terms in subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth from English into Indonesian language.

2. to find out the translation quality of sexual terms in subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth from English into Indonesian language.

E. Research Benefits

This research is not intended only for the researcher purposes of final assignment, but it is also expected to be useful to several parties, such as:

1. Other researcher

This research can be used to add information and reference about the translation, subtitling, or sexual terms discussed in it for those who need it.

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2. The lecturers

This research is expected to be a reference and additional information for lecturers in the teaching process.

3. The translator

This research is expected to be the input for translators in translation techniques apply to sexual terms.

F. Thesis Organization

1. Chapter I: INTRODUCTION

It consists of Research Background, Research Limitation, Problem Statement, Objectives of the Research, Research Benefits, and Thesis Organization.

2. Chapter II: LITERATURE REVIEW

It consists of the definition and explanation about Translation, Translating, Sexual Terms, Subtitle, Translation Technique, Translation Assessments, and Summary.

3. Chapter III: RESEARCH METHODOLODY

It consists of Research Type and Design, Data and Source of Data, Sampling Technique, Method of Data Collection, Technique of Data Analysis, and Research Procedure.

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4. Chapter IV: ANALYSIS

It consists of Introduction and Research Findings and Discussion.

5. Chapter V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

It consists of Research Conclusion and Suggestion.

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Translation

There is no definite definition of translation. However, some experts try to give an idea about translation. Bell (1991: 5) suggests that the translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalence. Catford (1965: 20) gives simpler definition about translation. He states that translation is an operation performed on languages; a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another. His definition does not cover meaning, style, and form of the text. It only mentions about the changing of a language into another language.

Translation can be applied in many manners. Newmark (1991) also believes that translation is a cover term that comprises any method of transfer, oral or written, from writing to speech, from speech to writing, or message from one language to another. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second language by way of semantic structure (Larson, 1984). Therefore, it transfers source language into target language without changing its meaning, but only its form.

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From the definitions mentioned above, it can be concluded that the translation is a cover term that comprises method of transferring message from one language (source language) into another language (target language), oral or written, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalence. Before finding equivalent word, phrase, clause, or sentence in target language, a translator needs to analyze the meaning contained in the form that will be translated (Simatupang, 2000). Therefore, the translator must be able to convey the message properly and correctly, with language style that is not rigid so that the readers or the listeners will feel comfortable to enjoy the result of the translation.

B. Translating

All products require a process before they can be consumed. So is the translation, which requires a process to produce it. Translating consists of reproducing in receptor language the closest equivalent of the source language message, first in term of meaning and the secondly in term of style (Nida and Taber, 1974). In other words, it is a process of imitating the meaning of source text into target text‟s language and style.

Simatupang (2000: 2) describes that translating is transferring meaning of source language into target language to express it back in target language with

target language‟s forms as natural as possible according to rules applicable in target language. He emphasizes about the importance of meaning that has to be

delivered by translator from source language into target language.

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It is important to notice that language tends to differ most in generic terminology, rather than in specific. When translating relatively specific words, it is usually easier to find a close equivalent (Larson, 1984). This relates to the fact that specific vocabulary has more exact equivalent in target language rather than generic vocabulary does.

C. Sexual Terms

A term, defined in Terminology for Translators — an Implementation of ISO

12620 (2000), can have a range of related meanings depending on the area of specialization. A term is also identified as technical word because the term can only be used in certain field. Concerning sexual terms, Fromkin and Rodman in Tatan Mutakin (2009), state:

“Words relating to sex, sex organs, and natural bodily functions make up a large part of the set of the taboo words of many cultures. Some languages have no native words to mean “sexual intercourse” but do borrow such words from neighboring people. Other languages have many words for this

common and universal act, most of which are considered taboo.” Newmark (1988) explains that a translator must be careful about translating

the terms directly into the TL, if they already exist but have quite different functions in the TL culture. Thus, besides understanding translation theory and technique, translator also has to know each culture (source language culture and target language culture) so that translator can minimize the problem faced in translating terms.

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D. Subtitle

Subtitle is a text of dialogue description written in television program or movie that appears onscreen. Luyken et al as cited in Koolstra‟s (The Pros and Cons of Dubbing and Subtitling) journal state that an advantage of subtitling is that a subtitled program is more „real‟ and more closely resembles the original program than a dubbed program, because actors, presenters, etc. are heard with their own voices (1991).

Koolstra et al, in The Pros and Cons of Dubbing and Subtitling (2002) states that the language used in subtitles is different from the language used in books: subtitles comprise colloquial speech instead of written language. Language used in subtitle is simpler than the language used in books because it usually contains of daily utterance.

E. Translation Technique

Translation techniques, which are used to translate subtitle, have an effect on the translation product in term of its quality. Molina and Albir (2002: 509) permit that translation techniques are procedures to analyze and classify how translation equivalence works.

There are techniques used by translator to translate source language into target language. Translation scholars offer various translation techniques. They can be applied individually or simultaneously to complement each other. There

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are some translations techniques according to the classified list of translation techniques as defined:

1. Literal translation

Literal translation is applied to translate a word or an expression word for word (Molina and Albir, 2002: 510). In other words, lexical words translated by using word-to-word. While the structure of grammar and syntax adapted from the structure of the source language into target language structure. That is as same as what Wills (1977: 98) explains about this technique that emphasizes the change of syntactic structure. He calls it as traduction litterale. It means the replacement of SL syntactic structures, normally on the clause or sentence scale, by TL syntactic structures which are isomorphic (or near isomorphic) concerning number and type of speech and are synonymous in terms of content.

For example, cat is kucing in the Indonesian language and should not be interpreted in more than a small-bodied four-legged animal, and is in a feline family (Suryawinata, 2003: 40).

2. Adaptation

Adaptation is the replacement of a ST cultural element with one from the target culture (Molina and Albir, 2002: 509). For example, as white as snow, is translated into seputih kapas, not seputih salju because there is no snow in the target language.

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3. Borrowing

Borrowing technique is a translation technique that take a word or expression straight from another language. It can be pure (without any change) or it can be naturalized (to to fit the spelling rules in the TL) (Molina and Albir, 2002: 510). It also called as emprunt that is the carry-over of SL lexical lexemes or lexeme combination into the TL normally without formal or semantic modification (Wills, 1977: 97). Borrowing technique is applied because the translator want to show respect for those words or because of TL does not have the equivalence. There are two types of borrowing, as follow:

a. Transliteration or pure borrowing is a technique of translation that defends the originality of target language words. For example, keyboard is still translated directly into keyboard.

b. Naturalization is a translation technique, which the term is borrowed and modified. For example, calculator is translated into kalkulator of which the pronunciation and spelling have been modified.

4. Calque (loan translation)

It is applied to translate phrases or words from source language literally into target language (Molina and Albir, 2002: 510). Wills (1981) offers more detail about calque. It is loan translation (linear substitution) of morphologically analyzable SL syntagms (primarily noun compounds and adjective-noun- collocation) which are often accepted or at least tolerated by the TL community. For example, interest rate is translated into tingkat suku bunga.

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5. Modulation

Modulation involves a shift in perspective and changes the semantics in the TT, even though the basic meaning of the ST segment remains unchanged (Munday, 2009: 208). Translator have to understand the source language text then conveys the message contained in it by changing the angle of view of the phrase, clause, or sentence so that the resulting translation will feel more natural than if it is translated literally. It is applied to change the point of view, focus or cognitive category in relation to the source language text (lexical or structural) (Molina and Albir, 2002: 509-511). For example, I broke my leg is translated into Kakiku patah , not Aku mematahkan kakiku.

6. Transposition

Transposition is applied to change a grammatical category (Molina and Albir, 2002: 511). It is an option if it is done for only the reasons of style. It renders an SL element by syntactico-syntagmatic structures, which have the same meaning but do not correspond formally (because of the change in the class of words used) (Wills, 1977: 98). For example, a verb in the target language text is converted into a noun in the target language text.

7. Addition

This type of addition is not a matter of choice but a necessity (Suryawinata, 2003: 67). For example, the sentence Saya guru in Indonesian language as source language will be translated as I am a teacher. The addition occurring in that example does not make any change of meaning. The addition occurred because of

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differences in grammatical structure of the source language that requires the presence of the word "am" and "a".

8. Subtraction or Omission or Deletion

Subtraction means a subtraction in the structural elements in the target language. Similar to addition, subtraction is a necessity (Suryawinata, 2003: 68). The subtraction here is the subtraction of the words in the target language. For example, the sentence You should go home will be translated as Kamu harus pulang . The word go is subtracted in target language. Translators can also eliminate phrase, clause, or even a sentence that is considered unimportant. However, if this is done, it may result the message within a text will not be conveyed accurately.

9. Synonym

A synonym is only appropriate where literal translation is not possible and because the word is not important enough for componential analysis (Newmark, 1988: 84). Synonymy is not only used in one common language, as it is often found in Indonesian language, but it can also be applied in translating words from one language into another language. A synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word in the language (Duran, 2006:156). For example, the sentence What a cute baby you’ve got! that will be translated as Alangkah lucunya bayi Anda! (Suryawinata, 2003: 73).

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10. Description Description is a translation technique that is aplied to replace a term or

expression with a description of its form or/ and function (Molina and Albir, 2002: 510). The translation explains the source language. For example, Academy Award is translated into penghargaan film paling besar di Amerika.

11. Amplification It is a translation technique, which makes explicit or paraphrase of implicit

information in source language. It provides implicit information, which is not in the source text (Molina and Albir, 2002: 509-511). It introduces details that are not formulated in the source language. For example, Ramadan is translated into Muslim month of fasting or bulan puasa kaum muslim.

12. Compensation It is used when something cannot be translated from source language into

target language, and the meaning that is lost in the translation is expressed somewhere else in the target language (Molina and Albir, 2002: 509-511). For example, the sentence Never did he visit his father is translated into Pria itu sungguh tega tidak menemui ayahnya .

13. Discursive creation It is a translation technique applied to establish a temporary equivalence that

is totally unpredictable out of context (Molina and Albir, 2002: 510). This

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technique is applied in order to increase its attractiveness as well. For example, Sophie Weston‟s novel entitled The Independent Bride that is translated into

Kekasih Pilihan .

14. Established Equivalent It is to use a term or expression recognized as an equivalent in the target

language (Molina and Albir, 2002: 509-511). For example, ringtone is translated into nada dering

15. Generalization It is to use a more general or neutral term. It transfers subordinate term in

source language into super ordinate term in target language (Molina and Albir, 2002: 510). It is an opposite technique to particularization. For example, pen (specific) which is translated into alat tulis (general).

16. Linguistic Amplification It is applied by adding linguistic elements into the target language (Molina

and Albir, 2002: 509-511). This technique is commonly used in consecutive interpreting or dubbing. For example, broken heart is translated into patah hati.

17. Linguistic Compression It is a translation technique, which can be applied in simultaneous

interpreting or subtitling by synthesizing linguistic elements in the target language

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(Molina and Albir, 2002: 509-511). For example, Shut your mouth! is translated into Diam!.

18. Particularization

It is applied to use a more precise or concrete term (Molina and Albir, 2002: 510). It translates super ordinate word in source language into subordinate word in target language. It is in opposition to generalization. For example, padi, beras, nasi are tranlated into rice .

19. Reduction

It is applied to suppress a source language information item in the target language (Molina and Albir, 2002: 509-511). It is in opposition to amplification. For example, Muslim month of fasting or bulan puasa kaum muslim is translated into Ramadan.

20. Substitution

It is a translation technique which is applied by changing the elements of linguistic and paralinguistic (intonations or signs) (Molina and Albir, 2002: 511). For example, someone shows his two fingers (index finger and middle finger) to say peace.

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F. Translation Assessments

Larson (1984) proposes there are three conditions that have to be fulfilled to make a good translation. Those three conditions are:

1. The translation has to apply target language form properly.

2. The translation has to communicate meaning as much as the source language does in the same manner as meant by source language speaker to target language speaker.

3. The translation has to preserve the dynamic of source text of which source language speaker obtains the impression.

Nababan (1999) says that translation quality assessment is focused on three main factors, they are:

1. The accuracy of transferring message

2. The accuracy of expressing the message in target language

3. The naturalness of translation

The explanation above covers all the measurement of translation quality; they are accuracy, readability, and acceptability. These three features are important throughout the translation, so the entire translation must be checked for each one (Larson, 1984).

Accuracy is concerned with the equivalence and appropriation of a translation in transferring message from source language into target language. In

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translation assessment, it is important to consider whether the contain of the translation is accurate or not (Simatupang, 2000).

A good translation is a translation which can convey the message of source text into target text with language form and style as same as target language culture so that target readers will feel like reading an original text. Where it is inaccurate, it is defective, either due to the translator‟s ignorance or due to negligence, or because one or more of the factors is out of focus in relation to the translator‟s intention (Newmark, 1991).

Toury (1997) states that acceptable translation is the one fulfilling the requirement of „reading as an original‟ written in the TL and sound natural for the

target reader rather that of „reading as the original‟ in SL. An acceptable translation is a translation that employs form and style language from target language, and has diction commonly used and familiar in target language.

G. Summary

In Sacramento, the producer of a morning show Abby Richter (Katherine Heigl) is a controller that has a checklist with items about the ideal man for her. However, she cannot find any man that fulfills her prerequisites. Her show has problems with the low ratings and the TV direction hires the cynical chauvinist Mike Chadway (Gerard Butler) that hosts the popular and gross mannish show "The Ugly Truth" about what men and women really want in a relationship. Abby has frictions with Mike and he proposes to help her to get her attractive

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neighbour, Colin, who fulfills her checklist; in return, she would support him in the show. Abby dates Colin but when Mike is invited to participate in the Craig Ferguson's Late Late Show in San Francisco, they get closer and fall in love for

each other.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Type and Design

This research is a descriptive qualitative research because the expected outcome would not be in the form of numbers, but in the form of a description quality of a translation product, especially in terms of acceptability and accuracy.

Although it used statistical data but this research was qualitative rather than quantitative research because a descriptive research is a research of which the aim is to describe something (Malhotra, 2007).

The results from a descriptive research cannot be used as a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis but if the limitations are understood, they can still be a useful tool in many areas of scientific research.

The design of this research was a case study. It is a study explores an issue with detailed restrictions, has a depth of data collection, and includes various sources of information (Moleong, 2000). It also could evolve according to the situation on the field. This design was only used as an assumption for doing research. That is why it has to be flexible and open.

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B. Data and Source of Data

One of the most important ideas in a research project was data and source of data. Data are notes about the facts of the phenomenon or circumstance that are observed or researched. While, source of data is someone or something that the researcher can obtain information and data s/he needs then.

There are two types of source of data observed in this research, they are:

1. Document

The documents employed in this research are the VCD of movie The Ugly Truth , script, and subtitle of the movie's dialogue. The script was found from a web http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/u/the-ugly-truth- script-transcript.html. Moreover, the subtitle was available in the movie itself. From these documents, the sexual terms were collected.

2. Informants

There were three raters who are competent in the field of translation would

be asked their opinion about the quality of translations of sexual terms in the movie The Ugly Truth in term of accuracy and acceptability. Their opinions are noted in the form of questionnaires.

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C. Sampling Technique

Sampling is the technique of selecting one or more research subjects as a representative of the population so that the resulting sample is a representative population. Therefore, the data used in this research are informative and they represent the population of the one taken in it. Population, as Zuriah (2007: 116) explains, is all the data that concern researcher in a scope and time set.

Sampling technique is the way to select sample from population. The selected data from population are known as sample. This research used total sampling technique because the data were heterogenic and the researcher did not take only one or some of the data to represent the population but the data taken were the whole utterance containing sexual terms in the movie The Ugly Truth. Each of data included in population could be called as element.

D. Method of Data Collection

Method of data collection is a procedure that the researcher accomplished in gathering data for this research. During gathering the data, the researcher had to do some methods.

According to Djoko Dwiyanto (2010), there are two techniques of data collection; they are literature study and field study. Literature study is done by reviewing the written data. Literature study conducted in this research was reviewing script and subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth. The researcher needed the written data of its script and subtitle so that she could easily read and

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compared its utterance and context with the spoken dialogue in the movie. The researcher selected all utterance containing sexual dialogue terms from the written data of the movie script (source language) and subtitle (target language) then make a note of the data.

In this study, data were collected by direct contact from researcher with the ground situation. There were two ways taken to collect data, such as:

1. Observation

The data were examined by watching the whole movie from beginning to end. This was done to determine and to get the point of its content story The Ugly Truth and the context of each conversation that is used in this movie.

2. Questionnaire

This research used closed-ended questionnaire that encourage a simple answer. The criteria of the raters involved in this research are as follows:

a. Raters agree to participate in this research.

b. Raters have a good ability in mastering source language (English) and target language (Indonesian language).

c. Raters comprehend about translation theory and technique.

d. Raters have at least one professional experience in translation.

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In questionnaire, raters gave score for each data to find out the accuracy and acceptability level of the sexual terms translation in form of scale determined as follows:

The sexual term translation is equal and appropriate.

2 Less accurate

The sexual term translation is not clear enough.

1 Inaccurate

The sexual term translation is not equal and not appropriate.

The sexual term translation is commonly utilized in target language.

2 Less acceptable

The sexual term translation is infrequently utilized in target language.

1 Unacceptable

The sexual term translation is certainly not utilized in target language.

E. Technique of Data Analysis

Data analyses in qualitative research were inductive and sustainable to generate understanding and concept. After all the data containing sexual terms were collected, they would be processed again with the following steps:

1. Classifying the data into smaller groups

The purpose of classifying the data into smaller groups is to make researcher more easily in analyzing the data based on their function in sentences that contain that term. After data classified, data were given data number. For example, data number: 010/ TUT/ 00:37:52. It means that the datum is contained in the number 10 from the movie The Ugly Truth at 37 th minute and 52 nd second.

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2. Adjusting the data with the context of conversation throughout the movie

The data were adjusted from source language and target language one-by- one then each pair of data was adjusted again with the context of the conversation in the movie The Ugly Truth.

3. Comparing data derived from the subtitle script contained in the movie The Ugly Truth

After all the data adjusted with the context of the conversation, they were compared to get assessments in terms of accuracy and acceptability.

4. Making questionnaire

Questionnaires were constructed and then they were given to the three raters. In those questionnaires, number scales were created ranging from 3 to 1 to facilitate the provision of value to the quality of translation of sexual terms in the movie The Ugly Truth.

5. Counting and describing the result of the questionnaires

Once the questionnaires were completed giving score by the raters, the score would be calculated to determine the percentage of translation quality of sexual terms in the movie. Data were examined using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Afterward, the results of the translation quality assessment were analyzed and described.

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F. Research Procedure

In this study, the researcher needed to do some procedures that consist of systematically intellectual activities, among others:

1. Determining the topic and problem statements

Before the topic determined, source data were examined to find phenomenon by researcher. After that, the topic was indentified to be examined and then problem statements were made by the researcher.

2. Doing research literature

The theories and quotations were collected. They had to relate to the topic of discussion and formulation of the problem for this research. The research literature was obtained from some various books and journals related to the topic.

3. Collecting data

All data were collected from the sources then they were filtered again become necessary data. The collected data must be also ensured that they were in accordance with those of the source data. In this stage, it took a few systematic intellectual methods as has been described before.

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4. Analyzing data

After all the data of sexual terms were collected and obtained, they were analyzed in terms of acceptability and accuracy from the raters ’ questionnaires results.

5. Making conclusions

Conclusions were made from the data analysis that had been done. The conclusions were acquired from the answers of the problem statements that were proposed by the researcher before.

6. Creating report

A report were made after the research finished. That report restrained of the explanations about the processes and the results of the research. It was written by

using the adjusted applicable provisions.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS

A. Introduction

In this chapter, researcher will analyze and discuss about her findings in this research to answer the problem statements mentioned in the first chapter about the translation techniques used by the translator and the translation quality assessment (accuracy and acceptability) of sexual terms in subtitle of the movie The Ugly Truth from English into Indonesian language.

B. Research Findings and Discussion

1. Classification of Sexual Terms

This chapter consists of the classification of sexual terms found in the movie The Ugly Truth. There are eight classifications of sexual terms in the movie. The first classification is sexual organs, the second classification is sexual activities, the third classification is sexual orientation, the forth classification is sex characters, the fifth classification is sexual attractions, the sixth classification is sexual equipments, the seventh classification is sexual emotions, and the last classification is sexual disease.

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1.1. Sexual Organs

A sex organ or primary sexual characteristic is any of the anatomical parts of the body that are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the

reproductive system in a complex organism (http://en.wikipedia.org/

wiki/Sex_organ). There are twenty-seven sexual organs found in the movie.

Table 4.1 Sexual Organs in the movie The Ugly Truth

No.

SL

Data Number

1. balls 001/ TUT/ 00:02:23

2. tits 005/ TUT/ 00:09:21

3. ass 006/ TUT/ 00:09:21

4. vagina 013/ TUT/ 00:15:12

5. breast 031/ TUT/ 00:29:06

6. butt 032/ TUT/ 00:31:56

7. breasts 044/ TUT/ 00:35:41

8. boobies 046/ TUT/ 00:36:01

9. vagina 047/ TUT/ 00:35:11

10. vagina 048/ TUT/ 00:36:18

11. ass 049/ TUT/ 00:36:20

12. ass 050/ TUT/ 00:36:26

13. dick 051/ TUT/ 00:36:40

14. ass 052/ TUT/ 00:37:04

15. ass 061/ TUT/ 00:38:21

16. penis 064/ TUT/ 00:41:40

17. tits 065/ TUT/ 00:42:51

18. crotch 066/ TUT/ 00:43:07

19. crotch 067/ TUT/ 00:43:07

20. cock 084/TUT/ 00:58:33

21. cock 085/ TUT/ 00:58:49

22. cock 086/ TUT/ 00:58:49

23. cock 087/ TUT/ 00:58:55

24. cock 089/ TUT/ 00:59:00

25. cock 090/ TUT/ 00:59:01

26. penis 093/ TUT/ 00:62:10

27. penis 094/ TUT/ 00:62:58 27. penis 094/ TUT/ 00:62:58

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1.2. Sexual Activities

It refers to

activities associated

with sexual intercourse

(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sexual+activity). Human sexual activities, human sexual practices, or human sexual behavior refers to the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. There are forty-seven sexual activities found in the movie.

Table 4.2 Sexual Activities in the movie The Ugly Truth

No.

SL

Data Number

1. blowjob 007/ TUT/ 00:09:31

2. sexual-harassment 011/ TUT/ 00:13:38

3. sexually harassing 012/ TUT/ 00:13:38

4. sex 014/ TUT/ 00:16:14

5. hooking up 015/ TUT/ 00:17:40

6. had sex 016/ TUT/ 00:17:44

7. erection 017/ TUT/ 00:17:49

8. erection 018/ TUT/ 00:17:52

9. erections 019/ TUT/ 00:17:54

10. erection 020/ TUT/ 00:17:56

11. dump-ass 021/ TUT/ 00:18:06

12. kiss 022/ TUT/ 00:18:45

13. kiss 023/ TUT/ 00:18:51

14. puberty 026/ TUT/ 00:21:28

15. blowjob 027/ TUT/ 00:25:39

16. threesome 028/ TUT/ 00:28:15

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