Green Energy and Technology

  Green Energy and Technology

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  • Nigel Horan Abu Zahrim Yaser Newati Wid

  Editors Anaerobic Digestion Processes

Applications and Effluent Treatment

  123 Editors Nigel Horan Newati Wid

Halifax Faculty of Science and Natural Resources

UK Universiti Malaysia Sabah

  Kota Kinabalu Abu Zahrim Yaser Malaysia Faculty of Engineering Universiti Malaysia Sabah Kota Kinabalu Malaysia

  ISSN 1865-3537 (electronic) Green Energy and Technology

  ISBN 978-981-10-8129-3 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8129-3 Library of Congress Control Number: 2018937333 ©

  Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

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I wish to thank Linda, Kate and Matthew for

their many years of tolerating both holiday

detours to visit sewage works and guests whose conversations invariably ended up discussing sewage.

  —Nigel Horan To my mom (Hamidah Khalil), dad (Yaser Malik) and families. Special thanks to my wife (Naimmaton Sa’adiah Mustain) and my children (A’ishah, Anas and Asma) for endless love, support and patience.

  —Abu Zahrim Yaser

This book is dedicated with much love to my

husband, Razak, my parents Mama-Baba and

The Wids.

  —Newati Wid Acknowledgements

  The Editors gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for their time and efforts in assisting the Editors with the reviewing of manuscript. This book would not have been possible without the commitment of the Reviewers.

  • Fadzil Noor Gonawan • M. Rafatullah Lari • Marcus Japony • Mariani Rajin • Md. Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee • Md. Mizanur Rahman • Mohd. Azmier Ahmad • Muhd. Nazrul Hisham Zainal Alam • Norazwina Zainol • Nurmin Bolong • Rafidah Hamdan • Rahmath Abdulla • Rosa Anna Nastro • Rovina Kobun • Ruwaida Abd. Rasid • S. M. Anisuzzaman • Wu Ta Yeong • Zainul Akmar Zakaria

Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

   N. J. Horan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

   Muaz Mohd Zaini Makhtar, Mashitah Mat Don and Husnul Azan Tajarudin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

   Syed Zaghum Abbas and Mohd Rafatullah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

   Mariani Rajin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

   Noorlisa Harun, Wan Hanisah W. Ibrahim, Muhamad Faez Lukman,

Muhammad Hafizuddin Mat Yusoff, Nur Fathin Shamirah Daud and Norazwina Zainol

   . . . . . . . . . . . . .

   N. Wid and N. J. Horan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Md. Mizanur Rahman, Yeoh Shir Lee, Fadzlita Mohd Tamiri and Melvin Gan Jet Hong

  I. Azreen and A. Y. Zahrim x Contents

  

  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  A. Y. Zahrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

   N. Bolong, H. A. Asri, N. M. Ismail and I. Saad N. Wid Editors and Contributors About the Editors

  Nigel Horan was a Lecturer in Public Health

Engineering at the University of Leeds for 35 years during which time he published five academic text-

  books and with over 120 refereed technical papers. In 1998, he established Aqua Enviro Ltd. and was the company Chair until its acquisition in 2015 by Suez Advanced Water Solutions. He specialises in the treatment of wastewaters, particularly using the acti- vated sludge process, and in the subsequent recovery of resources from sludge through anaerobic digestion.

  Abu Zahrim Yaser is a Deputy Dean (Research and Innovation) at Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). He obtained his Ph.D. from Swansea University and has published over 72 refereed technical papers. He is an outstanding reviewer for several Elsevier journals and a guest editor for Environmental Science and Pollution Research (Springer). He is a Visiting Scientist at the University of Hull. He is also a member of Board of Engineers (Malaysia), Institutions of Chemical Engineers (UK) and Malaysian Water Association. xii Editors and Contributors

  Newati Wid received her Ph.D. from the University of Leeds (UK) and currently is a Senior Lecturer in Industrial Chemistry, at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Her research focuses on wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastes through anaerobic digestion with over 10 refereed technical papers were published. In 2015 and 2016, she won gold medal for her research work on resource recovery at the Research and Invention Competition UMS.

Contributors

  Syed Zaghum Abbas Division of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

  H. A. Asri Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

  I. Azreen Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia N. Bolong Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia Nur Fathin Shamirah Daud Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia Mashitah Mat Don School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Malaysia; Cluster of Solid Waste Management, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Malaysia Noorlisa Harun Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia Melvin Gan Jet Hong Energy Research Unit (ERU), Mechanical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Sabah, Malaysia N. J. Horan School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; Aqua

Enviro Ltd., Wakefield, UK

  Wan Hanisah W. Ibrahim Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

  Editors and Contributors xiii

  N. M. Ismail Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia Yeoh Shir Lee Energy Research Unit (ERU), Mechanical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Sabah, Malaysia Muhamad Faez Lukman Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia Muaz Mohd Zaini Makhtar School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Malaysia Mohd Rafatullah Division of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Md. Mizanur Rahman Energy Research Unit (ERU), Mechanical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia Mariani Rajin Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

  I. Saad Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia Husnul Azan Tajarudin Division of Bioprocess, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Malaysia; Cluster of Solid Waste Management, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Malaysia Fadzlita Mohd Tamiri Energy Research Unit (ERU), Mechanical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Sabah, Malaysia N. Wid Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Muhammad Hafizuddin Mat Yusoff Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources

  Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

  A. Y. Zahrim Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia Norazwina Zainol Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

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