Improping student's reading comprehension of descriptive text through textual teaching and learning (CTL)

ABSTRACT

Zakiyah, Siti, 2011, Improving Students‟ Reading Comprehension Of Descriptive
Text Through Contextual Teaching And Learning (CTL) (Action
Research at Second Grade of Bakti Mulya 400 Junior High School
Jakarta), Skripsi, English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiyah
and Teachers Training, Islamic State University Syarif Hidayatullah
Jakarta.
Advisor: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M. Pd
Key Words: Contextual Teaching Learning, Descriptive text, Reading skill
This research is aimed to improve students’ reading comprehension of
descriptive text by using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) at VIII grade
of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta. This research is related to the result of a
preliminary study showed that the students were still confused to comprehend the
passage in reading skill; especially in descriptive text.
In conducting this study, the researcher used Classroom Action Research
(CAR) as the method of the research. She used research design of Kurt Lewin
which consisted of two cycles and each cycles consisted of four phases, they are:
Planning, Acting, Observing and Reflecting. Each cycle conducted in two
meetings. To collect and analyze the data, the researcher gained the information
from observation, interview, questionnaire, documentation and the students’
achievement in pre-test and post-test in order to support the data collected.
The finding of this research indicated that the implementation of
Contextual Teaching and Learning was successful since the criteria of success
were achieved. The first criterion was 70% of students could pass the assessment
score above 70 based on the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan
Minimal (KKM). The finding showed that 73.91% of students had already
achieved the target score. Besides, the second criterion was students who become
more active involved in learning process. The result of observation and interview
showed that students were active involved in the classroom. Based on the finding
mentioned before, the writer concludes that the English teacher could implement
the method of Contextual Teaching and Learning in order to motivate students in
reading comprehension of descriptive text.

v

ABSTRAK
ZAKIYAH, SITI, 2011, Improving Students‟ Reading Comprehension of
Descriptive Text Through Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL).
(Action Research at Second Grade of Bakti Mulya 400 Junior High
School Jakarta), Skripsi, Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Tarbiyah
dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
Pembimbing: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd.
Kata Kunci: Contextual Teaching and Learning, Descriptive text, Reading skill
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman membaca siswa
dalam teks deskriptif dengan strategi pembelajaran dan pengajaran kontekstual
pada siswa kelas VIII di SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta. Penelitian ini
berdasarkan pada observasi yang menunjukkan bahwa siswa masih memiliki
pemahaman yang kurang pada kemampuan membaca; khususnya pada teks
deskriptif.
Dalam melaksanakan penelitian ini, peneliti menggunakan metode
Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). Penelitian dilakukan mengikuti Kurt Lewin,
penelitian ini dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus dan masing-masing siklus terdiri dari
empat tahap, yaitu: perencanaan, pelaksanaan, observasi dan evaluasi. Tiap siklus
dilakukan dalam dua kali pertemuan. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian
ini yaitu: observasi, wawancara, angket, dokumentasi, dan test
Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa pelaksanakan pembelajaran
kontekstual dinyatakan berhasil dikarenakan tercapainya kriteria sukses. Kriteria
pertama ialah 70% dari siswa dapat mencapai nilai 70 (KKM), hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa 73.91% sudah mencapai nilai target. Di samping itu, kriteria
yang kedua ialah siswa terlihat lebih aktif dalam kegiatan belajar. Hasil dari
observasi dan wawancara menunjukkan bahwa siswa terlihat lebih aktif di dalam
kelas. Berdasarkan hasil yang telah di sebutkan, peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa
strategi pembelajaran dan pengajaran kontekstual dapat meningkatkan
pemahaman siswa dalam teks desriptif.

vi

IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION OF
DESCRIPTIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING
AND LEARNING (CTL)
(Classroom Action Research in the second year of VIII-3 Class of SMP Bakti
Mulya 400 Jakarta)
“Skripsi”
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training in a Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 in English Education

by:
Siti Zakiyah
NIM: 106014000436

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2011

i

DEPAR'I-EMEN AGAMA
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FoRM (FR)

Jl- lr. H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat 15412 lndonesia

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SEIIDIRI
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di bawah ini,

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karya sendiri clan
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IMPROVING STI]DENTS' READING COMPREHENSION OF
DESCRIPTIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACMNG

Ar[D LEARNTNG (CTL)
(Classroom Action Research in the second year of WII-3 Class of SMP Bakti

Mulya 400 Jakorta)

"Skripsio'
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers' Training

in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Strata

I

in English Education

by:

Siti Zakivah

NIM:

106014000436

Drs. Nasrun Mahmud" M. Pd.

NIP: 150 041 070

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

JAKARTA
2011

iii

ENDORSEMENT SHEET

The "Skripsi" (Scientific Paper) entitle "IMPROVING STUDENTS'

READING COMPREHENSION

OF

DESCRIPTIVE

TEXT

THROUGH

CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING" (A Classroom Action Research

in the second Year of VIII

-

3 Class of SMP Bakti Mulya 400), written by SITI

ZAKIYAH, student's regishation number

106014000436 was examined

in the

examination session of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training, Syarif
Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta on Mayo

4th 2011.

The "skripsio' has

been accepted and declared to have fulfilled one of the requirements for the
degree of "S.Pd" (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education at the English

Education Department.

EXAMINATION COMMITTE
CHAIRMAN : Drs. Syauki" M.Pd
NrP. 196412t2 199103

I002

SECRETARY: Nenens Sunenssih. S.Pd
NrP. 19730625 199903 2 001

EXAMINERS:

I

Dr. Fahrianv. M.Pd
NrP. 19700611 19912001

2. Drs. Nasifuddin

Dialil. M.Ae

NrP.19560506 199003 1 002

Acknowledged by:
Dean of Tarbiyah and Teachers' Training Faculty

lv

ABSTRACT

Zakiyah, Siti, 2011, Improving Students‟ Reading Comprehension Of Descriptive
Text Through Contextual Teaching And Learning (CTL) (Action
Research at Second Grade of Bakti Mulya 400 Junior High School
Jakarta), Skripsi, English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiyah
and Teachers Training, Islamic State University Syarif Hidayatullah
Jakarta.
Advisor: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M. Pd
Key Words: Contextual Teaching Learning, Descriptive text, Reading skill
This research is aimed to improve students’ reading comprehension of
descriptive text by using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) at VIII grade
of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta. This research is related to the result of a
preliminary study showed that the students were still confused to comprehend the
passage in reading skill; especially in descriptive text.
In conducting this study, the researcher used Classroom Action Research
(CAR) as the method of the research. She used research design of Kurt Lewin
which consisted of two cycles and each cycles consisted of four phases, they are:
Planning, Acting, Observing and Reflecting. Each cycle conducted in two
meetings. To collect and analyze the data, the researcher gained the information
from observation, interview, questionnaire, documentation and the students’
achievement in pre-test and post-test in order to support the data collected.
The finding of this research indicated that the implementation of
Contextual Teaching and Learning was successful since the criteria of success
were achieved. The first criterion was 70% of students could pass the assessment
score above 70 based on the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan
Minimal (KKM). The finding showed that 73.91% of students had already
achieved the target score. Besides, the second criterion was students who become
more active involved in learning process. The result of observation and interview
showed that students were active involved in the classroom. Based on the finding
mentioned before, the writer concludes that the English teacher could implement
the method of Contextual Teaching and Learning in order to motivate students in
reading comprehension of descriptive text.

v

ABSTRAK
ZAKIYAH, SITI, 2011, Improving Students‟ Reading Comprehension of
Descriptive Text Through Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL).
(Action Research at Second Grade of Bakti Mulya 400 Junior High
School Jakarta), Skripsi, Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Tarbiyah
dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
Pembimbing: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd.
Kata Kunci: Contextual Teaching and Learning, Descriptive text, Reading skill
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman membaca siswa
dalam teks deskriptif dengan strategi pembelajaran dan pengajaran kontekstual
pada siswa kelas VIII di SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta. Penelitian ini
berdasarkan pada observasi yang menunjukkan bahwa siswa masih memiliki
pemahaman yang kurang pada kemampuan membaca; khususnya pada teks
deskriptif.
Dalam melaksanakan penelitian ini, peneliti menggunakan metode
Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). Penelitian dilakukan mengikuti Kurt Lewin,
penelitian ini dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus dan masing-masing siklus terdiri dari
empat tahap, yaitu: perencanaan, pelaksanaan, observasi dan evaluasi. Tiap siklus
dilakukan dalam dua kali pertemuan. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian
ini yaitu: observasi, wawancara, angket, dokumentasi, dan test
Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa pelaksanakan pembelajaran
kontekstual dinyatakan berhasil dikarenakan tercapainya kriteria sukses. Kriteria
pertama ialah 70% dari siswa dapat mencapai nilai 70 (KKM), hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa 73.91% sudah mencapai nilai target. Di samping itu, kriteria
yang kedua ialah siswa terlihat lebih aktif dalam kegiatan belajar. Hasil dari
observasi dan wawancara menunjukkan bahwa siswa terlihat lebih aktif di dalam
kelas. Berdasarkan hasil yang telah di sebutkan, peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa
strategi pembelajaran dan pengajaran kontekstual dapat meningkatkan
pemahaman siswa dalam teks desriptif.

vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe, and Gratitude fully be to
Him for the health and the strength that enable the writer to complete this
‘skripsi’. The writer believes that without His grace, blessing, and guidance, this
‘skripsi’ wouldn’t be completed. Peace and blessing be upon beloved Prophet
Muhammad, his family, his companions and his followers.
There are so many people who had given valuable contributions to this
writing. First of all, the writer would like to express her greatest love and honor to
her beloved family: her parents, Mr. Anwar Rojali and Mrs. Siti Fatimah who give
their love, care and prayer, her beloved sister and brother, and all families who
always encourage her to finish this ‘skripsi’.
The writer would like to express her greatest thanks and gratitude to her
advisor Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd. for his guidance, comments, corrections and
suggestions to finish this ‘skripsi’.
The writer would like to convey her sincerest gratitude for all lectures of
English Department for their encouragement to the writer. Her gratitude to Drs.
Syauki, M.Pd. as the head of English Education Department and her gratitude is
also addressed to Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A, as the dean of Faculty of
Tarbiyah and Teachers Training.
Then, the writer would like to extend her thanks to H. Kamruz Zaman S.
Pd., M.MPd. as the headmaster of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta and Sri Lestari,
S. Pd as the English teacher for the help during the research.
Last but not least, the deepest thanks to her beloved special someone,
Hasyim Asy’ari and thanks to all her beloved friends in English Education
Department 2006/2007 academic year, especially C class who give their
motivation to finish this writing. The writer hopes Allah will always bless them
all.

Jakarta, January 17th, 2011

The Writer

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE……………………………………………………………………..

I

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI.........................................

ii

APPROVAL …………………………………………………...................

iii

ENDORSEMENT SHEET……………………………………..………..

iv

ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………...

v

ABSTRAK ……………………………………………………………….

vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………….

vii

TABLE OF CONTENT ………………………………………………….

viii

LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………..

xi

LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………

xii

LIST OF APPENDIXES………………………………………………….

xiii

CHAPTER I:

CHAPTER II :

INTRODUCTION
A. Background of Study ……………………………

1

B. Limitation and Formulation of the Problem………

5

C. Objective of the study……………………………

6

D. The Significance of Study ……………………....

6

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Reading
1.The General Concept of Reading………….

7

2. Kinds of Reading………………………….

9

3.The Purpose of Reading……………………

10

viii

B. The General Concept of Descriptive Text
1.The Definition of Descriptive text.………..

12

2.The Purpose of Descriptive text….………..

13

3.Schematic Structure of Descriptive Text…..
4.Linguistic Features of Descriptive Text……
C. The Concept of Contextual Teaching and Learning

15

(CTL) Method…………………………………….

16

1. The Definition of CTL ………………….

16

2. Principles of CTL………………………..

18

3. The Components of CTL………………..

20

4. The Strategies in CTL……………………
5. The Strength and Weakness of CTL …….
D. Teaching Reading Descriptive Text Through
Contextual Teaching and Learning……………..

CHAPTER III:

14

22
26
27

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. The Setting and Subject of the Study…………..

29

B. The design of the Study ………………………..

31

C. The Procedure of the Study……………………..

32

1. Planning Phase……………………………

33

2. Acting Phase………………………………

34

3. Observing Phase………………………….

34

4. Reflecting Phase………………………….
D. Technique of Collecting Data ………………….

35

1. Observation………………………………

35

2. Interview…………………………………

35

3. Questionnaire……………………………..

35

4. Test……………………………………….

36

E. Technique of Data Analysis……………………..

36

ix

CHAPTER IV:

RESEARCH FINDING
A. The Description of the Data ……………………..

39

1. Findings of the Preliminary Study……………

39

a. The Result of Pre Interview……………

40

b. The Result of Pre Observation…………

41

c. The Result of Pre Questionnaire……….

43

d. The Result of Pre Test………………….

43

2. Findings of First Cycle………………………..

43

a. Planning…………………………….
b. Acting……………………………….

44

c. Observing……………………………

45

d. Reflecting……………………………

45

3. Findings of Second Cycle……………………

46

a. Planning………………………………

46

b. Acting…………………………………

46

c. Observing……………………………..
d. Reflecting…………………………….
4. Discussion of the Data after CAR……………
a. The Result of Post Interview…………
b. The Result of Post Observation………
c. The Result of Post Questionnaire…….

47
47
48
48
49
49

d. The Result of Pretest, Posttest I and
Posttest II……………………………..

51

B. The Interpretation of the Data…………………….

58

1. Data Observation……………………………...

59

2. Data of Questionnaire…………………………

59

3. Data of Interview……………………………..

59

4. Data of Test…………………………………..

x

60

CHPATER V:

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion………………………………………
B. Suggestion………………………………………

62
63

BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………
APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………..

xi

64
66

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1

Language Feature of Descriptive Text ………………………

16

Table 4.1

The Result of Pre Questionnaire..............................................

41

Table 4.2

The Result of Post Questionnaire ……………………………

50

Table 4.3

The Students’ Reading Score of Pretest, Posttest I and Posttest
II ……………………………………..………………………

xii

52

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1

Kurt Lewin Design ……………………………………… 31

Figure 3.2

Design of Research Cycles (Adopted from Kurt Lewin
Design…………………………………………………….. 32

Figure 4.1

The Result of Students’ Score in Pretest ………………… 54

Figure 4.2

The Result of Studennts’ Score in Posttest I …………….. 56

Figure 4.3

The Result of Students’ Score in Posttest II …………….. 58

Figure 4.4

The Students’ Score achievement in Pretest, Posttest I and

31

32
54
56
58

Posttest II ………………………………………………… 61
61

xiii

LIST OF APPENDIXES

Appendix 1

Lesson Planning……………………………………….. 66

Appendix 2

The Question for Students (Before CAR)....................... 82

Appendix 3

The Question for Students (After CAR)………………. 84

Appendix 4

Guideline of Teacher’s Interview (Before CAR)……… 86

Appendix 5

Guideline of Teacher’s Interview (After CAR)………. 88

Appendix 6

Observational Notes in preliminary …………………. 90

Appendix 7

Observational Notes in Cycle I………………………. 92

Appendix 8

Observational Notes in Cycle II……………………… 94

Appendix 9

The Blueprint Test of Pretest………………………… 96

Appendix 10

The Blueprint Test of Posttest I…………………….. 100

Appendix 11

The Blueprint Test of Posttest II……………………. 104

Appendix 12

The Key Answers…………………………………… 109

Appendix 13

The Students’ Score in Pretest, Posttest I and Posttest
II……………………………………………………

110

Appendix 14

The Item Analysis………………………………….. 111

Appendix 15

Surat Pengajuan Judul Skripsi………………………. 114

Appendix 16

Surat Bimbingan Skripsi…………………………….. 115

Appendix 17

Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian…………………… 116

Appendix 18

Surat Permohonan Izin Observasi……………………. 117

Appendix 19

Surat Keterangan Observasi dan Penelitian Sekolah… 118
xiv

xv

1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses and presents Background of the Study, Limitation
of the Problem, Formulation of the Problem, Objectives of the Study and
Significance of the study.

A. Background of Study
Language cannot be separated from life. People use language as an
instrument of communication in their daily life. Language is a means of
communication to express a message of the speaker’s idea to listener. There
are many languages in the world but English remains the most important
language. English is one of the international languages of the present in this
era. As a sequence, English serves for many people as a bridge into the higher
science, international trade, politics, tourism, including education. Indonesian
students at Junior High School are aware of the importance of English, even if
they have learned it as local content subject when they sat at 4th grade of
elementary level. Besides, they will continue their study to Senior High
School in which at this level English becomes a national content subject and
one of the subjects to be nationally examined.

1

2

In conducting teaching learning process, the teacher should follow the
curriculum recommended. It is line with the Decree of the Minister of
Education number 22/ 2006 about the national content standard composed by
BNSP. It is mentioned that “teaching learning process of English language
consists of four skills; they are Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing.1
Listening and reading are called receptive skills, since they only receive the
word without producing the words. Speaking and writing are called productive
skills, because those skills produce words in different ways. By producing the
words they can express their feeling or message in verbal or non verbal. As
one of four language skills, reading has own characteristic. Reading provides
some activities to help the reader comprehend the written expressions. The
reader can get a lot of knowledge, information, enjoyment, or even problem
solution.
Gray identifies four different steps in the reading act: word perception,
comprehension, reaction, and integration. The first step is word recognition,
including both the ability to pronounce the words and attach meaning to it as a
concept. The second step is the ability to make individual words construct
useful ideas as they are read in context. The third step requires judgmental
action – a feeling about to assimilate this idea, concept, new reading, into the
background of experience so that it becomes a part of the total experience of
the individual. These steps are completely interdependent in the meaningful
use of reading as a tool in the solutions of problems.2
Reading is one of language skills that have to be mastered. There are
many steps to master this skill; such as word perception, comprehension,
reaction and integration. Those steps can make students master reading skill
effectively, because based on those steps the students can understand
meaningful text.
1

Depdikbud, Kurikulum Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan 2006 Standar Isi SD,
SMP dan SMA (Jakarta: Depdikbud, 2006), p.14
2
William S. Gray, On Their Own in Reading, (Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Company,
1984), pp.35-37

3

Therefore, the problem of understanding the text in reading can be
caused by many factors. One of them is the learning strategy in teaching and
learning process which is ineffective in the classroom. Generally, the students
only read the text but they don’t understand its meaning and identification. It
is indicated that they don’t get information from text. If they don’t understand
meaningful text, they can’t answer the question based on the text and can’t
identify the structure of the text well.
Based on Competency Standard (Standar Kompetensi) and Basic
Competency (Kompetensi Dasar), the second year students are expected to be
able to understand and respond meaningful written texts in term of functional
written text and simple short essay in the form of descriptive and recount text
interact with people in the nearest environment.3 There are many types’ texts
in reading, which are closely related to the purpose of each type. Descriptive
text is one of the text types that taught at the second year of Junior High
School.
Descriptive text has a social function is to describe a particular person,
place, or thing, for instance, description of a particular building, specific
animal, particular place, and specific person.4 On the other hand, descriptive
text has told description and identification of something, someplace or
someone. It persuades the reader to imagine the text content.
Based on the writer’s observation through conducting preliminary
study during teaching learning writing activity in the second year of 8-3 class
at SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta, the writer found that many students had
difficulty in reading descriptive text. It was proved by the result of the
students’ reading in preliminary study. The mean score of the students reading
was 55.21, while the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan
Minimal (KKM) was 70. The result indicates that the students’ reading
3

Depdikbud, Kurikulum Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan 2006 Standar Isi SD,
SMP dan SMA (Jakarta: Depdikbud, 2006)
4

Rudi Hartono, Genres of Text, (Unpublished Paper), (Semarang: Semarang State
University, English Departement Faculty of Language and Art, 2005), p. 6.

4

achievement was still low. Besides, it was supported by the result of interview
to the English teacher and students’ questionnaire in preliminary study that the
students’ difficulties come from the weaknesses of student understanding in
comprehend the text; therefore they did not answer the question correctly.
Also, the students had difficulty in analyze the linguistic and schematic
structures of descriptive. Furthermore, the students tend to be bored and low
participation in reading class because the process of teaching and learning
activities was monotonous. So, to make the students can improve of
understanding descriptive text, there should be an effort to make reading class
more interesting.
According to Harmer in his book stated that “The reading to confirm
expectations’ technique is highly motivating and succesful since it interests
students, creates expectations and gives them a purpose for reading”. 5 Based
on this statement, the teachers assumed to teach reading in interesting learning
and give the aim of reading to students.
To achieve the goal of learning, teacher must have or create a good
teaching strategy to make the class effective and well-organized. Therefore, in
teaching descriptive text, teacher needs good teaching strategy.
Here the writer takes her point of view that one of methods that could be
used to make an easy and better understanding in learning descriptive reading
is Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). In Contextual Teaching and
Learning, the teachers not only give the material, but also make the students
participate in the class by connecting the material with their real life. As
quoted by Nurhadi:
“Contextual Teaching and Learning is the concept of learning
where the teacher creates the real-world into the class and encourages
the students making the connection between their own knowledge with
is implementation in their daily life; meanwhile the students get
knowledge and skill from the limited context, little by little, and from
5

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching (New York: Longman
Publishing, 1991), p.193.

5

the self-constructed process, as a foundation for solving problems in
their life as member of society.”6
In accordance with the explanation above, the writer intend to conduct a
classroom

action

research

entitled:

“Improving

Students‟

Reading

Comprehension of Descriptive Text Through Contextual Teaching and
Learning (CTL) (Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of 8-3 Class
of Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta)”.

B. Limitation and Formulation of The Problem
1. The Limitation of the Problem
Based on the background above, the writer limits the study focus on
the improving students’ descriptive reading through Contextual Teaching
and Learning in the second year of 8-3 class at SMP Bakti Mulya 400
Jakarta
2. The Formulation of the Problem
In line with the background of the study, the writer formulates the
research question as follows:” Can Contextual Teaching and Learning
improve the students’ descriptive reading in the second year of 8-3 class of
SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta? And then “How does Contextual Teaching
and Learning improve the students’ descriptive reading in the second year
of 8-3 Class of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta?”
C. Objective of the Study
According to the formulation of problem above, the objective of this
study is to know whether and to know how Contextual teaching and Learning
can improve the students’ descriptive reading in the second year students of 83 class of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta.

6

Nurhadi, Pembelajaran Kontekstual dan penerapannya dalam KBK, (Malang:
Universitas Negeri malang, 2004, 2ed) p.13.

6

D. The Significance of the Study
The study is expected to be valuable for English teachers, school,
students and other future researcher. For the English teachers, the finding of
this study is useful to give the alternative solution in teaching reading
descriptive text through Contextual Teaching and Learning. For school, this
study is beneficial to improve school quality in education. For the students, it
enables students to make learning enjoyable so that it will improve their
reading comprehension in understanding descriptive text. This study is also
expected to be a reference for other future researchers who have the same
problem and interest in conducting the similar studies.

7

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter covers some theories related to the study. The discussion
focuses on the General Concept of Reading, Kinds of Reading, Purpose of
Reading, The Definition of Descriptive Text, Purpose of Descriptive Text,
Schematic Structures of Descriptive, The Definition of Contextual Teaching
and Learning (CTL), Principles of CTL, Components of CTL, Strategies of
CTL, The Strength and Weakness of CTL, and the last discussion about
Teaching Reading Descriptive Text Through CTL.

A. Reading
1. The General Concept of Reading
Reading is a skill, so the only way people can become a good and a
fluent reader is through practice. To practice in reading, people don’t read
about the passage but also they can practice their reading to read
announcement, news, or about the situation, and so on.
So far people have been considering reading only. This is the basis of
literacy. Unless they can read the words accurately they cannot access the

7

8

meaning. Accessing meaning is the rationale for reading. The simple view
of reading is that reading is the product of decoding and comprehension.1
So, while the reader was doing reading, their brain has worked directly.
Then from the brain’s work, they can find the information gap of the
passage.
According to S. Pang, reading process is assumed as follow:
Reading consists of two related processes: word recognition and
comprehension. Word recognition refers to the process of
perceiving how written symbols correspond to one’s spoken
language. Comprehension is the process of making sense of words,
sentences, and connecting text. Readers typically make use of the
background knowledge, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge,
experience with the text and other strategies to help them
understand written text.2
Based on the explanation above, the writer identified that the reader
need many aspect to understand what they are reading. The aspect reading
which support are background knowledge; they will understand of
passage’s meaning if they have more knowledge about the topic.
Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge; without two its aspect, the reader
don’t know of passage meaning. Next aspect is experience; if the readers
don’t have experience about the topic, so they don’t more understand of
passage meaning.
Another resource said that reading is an exercise dominated by the
eyes and the brain. The eyes receive the messages and the brain then has to
work out the significance of these messages.3 It is indicated that when

1

Naomi Flynn and Rhona Stainthorp, The Learning and Teaching of Reading and

Writing, (England: Whurr Publisher Limited, 2006), p.42.
2

Elizabeth S. Pang et al, Teaching Reading, (Switzerland: International Academy of

Education, 2003), p. 6.
3

Jeremy harmer, The Practice of English language Teaching, (New York: Longman,

1991), p. 191 .

9

someone have read, their brain work together to comprehend the content of
the passage.
However, in reading comprehension the readers also need to combine
the information from the text with their background knowledge to
comprehend the text. Larry Lewin considered this as “prior knowledge”.
He stated that:
“prior knowledge is regarded as what the readers know toward
incoming topic concerning their past knowledge which is stored in
the brain then occurring the integration of newly information to
evoke retrieving the existing information to save them into their
memories in categories called schemata or it widely known as
„schema theory’.4
Based on the statement above, the writer conclude that to grasp the
meaning or get information of the passage, a reader is sought to gain the
ability to interpreting the passage meaningfully where he or she needs
prior knowledge to assist him or her in making sense of the author’s
message.

2. Kinds of Reading
There are two kinds of reading as below: 5
a. Intensive Reading
Intensive reading refers to detailed focus on the construction of
reading text which takes place usually in classroom. In addition, Nuttal
stated that “Intensive reading involves approaching the text under the
guidance of a teacher or a task which forces the student to focus on the
4

Lary Lawin, Paving the way in Reading and Writing: Strategies and Activities to

Support Struggling Students in Grades 6-12, (San francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003), p.23.
5

pp.99-100.

Jeremy harmer, How to Teach English, new edition (New York: Longman, 2007),

10

text. The aim is to arrive at an understanding, not only of what the text
means, but of how the meaning is produced.”6
In another hand, in intensive reading, as the term indicates, each
vocabulary and structural item is explained and made as fact of our active
language, pronunciation, and intonation are stressed, and each concept
allusion is clarified. Besides intensive reading is used to gain a deep
understanding of a text, which is important for the reader. The process of
scanning takes a more prominent role here than skimming.
b. Extensive Reading
According to Nuttal in her book about extensive reading stated
that:“It is assumed that in order to understand the whole (e.g book), the
reader must first understand the parts (sentences, paragraph, chapters) of
which it is made up. However, the reader can in fact often understand a
text adequately without grasping every part of it; students have to be
encouraged to develop this facility.”7
Based on the statement above, the reader should select a good
reading material which the material related to extensive reading. In this
activity, reading is for pleasure. Besides, the reader doesn’t need to
understand each words because in this step the purpose of reading is
merely needs to get an overall understanding of the passage or text.
3. Purpose of Reading
Generally, people read something because they want to or because
they have a desire to do so and a purpose to achieve.

6

Christine Nuttal, Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Langauge, (London: Mcmillan,

2005),p.38.
7

Christine Nuttal, Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Langauge,.... p.128.

11

There are some purposes of reading which are declared by some
experts. According to Francoise in his book stated that “there are two main
reasons of reading; reading for pleasure and reading for information (to
find out something or in order to do something with information you
got).”8
Moreover, the essential purpose of reading generally is to get new
information or pleasure. Reading for information is reading that the reader
has not stop to analyze the grammatical structures; the reader understand
the structure without thinking about it. Reading for information requires
that the reader understand of meaning passage.
Reading for information may range from the scanning of documents
and the reading of letters to in depth understanding of articles of books.
Whether we are reading for pleasure or information, the nature of the
reading depends on what we want from the text.
In addition, Nuttal stated in her book that “whatever your reason for
reading (excluding any reading for language learning), it is not very likely
that you were interested in the pronunciation of what you read, and even
less likely that you more interested in the grammatical structured used.
You read because you wanted to get something from the writing.”9 This
statements also emphasizes on no matter the reader’s technique used in
reading, it aims to convey the message of the passage.
In other hand, those explanation above conclude that the general
purpose in reading mainly to get something or information and make
pleasure with reading from the text without attention of the technique used
in reading.
8

Francoise Grellet, Developing Reading Skill: A Practical Guide to Reading

Comprehension Exercise, (Cambridge University Press, 1986), p.4
9

Christine Nuttal, Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Langauge,... p.3.

12

B. The Concept of Descriptive Text
1.

The Definition of Descriptive Text
One of genres that Junior High School students learnt is Descriptive

text. Based on Competency Standard (Standar Kompetensi) and Basic
Competency (Kompetensi Dasar), the second year students are expected to
be able to understand and respond meaningful written texts in term of
functional written text and simple short essay in the form of descriptive
and recount text interact with people in the nearest environment.10
Descriptive text is a text which describes something. According to
Djuharie, he said that descriptive text is a text which describes and gives
more detail information about particular people, thing, place and animal.11
It means that descriptive text tells the readers to know about something
specifically by giving characteristic of something which described.
Moreover, descriptive text tells about the senses how something
looks, feels, smells, tastes, and sound.12 It shows how the reader can feel
and imagine the description of text. Whereas, Buscemi argued that the
fundamental to describe is appealing to the senses (sight, hearing, and
touch).13 Based on this statement, it means that in describing something, it
needs to explain what people see, hear, and feel.
Regarding the previous explanation, the writer concludes that
descriptive text is a text which describes something and includes of the
characteristic and qualification of something, someone, or somewhere. It
10

Depdikbud, Kurikulum Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan 2006 Standar Isi SD,

SMP dan SMA (Jakarta: Depdikbud, 2006)
11

Otong Setiawan Djuharie, Gendre Dilengkapi 700 Soal Uji Pemahaman, (Bandung:
Yrama Widya, 2007), p. 24.
12
Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Introduction to Academic Writing 3rd Edition, (New
York: Pearson Longman, 2007), p. 61.
13
Santi V. Buscemi and Charlotte Smith, 75 Reading Plus 7th Edition, (New York: The
McGraw Hill Companies Inc, 2004), p. 44.

13

tells the readers with detail information that can help them to imagine and
to describe in their mind about what the content of the text.

2.

The Purpose of Descriptive Text
The purpose of descriptive text is to describe people, thing, place, and

animal.14 Students read descriptive text might be basically to know way of
describe someone, something or somewhere. It means the reader can get
information about characteristic, qualification, parts, and so on.
Meanwhile, According to Anderson and his sister stated that the purpose
of descriptive text is to tell about subject by describing the characteristic
without including personal opinions, the example of descriptive text are
description of a particular building, description of a specific animal,
description of a particular place, and description of a specific person.15 The
aim of description is to enable the reader what something looks like. It
attempts to paint a picture with words. In this sense, the description also
attempts to put the reader directly in touch with the physical world within
the readers’ senses. Description helps the readers visualize a scene or a
person and understand the related sensation or an emotion. It also helps
students to organize their thinking as well as their writing, and to be able
to communicate thoughts and ideas clearly to the reader.
Based on those statements above, descriptive text has a purpose to
describe a particular person, places, animals, and things that tells about
their characteristics and qualification. Then, it helps the reader to imagine
what the text is about.

14

Otong Setiawan Djuharie, Gendre Dilengkapi 700 Soal Uji Pemahaman, (Bandung:
Yrama Widya, 2007), p. 24.
15
Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English, (South Yarra: Machmillan
Education Australia, 1998), p. 26.

14

3.

Schematic Structures of Descriptive Text
An effective descriptive text has several significant characteristics

which a reader may use as standard to guide his or her reading. The
schematic structure of descriptive paragraph consists of identification and
description.16 Identification mentions phenomenon to be describe, while
the description describes the parts, the qualities, and the characteristics of
what has been described.
In conclusion, the schematic structure is important to organize a good
descriptive paragraph. It can help to see the organization of description
clearly. So, the reader can easy to get imagination of description.
The example of schematic structure of descriptive text:
My Best Friend

Title

I have a lot of friends. But my closest friend
Identification

is Farida Sohia.
Farida is my classmate. She is not tall or
short. She is medium height. She is quite slim. She
has dark, curly hair and brown eyes. Her skin is fair.
She is beautiful and elegant. She is energetic and

Description

sometimes very funny. She behaves politely
towards everybody. People frequently think she is
an African offspring, but she is actually a Javanese
genuine. She comes from Jogjakarta, but she moved
to Jakarta Last year. She looks more beautiful when
she is smiling.

16

Rudi Hartono, Genres of Text, (Unpublished Paper) …, p. 7.

15

Farida is pleasing peer. I am happy to spend
my time with her. She is always available to help
her friends who are in trouble. She is never angry
Description

with any friends who try to annoy him. Because she
is so smart, most of her classmates seek her to
explain any difficulties in any school subjects. I am
proud of having such best friend.

4.

Linguistic Features of Descriptive Text
According to Hartono in his book about linguistic features of

descriptive text, he assumed that the linguistic features of description are:
first, focus on specific participants. Second, use of attribute and identifying
processes. Next, use of epithets and classifier in nominal groups. The last,
use of simple present tense.17 In addition, linguistic of descriptive text
includes verb in present time, use adjective to describe the feature of the
subject, and topic sentences to begin paragraph and organize the various
aspect of the description.

18

Based on those statements, It mean that

linguistic feature of descriptive text consist of specific participant who
describe it, use simple present and also use attributive to identify itself.
The writer tries to identify linguistic feature from the previous
descriptive text above. It is as following:

17

Rudi Hartono, SS, M. Pd. Genres of Text, (Unpublished Paper),( Semarang: Semarang
State University: English Department Faculty of Language and Art, 2005), p.9
18
Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 3 …, p. 26.

16

Table 2.1
Language Features of Descriptive Text
No

Linguistic Features

1

Specific Participants

2

Simple Present Tense

3

Action Verb

4

Use of adjective

5

Linking Verb

Examples
Farida Sophia
 I have a lot of friends.
 She behaves politely towards everybody.
 People frequently think she is an African or
American offspring, but she is actually a
Javanese genuine.
 She looks more beautiful when she is
smiling.
Think
Try
Come
Seek
Looks
Annoy
Spend
Explain
Tall
Short
Medium height
Curly
Quit slim
Beautiful
Dark
Angry
 Is
 Am

C. The Concept of Contextual Teaching and Learning Method
1. Definition of Contextual Teaching and Learning
Today, most of students in the school got a lot of material that was
not in context. Therefore, they were difficult to make connection between
what they are learning and how that knowledge will be use in their daily
lives. The methods of the classroom teaching sometimes not really touch
the learning process. The students rarely have an opportunity to experience
hands-on learning.

17

Nowadays, educators find the necessary to think over about how
they teach; they feel that learning occurs only when students process new
information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in
their own frames or references.19 Therefore, the appropriate approach
should be used in order to make the learning process really work.
There are several method proposed in order to achieve the goal pf
the study. Each method offered many gains. CTL method is one of
methods proposed. John Dewey was the first proposed the application of
Contextual Learning was first proposed at the turn of the 20th century,
Progressivism, which is believed that the students will best learn if what
they have learned the materials which are related with they have already
known and teaching learning process will be productive if the students are
active in the process of teaching.20
According to Johnson, Contextual Teaching and Learning is an
educational process that aims to help students see meaning in the academic
material they are studying by connecting academic subjects with the
context of their lives, that is, with context of their personal, social, and
cultural circumstance.21 In this understanding, by using CTL system,
students are able to connect the subject materials with the context of their
daily life. It means the subject materials should go along with daily need.
In addition, Contextual Teaching and Learning is a conception of
teaching and learning that helps teacher relate subject matter content to
real world situation and motivates students to make connections between
knowledge and its application to their lives as family member’s citizens
19

Nur Hadi, Pendekatan Kontekstual (Contextual Teaching and Learning/CTL). Jakara:

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2003) p.3.
20

Nur Hadi, Pendekatan Kontekstual (Contextual Teaching and Learning/CTL)...., p.8.

21

Elaine B Johnson, Contextual Teaching and Learning; Why It Is and Why It Is Here to

Stay?, (United States of America: Corwin Press, Inc 2002) p.25

18

and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires.22 Based
on this statement, CTL can help the teacher relates her or his subject to
real world situations and also can motivate students to connect between
what is being learned and their prior knowledge.
Based on the preceding definitions, the writer conclude that CTL is
a conception of teaching and learning that helps students to get a better
understanding about the knowledge as they relate to the context of real
life.

2. Principles of Contextual Teaching and Learning
Contextual learning assumed that students learn best actively
constructing their own understanding. Related with the students
individually needed, to apply the Contextual Teaching and Learning
(CTL), a teacher should have these following principles below which is
line with Nur Hadi stated in his book:23
a. Lesson plans that are developmentally appropriate for the
students.
The relationship between curriculum content and methodology
that used teach must base on the particular levels of the
students’ social condition, emotional and students’ intellectual
development.
b. Making independent learning group.
Through a small group, the students able to learn cooperate
each others. However, the students hoped to learn and act

p.20

22

http://www.cew.wisc.edu/teachnet/ctl/

23

Nur Hadi, Pendekatan Kontextual (Contextual Teaching and Learning / CTL )......,

19

actively. They hoped to improve their knowledge about the
topic which discussed.
c. Preparing an environment that supports

self-regulating

learning.
Environment that support self-regulating learning has three
general characteristic, they are: awareness thinking, the use of
strategy, and continuing motivation. The students are
encouraged to know their strong and their weakness to organize
the learning goal and develop the strategies to achieve the goal.
Therefore the teacher must create an environment where the
students can reflect how they learn to help them use their
thinking to guide their plans, select their performance, so they
can solve the problem in good way.
d. Considering diversity of students.
In teaching and learning process, the teacher have found
stude

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