Differences in Crop Growth Rate , Chlorophyll Content Index and Nitrate Reductase in Source N of Sweet Corn - Diponegoro University | Institutional Repository (UNDIP-IR)

lnternational Proceedings of Chemical,
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Food and Environmental Sciences II



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Volume 92


Food and Environmental Sciences

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Organizing Committees
Conference General


Prof. Mtwako Hosoda, SEISA Universi$, Japan

Assoc. prof. Van Met Man LE, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho ChiMinh City,



Program Co-Chairs
Dr. DAM SAO MAl, Dean of the Biotechnology and Food Technology lnstitute, lndustrial

university of HCMC, Metnam

Technical Committee
Prof. Dan J. Donoghue, Department of Pouhry Sciene, University of Arkansas, USA
Prof. Alfred Antony Christy, University of

Agdet Norway

Prof. Muhammad Hattah Fattah, Faculty of Fisheris and Marine Science, Universities Muslim,
Prof. Sunil Kr. Ghosh, Agricultural Entomology, AINP on Acarology, Directorate of Research,

Assoc.Prof. Mohammad Reza Alizadeh, Rice Research lnstitute of lran
Dr. KomalaArsi, Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA

Dr, Jianbo Xiao, University of Macau, Macau

Thble of Contents
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Flora Diversity in the Intestinal Tract of Elderly Mice
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Effect of Different Packaging Materials on the Quality of Tuna and Use of Comrgated 8
Cardboard as Suitable Packaging Material for Fisheries Logistics
Hiroko Seki, Kaori Naka;ato, Ka:unori Kobayashi, Mio Sakurada, Tae Soo Lee and Naoko

Utilization of Celluloses from Pomelo (Citrus grandis) Albedo as Functional Ingredient I8
in Meat Marination
Salma Mohamad Yusop, Nor Fa:elin Mat Zain. Abdul Salam Babji and Nurkhwaiah

Differences in Crop Growth Rate, Chlorophyll Content Index and Nitrate Reductase

Source N of Sweet Corn
Endang Dwi Purbajanti, Flarentina Kxrmiyati, Wdyati Slamet, Adriani Darmawati and
Wludjeng Roessali


Farmers'Responses to Vegetable Production Technology in East Java, Indonesia
Amanqtu: Zuhriyah, Noor Ri=kiyah, Ilugrahini S. Wisnujati, Putu B. Daroini and Joka




Fertilizer Efficiency for Improvement of Chili Productivity through Starter Solution
Evl' Lat{ah, Mustika Tripatmasarr, Susi Kresnatita, Titin Apung Atikah and Jsko Mariyono'


Napier Grass Performance UnderAgroforestry Systems of Upland Area on Tuntang 39
Watershed, Indonesia
Adriani Darmawati. Syadul Anwar ond Endang Dwi Purbajanti
Impact of Field School Program- Integrated Crop Management (FS-ICM) on the
of Technology Adoption and Efficiency of Rice Farming in East Java Indonesia
M. Saeri. Suyamto, D.W. Laily and dan Rahmawiliyanti
The Trend to Use Beverages Based on Age, Gender, Job, lncome and Location





Dam Sao Mai and Dang Bui Khue

Study of Impact of Urbanization on the Climate Change in Dubai and in Reducing







lnternational Proceedings ofChemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, l'o1.92 (24161

DOI: l0.776irlPcBEE. 2016. t'92. 4

Differences in Crop Growth Rate, Chlorophyll Content Index and

Nitrate Reductase in Source N of Sweet Corn
Endang Dwi Purbajanti


Florentina Kusmiyati, Widyati Slamet, Adriani Darmawati, Wiludjeng

Facultl of Agriculture Sciences. Diponegoro Universitl'. Tembalang Campus. Semarang. Indonesia 50275
research ro assess the interaction of nitrogen sources and doses of N in the growth and
production as well as physiologicat effects of corn plants has been conducted in the Faculty of Anintal and
Agriculturai Sciences. Diponegoro Universitr'. Indonesia^ The research uses trvo sources ofnilrogen namell
NO3- lpotassium nitrale) and NH4+ (ammonium sullbtel" and doses of N (0.50. 100 and 150 kg N/ha). The
resulls shou'ed that the dose ofN fertilizer significantll'effected on plant height. CCI. NR. CCR and rveight
of com cobs. The interaction between the source of N and the dose of fenilizer N significantll' effecled on
CCl. NR. and CCR- horvever. it had no significant effect on planr height and u'eight ofcont oobs. The dosc
of N as much as 1,50 kg per ha resulted in plant height. CCl. NR, CCR and the highest cobs. respectivel;82.f3cm^ 3.43, 84.3 unrol. 18.87 g/da1'and 3538.2 g per plot.

Abstract. A


Sqeet corn. chloroph;-ll eonlent index. NR. CGR. corncob.

1. Introduction
Sn,eet com (Zea mavs L.) is a member of the Poaceae i'ami11'. Corn is from Mexico Il]. Com is the third
major cereal crop after u'heat and rice. Com plants have an assortment of uses. namell'as food. lor industry
of processed production and as animal I'eed. Corn has manl tl,pes of cultir,ars and diflbrent plant ages have
ditlerent tolerance ro different environmental conditions. In production ofplants. nitrogen can be in the lornr
of NO;-N and NHr-Ni because the plants absorb N in the tbrm of NO;-N or NFI+-N [2]. The abilitl of n*
uptake b1'the plants van, considerabll duling ihe plant gro\\th. On the ground uith suficient N. N plants
accumulation is strongll'associated u'ith plant gronth and accumulation of biomass [3].

Nitrogen is the main nutrienl. it is a constituent conponent of amino acids, peplides and proteins.
chlorophl'll. nucleic acids and manl cofactors and plant def-ense compounds. At the majoritl' olhigher piants
that grorv in good aeration soil. nitrate is a nrajor source of inorganic nitrogen. Nitrates in rhe planr turn into
nitrite. and ammonium. belbre assirnilated into amino acids. in a highll complex series olreactions in cells
and tissues [4]. Nitrogen (i*N) is a macro nutrients n'hich is essential for the plant. but it is quite expensive to
be f'ulfilled and mal result either in unfavorable enlironmental conditions. An estimation of 50-70% ol a
given suppll of N is lost and cannbt be used bl plants [5]. Nitrogen (N) is the most important limiting
nutrient for plant eror,'th and the availabilit-r'of N. theretbre. it simpll acts as a ke1'factor to the health)'
increase in agricultural production [6]. It n'as considered to be the most inrportant tbctor since it pla;'s several
important roles in the metabolism and resulation in plants.

Nitrogen is easl' to elaporare and leach in the soil. ln relation to N uptake b1' plants. plants utilize
nitrogen in the lbrm o{'nirite and ammonium. Nitrogen uptake b1 plant rools and its translocation is
primarill,in the form of nitrate (NO:-)and ammonium (NHr-)and amino acids. Plants absorb nitrogen based
on their natule and preferences. The lbrms of inorganic i**. ammonium and nitrate. are both easill'available
Corresponding author. Tel.: + 62217174i5A.far
ad d re.s s : edpurbajantitlr'ahoo. com



E - nta i I


to plants but thel. have different reactions in the soil. Different sources of nitrogen rvill affect the uptake b1'
plants. KNO3 is a provider of nitrogen fertilizers in the lbrm NO:'. v''hile AS (ammonium sulfate) is a
provider ofnitrogen in the form ofNHr-. In addition to "1he predilection" ofplanis abilitl'to absorb nutrients
N is affected by'pH and the presence ofother elements that are antagonistic or s1'nergistic rvith nitro-een. The
studl' aims to investigate the response of corn plants towards different t1'pes of nitrogen source. IJased on
that reason. specificalll'the targeted results through the course ofthis research rtas to studl the interaction ol'
nitrogen sources and doses ofN in the grouth and production as rvell as plant ph1'siological efl'ects of sileet

2. Materials and Methods
The studl \\'as conducted in the labolatory of the Facultl'


Animal and Agricultural Sciences.

Diponegoro Universitr'. lndonesia during the drl season monlhs o1 August 1o Decemher 201 4. The research
location has Orisol soil t3,pes rvith clal,soil texture- soil pl{ of6.7. a().1?aro total N content. total P ol0.l0 9o.
0.12% of K total and C contenl of 0.99%. The research of s* eet com |Zett ntqs .raccharara) s'as perfornred
using 24 experimental plot siz-e 212 m2. u,ith a spacing ol 50 x 50 cm so that each plol had l6 planls. 1-he

(potassium nitrate) anri NHa- (ammoniuni sulfate). Factor


: a

source of'nitrogen iNOr"

: nitrogen lcnilizers. ie 0. 50. l0f) and 150 kg

Each plant obtains l'enilizer of N. P and K *ith the appropriate lreatment dose of N. P ferrilizers as much
as 50 kg P1O. per hectare and K as much as 50 kg KCI per hectare. Micro-nutlients are giren in the forrrr ol'
liquid fertilizer of ahout 5 ml u,hich are dissolved in one liter of nater and spraled onto plants at the age of

one s'eek after planting. The parametels ofthe experiment are the plants hcight. chlorophlll content inder
(CCl)\\'hich rvas perlbrmed on the lllih leal'lionr the tip of the plant. the activil)'o1'nitrate rcductase (NI{}.
crop gronth rate and ucight olcobs.
Com plant height is measured from the ground to the highest end. Chlorophlll content index (CCI) is thc
ratio 01'chlorophl'll a and b. measured using a ('Cl meter. Analrsis o1'nitrale reductase activit)'is carried out
in accordance to [71. Conr eobs harlested are tlren ri'c'ighed. Corn stover is the stra,'i ol'corn thal is crr]p

vieldsolcornuiththecobstaken. C(.illparametersbasedt'rnthcdrymaftcr-(S':.dr)


ol harlest- t l.tirne of planting [tl].
Iirom the obsenalion of'parameters anall'zed r.ariance and orthogonal ptlll'nomials.

seedling drv mattet'1,/t.. time


there arc

ditlerences continued u ith Duncan multiple range test according to [9]

3. Result and Discussion
3.1. Result
Arr"OVA results indicate that the N source signiticantll' et'lect on plant hei*eht. CC'I. n*11.. CCI{ and
teight of corn cohs. Dose of lenilizerll- signillcantll'e1}ect on plant height. CCl. Nlt. CCR and rvr'ieht ol'
corn cobs. Intcraction betu'een

tht;- source

of N and N lertilizer dose signilicantl;'efl"ect on CCI. NR. CCR

bu1 had no sisniflcant ef'fect on plant height and n'eight



r"\iirogen source in the lbrm of nitrale results in the corn plant height ol'17.96tt/o higher than thc nitrogcn
source of amnronium fot'm. CCI using the source of nitrogen as nitrate is i5.93oio higher than amnronium.
Nitrate reductasc- (NR1 r'alue irith a source olnitrogen as nitrate is 8.16% higher than ammoniunr. Crop
grorrlh rare due to the use of nitrate lbrm of nitrogen sources is 14.5 lozir higher than the ammoniunr fitrnt.
Clops o1'cobs due to the use ol nilrate form ol nitro-sen sources ate l4.27oro higher than N sources in the
fornr of anrmoni urr(.fable I ).

The doses ofnitrogen increased the plant height ol 13.6 to 36.01t96 due to the incrcasing amounl rtf
nitrogen dosage treatment used from 50-150 kg N per ha compared *'ith no N (0 k-e N per hal. CCI o1'corn
increased aiong nith the increasins olnitrogen doses of50-li0 kg N per ha u,hich is in the amount ol21-66%
compared n.ith no nitrogcn. The nitlate reductasc activit),decreased rrith the increasing ofnitrogen doses
gir.c'n. namell, i696 (50 kg N/ha) to 8% (150 kgN/ha). compared u'ith no nitrogen. The crop sro\\th rate of
cerrr increased tith the increasing of nitrogen doses of 50-150 kg r.\ per ha. u'hich is in the amount of l8-i20zi,

compared rvith no nitrogen. The rveight

of 50-1 50 kg N per ha. as much as 27 Table I: The effect


ofcom cobs perplot increased with the increasing ofnitrogen

53o/o compared

u,ith no nitrogen.


ant hei

dose and sources


CCI- NR- CGR and com cobs vield

83 13 ah

The amount of CCI. NR and CCR increased rvith the increasing dose ol'niro,een lertilizer either in the
source of niffogen in ammonium or nitrate forms. The incrcasc of ir- fertilizc'r dose of nirate fron 50-150 kg

N per ha increased 30% to 77oto ol' C--CI amount. The increase of N f'ertilizer doses ol ammonium form
irrcreased CCI b1' l7% 6A kg N per ha) and 54% (150 kg N pel ha). rr- source in the lbnn tl1'nitrate \\'ith
increasingdosesof50-l50kgNperhalon,eredNRbl 65-'i, 150kgNha-lianddecreasedbi ll%atadosc
of t*\ as much as 150 kgN per ha. u'hile ammoniunr increased lrom 42-lil0r'o. Although the complant height
and rveight olcomcobs value go up. the)'did not statisticalll shou a signiilcant dilterent.


The ph1 siolo*eical nature of plant is inl'luenced bl the interaction ol nirroeen doses and tbrms of N
sources. n'hile the ero\\th and rveight ol'cobs do not shox signilicant interaction betn,een nitrogen doscs and
tbrms. Of thc'11'pe of rv source. nirate eale a higher raluc on all paranleters obserr'ed compared trr
ammonium. This is in line u'ith the research ol[4] shosing that the nia.iorit] olhigher plants that ero\\ on
\\'ell-aerated soil used nitrate as a major source ofinorganic nitr-ogen. N increased dose caused an increase in
all parameters. it is clear thal N dose could be increased 10 ger thc- cob's increasing production and bctter

Nitrogen is a ctrnstitueni ol' chlt-rrophr ll. Chlorophr li doss not onll af'lcct photosrnthesis. hut also
parlicipates in the color ol the liuit. rvlrich is an inrponant incler lirr lir.rit ripeners. l)uling thc tir:rclnlnrcnl
o1'thc tiuit. the cr-rlor changcs fronr grr'en to _rellon or lcd are ussociirtsil riith the rer.luction ol chlorophrll
und carotcnoid accunrulalion. ('hiolophl II conicnt can bc inllucnct'r.i lrl the hiosrnthcsls ol' chloropirr 11.
inlct'conrersionanddegladationolchlorrphill a h. lnadtiition.ittasohserrcdthatthr'chlorr-rphrll lrintlin::
conditir-rns aiso inlluence the' degrailution ol chloroph) Il. 'l'here 1orc. chloronh.r ll nruta[rolisrn cr.rnsist: o]'lirur'

nrain scclions: thl- s)ntircsis of chlorophrll. chlorophrll a 'h intcrconrcrsion. chlorophrll hond. and
chlorophlll degradation Il()]. \'arious lr'rels ol nilrosu'n are influerrccd hr I .{1. lht' anrount ol'dn nraur:'r'
accunrulation. and CCR. houerer. the plant height is n()1 allcclcd hy dil)elcnt lr'rels ol'nitrogcn appJication
[8]. l-hc incrcasing doses of N lrrrilization implore thc \R lcal't.l ahlc lt. \ rrutrient in thc soil are takcn h1

plants mainlv in the tbrm of'niu'ate ions (N().-) and anrnronium ion t\llr-t. uhiuh o1'lroth lirrnrs. nitratr' is ar
the ntost lbrm Ill].'l'he application ol'\ l'crrilizcr increasrs \l{. it prcrrcs ihat ntosl o1'thc amrrroniunt ir:ns
released by urea in the soil transtorm into nirratt'iLrns..fire incrcasing nunthct'o1'nitrare ions in Ihe Ical'tissuc
till tLn'ther incrcase NI{. l-his is in accordance rlith 1l.re opinion o1'[12] rhar thr, higher tlrr'content o1'
substratc nitrate in the lissue. the nrore incrr.ased thc NR ratc. ( rt4r pnrducritrrr is thr" rssult ol"l:rlrotos] ntlrfsis.
respiration and translocaiion o1- assimiiates ro planr dq ntatrcr'. l^irr. l)ro(luclion inc|easr.cl is tli|eutl_i


proponional to the increase of relative gro\Ih and the net result of photos,r'nthesis. Such result is similar to
the research of [13] which shorved that the optima] suppl.r, of nitrogen is very important to the dn' matter and
other parts ofthe plant.

4. Conclusion
From the results ofthis stud;,, it can be concluded that the sweet com plant prefers nitrate eompared to
ammonium which is indicated by better plant height. CCI. NR. CGR. and cob rveight than ammonium. The
increasing doses of N fertilizer resulted in higher plants, CCl, NR. CCR" and cob rveighr. either in nitrogen
source of nirate or ammonium form.

5. Acknou'ledgement
The authors wish to acknou,ledge the flnancial support from the Diponegoro Llniversitl' . We rvouid like
ro thank the Department of Agroecotechnologl,. Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science . Diponegr:r'o
University. Semarang. Indonesia for the research facilit-r'.





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tsBN 978-981 -09-8660-5
IPCBEE Vol .922016
ISSN 2A10-4618, Full text available at http://www.ipcbee.cam