NATURALISM AS SEEN IN NATSUME SOSEKI’S BOTCHAN
NATURALISM AS SEEN IN NATSUME SOSEKI’S BOTCHAN
AN UNDERGRADUATED THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2007
NATURALISM AS SEEN IN NATSUME SOSEKI’S BOTCHAN
AN UNDERGRADUATED THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2007
This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to: My beloved Parents My Grandma
I present my greatest gratitude to Jesus Christ. I am thankful for his kindness, for His mercy, and for everything which is given in my life. I also thank Him for the endless love that always accompanies my bad and good times.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Mr. P. Sarwoto, S.S., M.A., my major advisor, for the guidance, patience, advices, and suggestions, motivations that help me much and enable me writing and finishing this undergraduate thesis. I also would like to thank my Co-Advisor, Drs. Hirmawan Wijarnaka, M.Hum, for reading and giving correction to this undergraduate thesis.
My greatest gratitude is also given to my beloved mothers, M. Maryati and Marsiningsih, for their love and kindness, and also to my grand ma for giving support and help in my financial need during my study at Sanata Dharma University.
I give thanks to my all friends in English Letters Sanata Dharma University 2001 especially for Vida Lestari Mamuaya, for the friendship, love, motivation and attention, and everything that have been passed together. I would never forget them all.
My gratitude is also given to my lovely one, Yehuda, for helping me with his computer and printing. I thank him for always being with me, loving, caring, and supporting me honestly.
Renny Amit v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………… i APPROVAL PAGE……………………………………………………….. ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE……………………………………………………. iii DEDICATION PAGE…………………………………………………….. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………. v TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………. vi ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………. vii ABSTRAK………………………………………………………………… viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION………………………………………..
1 A. Background of the Study………………………………………….
1 B. Problem Formulation………………………………………………
4 C. Objectives of the Study……………………………………………
4 D. Definition of Terms………………………………………………..
5 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW……………………………...
6 A. Review of the related Studies………………………………………
6 B. Review of Related Theories………………………………………..
8 1.Theories on Character and Characterization…………………...
9 2.Theories on Setting…………………………………………….
11 3.Theories on Plot………………………………………………..
12 4.Theories on Naturalism in Literature………………………….
12 C. Theoretical Framework……………………………………………
15 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY……………………………………..
16 A. Object of the Study………………………………………………..
16 B. Approach of the Study…………………………………………….
17 C. Method of the Study………………………………………………
17 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS……………………………………………… 19 A. The Main Character Presented in the Story……………………….
19 B. The Aspects of Naturalism in Botchan’s Character……………….
1.Determinism in Botchan Character……………………………
30 2.Botchan Tragic Life…………………………………………...
47 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION………………………………………….
54 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………. 58
Renny Amit. Naturalism as Seen on Natsume Soseki’s Botchan. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2007.
The 20 was the beginning of Meiji Restoration in Japan. In this age, The Japanese was anxiously learning and imitating the west in every aspect including in literature. It was considered as Japanese westernization. One of the greatest Meiji novelists is Natsume Soseki. He graduated from Tokyo University majoring in English literature and he was ordered to study in England by the ministry of education. Natsume Soseki did not only read about literature but also other knowledge such as philosophy, sociology, ethics, and other sciences. Meanwhile, naturalism has spread all over Europe. This undergraduate thesis is trying to prove that Natsume Sosekis’ work was also influenced by naturalism although several Japanese naturalists criticize him for not being naturalist. This study discusses one of Natsume Soseki’s works entitled Botchan. Botchan is a novel about the experience of a young Japanese teacher in Shikoku.
In this study, there are two main problems. First problem is how Botchan as the main character is described in the novel. The second is how the main character’s life reveals the idea of naturalism.
This study applies library research as the research’s method. The books, encyclopedia, and websites on the related topics become the source of data, which are significant for this study. The moral- philosophical approach is used as basic concept of thinking for the writer in doing the analysis of the study. This approach is used to see the idea of naturalism on the main character of the story.
The result of the study shows that Botchan is the significant character for the study of naturalism. Botchan believes his heredity as Yedo man and descendent of a proud knight has made him become a proud, self reliant and hot tempered man. Botchan’s way of thinking about himself shows the idea of naturalism. Botchan’s life is also determined by the chances he gets. Botchan becomes a teacher in Shikoku not because he wants it but he thinks it is the only chance that comes into his mind in order to have a good salary. Botchan’s failure to be a good mathematics teacher in Shikoku is also believed because of the environment. Botchan who was born and grew up in Tokyo can not adopt with the Shikoku’s environment. Thus, the life and character of Botchan who is determined by the heredity, environment, and chances including his tragic life in Shikoku shows the idea of naturalism.
ABSTRAKRenny Amit. Naturalism as Seen on Natsume Soseki’s Botchan.
Yogyakarta:Program Studi Sastra Inggris, fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2007.
Pada abad ke 20, jepang memasuki zaman Restorasi Meiji. Pada zaman ini orang-orang Jepang belajar dan meniru negara-negara barat diberbagai bidang termasuk kesusastraan. Zaman tersebut dianggap sebagai era westernisasi. Natsume Soseki adalah salah satu dari penulis terkenal jepang pada masa Restorasi Meiji. Natsume Soseki merupakan salah satu lulusan Universitas Tokyo jurusan sastra Inggris dan dia ditugaskan oleh departemen pendidikan untuk belajar sastra Inggris di Inggris. Di Inggris, ia tidak hanya belajar tentang sastra tetapi juga ilmu pengetahuan yang lain seperti, filsafat, sosiologi, etika, dan ilmu pengetahuan yang lainnya. Pada saat yang sama naturalisme mulai berkembang pesat di wilayah Eropa. Skripsi ini mencoba membuktikan bahwa karya-karya Natsume Soseki juga banyak dipengaruhi oleh naturalisme meskipun beberapa kaum naturalis Jepang mengkritik Natsume Soseki karena karyanya tidak naturalis. Penelitian ini membahas salah satu novel karya Natsume Soseki yg berjudul Botchan. Novel ini bercerita tentang pengalaman hidup Botchan sebagai guru baru di Shikoku.
Dalam studi ini, ada dua pokok permasalahan. Pokok permasalahan pertama adalah bagaimana karakter dari tokoh utama digambarkan dalam cerita. Kedua adalah bagaimana kehidupan dan karakter dari Botchan sebagai tokoh utama mengambarkan naturalisme.
Studi ini berdasarkan pada studi kepustakaan sebagai metode penelitiannya. Buku-buku, kamus, dan situs-situs di internet yang terkait dengan topic penelitian merupakan sumber data yang penting bagi studi ini. Pendekatan moral-philosophical yang diterapkan menjadi konsep dasar pemikiran penulis dalam melakukan pembahasan masalah dalam penelitian. Pendekatan tersebut digunakan untuk melihat ide naturalisme dalam tokoh utama cerita ini.
Hasil pembahasan masalah manunjukan bahwa Botchan merupakan tokoh yang penting bagi studi ini. Botchan percaya sebagai orang Yedo dan keturunan ksatria telah membuat dirinya menjadi seorang yang sangat percaya diri, mandiri dan pemarah. Cara berfikir Botchan tentang dirinya sendiri menunjukan ide naturalism. Kegagalan Botchan sebagai guru matematika di Shikoku juga dipercaya karena faktor lingkungan. Botchan yang lahir dan dibesarkan di lingkungan Tokyo tidak dapat beradaptasi dengan masyarakat Shikoku. Karakter dan kehidupan Botchan yang sangat dipengaruhi keturunan, lingkungan dan kesempatan termasuk kehidupan Botchan yang tragis di Shikoku mencerminkan ide naturalisme.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Everett W. Knight in Literature Considered as Philosophy stated, “Literature
and philosophy should have arrived at the same conclusions almost independently of one another- that literature should be philosophy” (1957:16). This statement means that literary works including poems, novels and prose can be used as a means to express idea or philosophy. In other words, literary works can be applied to acknowledge and learn about certain ideas and philosophies in their works. This statement certainly has enriched the function of literature that is literature or the works of art is not only for the art’s sake, but also can be applied as a medium for expressing certain idea or philosophies.
There are a lot of philosophies in the human life. This research will focus on certain ideas or philosophy that is Naturalism. In literature, the term naturalism means “a theory in literature emphasizing the role of heredity and environment upon the human life and character development” (Kuiper, 1995:800). This statement has encouraged this study to examine the character of life by stressing the interdependence of individuals and environment.
Furthermore, Malcolm Cowley in The Literary Situation said, “Naturalism and naturalistic belong to definite literary tradition; on that was originated by several stated that during the next decades naturalism spread over Europe. Naturalism also has spread outside Europe. One of the countries that were also influenced by naturalism is Japan.
Donald Keene in Modern Japanese Literature explained that during the twenty or so years that followed the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Japanese were anxiously occupied in learning about- imitating-the west (1956:14). It was considered as the westernization of Japanese literature (1956:14).
One of the greatest Meiji novelists is Natsume Soseki (Keene, 1955: 99). He was very good in English literature and was graduated from the Tokyo University with highest honors. He was admitted into English literature department of Tokyo University which has been open a year before. After five years teaching at Kumamoto, he was ordered to study in England by ministry of education in May 1900 and, mostly staying in London, he devoted himself to the study of English literature for two full years. On returning to Japan, he became the professor of the First Higher School, at the same time, holding the post of lecturer of Tokyo Imperial University teaching English language and giving lectures on English literature.
During his studies, he does not only read about literature but also those related to the most fundamental branches of human knowledge-philosophy, sociology, ethics, and other sciences- determined to examine the meaning of literature and human society (Ito sei, 1970:1-5).
Soseki said, “although literature different from science, neither literature
29-30). This statement has the same idea with Emile Zola’s idea about literature; he regarded his novels as clinical laboratories in which he might scientifically explore the consequences upon his characters of their birth and background (Styan, 1997:6). This similarities show that Natsume Soseki agree with Emile Zola to treat literature in a scientific way.
One of Natsume Soseki’s novels which can be included into naturalistic novel is Botchan. Natsume Soseki’s novel, Botchan, is representative of typical Japanese (Ito Sei, 1970:7). This novel, which is written in 1904 and translated by Umeji Sasaki in 1922 and first published in 1968, is about life of a young man named Botchan who goes to an island of Shikoku as a teacher of mathematics after graduating from Physics School at the age of twenty-two. He is a man of righteousness, simple, but without compromise.
There are two reasons for this research to choose this novel to study. The first reason is that Natsume Soseki’s attraction as an author is in his treatment of his characters. Soseki believes that people are largely the product of the time and place one happens to live in (Makoto Ueda, 1976: 6). Soseki also said that it formed in close connection with the history, the tradition, the institutions, and the manners peculiar to the society. So his characterization also has connection with Japanese society. In Botchan, the character and characterization, especially of the main character shows his character development, and how he is strongly influenced by the environment, so this novel is chosen for this study, which wants to examine the
The second reason is the statement from the novel, “a great loser have I been ever since a child, having rash, daring spirit, a spirit I inherited from my ancestors” (Umeji Sasaki, 1968: 13). This opening sentence sets the mood and direction of
Botchan, for it focuses on the Edo-born hero. The role of heredity itself was part of
naturalism idea. Thus, the character was the reflection the naturalistic theory in literature. This is the intention of this study to understand and identify how the idea of naturalism reflected in the novel, especially novel in Japan.
B. Problem Formulation
In this study, two problems have been formulated as follows:
1. How is Botchan as the main character presented in the novel?
2. How does the main character’s life reveal naturalism?
C. Objectives of the Study
There are several objectives in conducting this study. The first objective is to see how the main character is presented in the novel. The study is interested in understanding the characterization of the main character in the author’s novel Botchan .
Secondly, the objective of the study is to identify the idea of naturalism reflected in the main character’s life. This study is going to explore the idea of naturalism through the main character’s life.
D.Definition of Terms
1. Naturalism According to Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of literature, naturalism is “theory that art or literature should conform exactly to nature or depict every appearance of the subject that comes to the artist’s attention.” It also defines naturalism into more specific meaning that naturalism is “a theory in literature emphasizing the role of heredity and environment upon human life and character development” (1995:800).
2. Character Abrams in A glossary of Literary Terms stated, “Character is the person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, which are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities”. Abrams also explains further that these qualities of the characters are expressed in what they say and what they do (1993:21).
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies In conducting this novel, what are collected are not only the theories for
theoretical grounding but also both several studies done on naturalism and the criticisms on the novel.
The studies on naturalism are collected from the library. Two studies on naturalism are found. First study is done by Novita Cendananingtyas under the title “A Character Analysis: Naturalism in Herman Melville’s Billy Budd, Foretropman”. In her study, the writer is studying about the aspect of naturalism that is seen in the novel through characterization of the main character. In her research Novita concerns the external and the internal forces as the aspect of naturalism.
The second study is done by Rivina under the title “Determinism as an aspect of naturalism as seen in Thomas Hardy’s The Well-beloved”. Rivina is trying to see an aspect or the idea of naturalism which is determinism contained in the novel.
The first criticism, which is a criticism on the novel, Botchan, is the criticism by Ito Sei. Ito Sei stated that Botchan was based on his experience as a teacher of middle school at Matsuyama on the island of Shikoku.
“Most of the main characters in modern Japanese literature are meditative intellectuals resembling the authors, hard to please yet irresolute. The hero of Botchan, however, is of quite different type. He is cheerful and hasty and has a habit of betting his job in the case of justice. He likes to divide all people into god and bad. Due to his goodness and rashness, there is perpetual friction between him and those around him. Every reader will see at once that Soseki tried to produce a man most typical of the Japanese people. Botchan’s acts call fort laughter but he is earnest, and here is spontaneously born a kind of humor closely related to our national character” (Ito Sei, 1970:7). Ito Sei said that Botchan depicts the average Japanese as virtuous and very lovable. Ito Sei also said that this novel has a vivid expression of the goodness of young Japanese and of the hypocritical nature of society (Ito Sei, 1970:7).
Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature mentioned Natsume Soseki as
an outstanding Japanese novelist in Meiji period (1868-1912). He was the first to depict articulately and persuasively the dilemma of the alienated modern Japanese intellectual. It was through him that the modern realistic novel, which originated from the western literature, found its most natural expressions and took root in the Japan (1995: 800).
The next collected criticism is from Makoto Ueda in Modern Japanese writers explains that Botchan is the young hero meets various comic events and reveals his reckless but righteous character more fully each time. So the character doesn’t change at all but the plot will serve merely to reveal the character more fully (1976:18).
A. Owen Aldridge in his essay entitled the Japanese Werther of the Twentieth
Century in the Comparative Perspective on Literature edited by Clayton Koelb of naturalism and the idealism of romanticism” (1988:24). Furthermore, Makoto Ueda in his book Modern Japanese Writer said that Natsume Soseki’s time was naturalistic time in the sense it omitted no ugly aspect of human nature and lack of idealism (1976:24).
After looking at some collected criticism, this study is going to take the ideas of naturalism as the subject of study like the two studies which has been done by Novita and Rivina, but this study is different from theirs in selecting the object of the study. The two studies choose British novel, whereas this study chooses Japanese novel by Natsume Soseki as the object of the study. This study will see how the idea of naturalism influenced not only in the European literature but also the Japanese literature. Furthermore, the criticism of A. Owen Aldridge, which state that the Soseki reveal naturalism and romanticism in his novels has influenced this novel. This study encouraged by the criticisms of Aldridge and Ueda in his book Modern Japanese Writer which states that the Sosekis’s time was in the time of naturalistic novels (1976:24). These statements show that
Botchan can be use to analyze how the naturalistic influenced and developed inJapan since Soseki have study a lot about the theory of English literature.
B. Review of Related Theories
In conducting this study, it is not only the related studies that are collected but also the related theories. In the section, three of literary theories will be explained: first, the theories on character and characterization; second, the theories on setting; the third, the theories on plot. Furthermore, the theories on naturalism in literature are required to complete this study.
1. Theories on Character and Characterization
Abrams in A Glossary of Literary Terms defines character as “ the person presented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they are say-the dialogue-and what they do- their action (1985:20).
Richard M. Eastman in his book A Guide to the Novel said that character can be described under two terms; flatness and roundness. The flat character can be considered as a type rather than an individual. A flat character usually typifies a social or economic class, a virtue or folly, a basic temperament or outlook. He doesn’t face any inner conflict that is why the flat character is not likely change; he is static; and his responses are predictable. A novelist usually uses flat characteristics to make the readers instantly recognize the minor character (1965:17-19).
While the round (complex) character is an individual trait; his responses are unpredictable; and also dynamic: capable of different kind of behavior under different strains (1965:18). So the round character is more complex than the flat character.
In studying the characters, it is important to know or to understand the traits. M.J. Murphy in Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry and
the English Novel says that there are five means or five methods in understanding
the characters in fictions. They are as follows:
a. Personal description The author describes the character’s appearance and clothes directly to the readers.
b. Character seen by other The author describes the character trough the eyes and opinion of other characters c. Speech The readers can see the character of the persons in the book through what the person says.
d. Past life The reader can learn from the person’s past life that helped to shape a person’s character.
e. Conversation of other The reader can understand the person’s character through the conversations of other people and the things they say about him.
f. Reactions The readers can understand the person’s character by knowing how the person reacts to various situations and events.
g. Direct Comment h. Thought The author describes what the person is thinking about. i. Mannerisms The author gives us a clue by describing a person’s mannerisms, habits, or idiosyncrasies.
2. Theories of Setting
According to Robert Stanton in his book An Introduction to Fiction, setting is the environment where the events in the novel occur and usually presented in descriptive passages (1965: 18). Stanton also says that although it doesn’t include the principal characters but sometimes we find that the setting can directly influences the character (1965:18-19).
Stanton’s statement that setting can help the readers to understand the characters in the novel is supported by the statement from M.J. Murphy in
Understand Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for
overseas Students. Murphy stated that the setting has great effect upon the
personalities, actions and way of thinking of the characters (1972:141). Furthermore, he said that there are three points that the setting is concerned: time, place, and atmosphere (1972: 143)
3. Theories on Plot
Robert Stanton in An Introduction to Fiction defines plot as the entire sequences of events in a story. These events may include not only speech and action as physical occurrences, but also the character’s change of attitude, thought, decision, and anything that change the course of affairs (1965: 14-16).
Furthermore, Stanton added that the plot is a backbone of story.
M.H. Abrams in A Glossary of Literary Terms describes plot as, “a dramatic or narrative work is constituted by its events and actions, as these are rendered and ordered toward achieving particular emotional and artistic effects”(1985: 159). In the same book, he also said that plot and character are interdependent critical concept because the actions are performed by particular character in the work, and are the means by which they reveal their moral and dispositional qualities
4. Theories on Naturalism in Literature
In Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature , it is explained that in literature, naturalism is “a theory that art and literature should conform exactly to nature or depict every appearance of the subject that comes to the artist’s attention; specifically, a theory in literature emphasizing the role of heredity and environment upon human life and character development” (Kuiper, 1995:800). In Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature , it is also explained that
th th movement in literature. It is considered as the extension tradition of realism (Kuiper, 1995:800).
Related to realism, M.H. Abrams in A Glossary Literary Terms says that naturalism has its own subject matter and special ways in managing those subjects (1995:175). Donald Pizer suggests the subject matter and characterization which help to define naturalism as different from realism:
1. Subject matter.
a. The subject matter deals with unpleasant experiences which "degrading" behavior of the character in their effort to survive. The characters in the naturalistic fiction are mostly from the lower middle or the lower classes - they are usually poor, uneducated, and unsophisticated.
b. The milieu is the ordinary and non-heroic. Life is described as monotonous daily existence. But the naturalist discovers those qualities in such characters usually associated with the heroic or adventurous - acts of violence and passion leading to desperate moments and violent death. The suggestion is that life on its lowest levels is not as simple as it seems to be.
c. There is a belief that fate affects a character; generally the controlling force is society and the surrounding environment.
2. The concept of a naturalistic character:
a. Characters in the naturalistic fiction are conditioned and controlled by environment, heredity, chance, or instinct. They are struggling for life to become b. The naturalists attempt to represent the balance in life of the controlling forces and individual value. They do not dehumanize their characters.
In Literary Situation, Malcolm Cowley said that naturalism is a literary tradition which originated by some French authors and was taken and named by Emile Zola in 1869 (1955:74). In the same sources, it also mentioned that there are several characteristic of naturalism, as follows: a. Pessimistic about the fate of individuals. Naturalism believes that there is no reward in earth or in heaven for moral actions, or punishment for vice.
b. Naturalism is rebellious, or at least defiant. Rebellious against the respectable society
c. Objectives An author can deliberately choose a subject, observe it, take notes, and present the result like laboratory report. It approaches the situation and characters from the outside.
d. Inclusive rather than selective It focuses on presenting a totally big subject rather than aesthetics aspects for example the sound or the style of the words.
Abrams said that naturalism was developed from the philosophical thesis, a
product of post-Darwinian biology in the 19 century. Naturalism believes that a person inherits instincts and then subject to the social and economic forces in the society in which that person is born. The end of naturalistic novel is usually “tragic” (1995:175)
c. Theoretical Framework
This study aims to find out how the idea of Naturalism reflected in the story by analyzing the character in Natsume Soseki’s Botchan. There are some theories related to this study that are used. They are the theory of character and characterization, the theory of plot, the theory of setting, and the theory of naturalism. They are used in order to help the writer to analyze the problems that have been formulated in the previous chapter. To answer the first problem that is the description of the character of the main character, the definition about the character and characterization and the theory of plot are needed. The theories are important to understand the character that is presented in the novel. After finding the description of the character, the writer will continue to answer the second problem that is about is how the idea of naturalism reflected in the main character, Botchan. The theory of naturalism will help in identifying the naturalism in the story.
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study In this thesis, the object of the study is a novel entitled Botchan. It was written
by Natsume Soseki, one of the greatest novelists of the Meiji era. He was the first writer who depicted articulately and persuasively the plight of the alienated modern Japanese intellectual. It was through him that the modern realistic novel, which originated from the western literature, found its most natural expressions and took root in Japan. One of his famous novels is Botchan (master darling)
(1995: 800). The story is translated by Umeji Sasaki and 37 ed. published by Charles E. Tuttle Publishing in 1968.
Botchan is a novel about a young Japanese teacher. This thesis will concern its study on exploring the main character in the novel, and how the idea of naturalism is reflected through the main character. The story begins when Botchan is still a child. Botchan lives with his family in Tokyo. His childhood isn't particularly pleasant, with his older brother the favored child, and the only person who has real affection for is the family maid, Kiyo. After his mother died and then his father, his brother sells the house and gives small portion to Botchan.
He uses that money to get an education. After he graduated from his college he works as a mathematics teacher in small village, far from Tokyo. In this village, He must face many troubles with the people around him.
B. Approach of the Study
Since this thesis studies about naturalism in the novel the approach that is taken is the moral philosophical approach. In A handbook of Critical Approaches
to Literature , the moral-philosophical approach believes that “the larger function
of literature is to teach morality and to probe philosophical issue” (Guerin, 1999:25). What Guerin means is that the moral-philosophical approach is focus on moral-philosophical teaching that contains in the literature works and this approach relatively doesn’t pay attention to other aesthetic considerations (1999: 26).
C. Method of Study
The method which is used in analyzing this novel is the library research method. There are some sources that are needed in this method. The first or the primary source is the novel entitled Botchan. The secondary sources are from books and from the sites on internet. Two main books are used in supporting the analysis. The first is A Glossary of the Literary Terms by M.H. Abrams. This book helps the writer to understand naturalism. The other book is Literary
Situation by Malcolm Cowley. This book describes the characteristics ofNaturalism.
There are several steps in analyzing this novel. The first step is reading and order to understand the story in the novel. After doing close reading toward the primary source, the writer determined a topic and also formulated problems formulations to limit the scope of the study. The second step was deciding an approach, which was more appropriate for answering the problems. The third step was searching data that had relation with Soseki’s work in order to make criticism on the related study. The fourth step was quoting some theories, which had relation with the scope of the study. The writer continued by writing the analysis in order to answer the problem formulations and applying the related theories. At last, the writer made a conclusion based on the analysis.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This study studies about how the naturalism is reflected through the main
character which is influenced by the environment. This fourth chapter, which is the analysis, will be divided into three subchapters which have been formulated in the first chapter of this thesis; first, the study of the main character presented in the story; the second is the study of how the main character’s life as the result of the environment.
A. The Characteristics of Main Character Presented in the Story
This first subchapter as stated above is going to study the main character which is presented in the story that is Botchan. The main character or the major character in the story is believed to be influenced by the environment. There are several characteristics of Botchan.
Botchan is the main character in the story since he is the main concern of the story. Botchan in English means master darling. Botchan is a name given by Kiyo since he was a child. Kiyo still calls him Botchan even he has been grown up. While other characters call him Mr. B. Botchan is the younger son of a middle-class family. His elder brother is the most favorite son of the family while Botchan is only considered as “The black sheep of the family” (Soseki, 1904:15).
Botchan is a naughty boy. Because of his naughtiness, no body would love him. People around Botchan hate him. They turn their faces every time they see Botchan. The only love, attention, care he can get is from his servant Kiyo. Kiyo is his faithful servant. She always compliments Botchan whatever he does. Kiyo adores Botchan so much.
Botchan has done a lot of naughty thing in his childhood for example jumping from the second floor or cut his own finger with a foreign knife penknife and so forth. He admits that he has no special reason for doing such a thing. He doesn’t realize that what he has done has made a lot of trouble for his parent. Botchan naughtiness has made him hated by his parents.
Botchan has caused a lot of trouble not only for his parent, but also his neighbors. Once he has made Furukawa, one of his neighbors, very angry with him.
He makes Furukawa’s rice field dry by filling it with pebbles and sticks. His father has to pay certain sum of money to pacify the angry man. Botchan realizes that his naughtiness has made a lot of people suffer.
2. Proud The next description about Botchan’s desription is about his heredity.
Botchan’s heredity is important because heredity is one of the internal factors in naturalism. The information about Botchan heredity is taken form his own
It was the time in my life when I felt comparatively at ease but now I had to part with the dear old nest which had given me shelter and protection so long. I had never left Tokyo since I was born save the time of my visit to Kamakura with my classmates. Compared with the place I had to go now, Kamakura was simply next door (Soseki, 1904:25).
Botchan’s statement above shows that Botchan was born and grew up in Tokyo. It is why he is called as a Yedoman. Yedo man means a man from Tokyo.
Botchan’s heredity as a Yedo man has built him his self-esteem. He is so proud of his being a Yedo man. He is proud to be a Yedo man probably because Tokyo, a place where he was born, is a big city if it compares with Shikoku (Soseki, 1904: 25).
Botchan’s self confidence is shown when he gives comment toward Noda’s appearance. He thinks Noda is far from the image of a Yedo man.
The teacher of drawing was a man of the stage professional type. He had on summer haori made of thin silk like tissue paper. Opening and shutting his fan, he asked me where I came from. “eh, from Tokyo?” said he;’ I am so glad to hear it. You and I then are both Yedo man.” If such a person were a Yedo man, I thought, nobody would like to have been born in Tokyo (Soseki, 1904:35-36).
Noda, the teacher of drawing, claims himself as a Yedo man. However, Botchan sees Noda’s behavior is not like a Yedo man. According to Botchan, Noda’s appearance is much like clown rather than a Yedo man. Botchan believes he knows well how to behave as a Yedo man. He felt being humiliated by Noda who claims to be a Yedo man. Noda’s behavior is different with Botchan. Therefore, Botchan thinks that Noda does not deserve to call himself as a Yedo man. If a person like Noda is considered as that he is so proud of himself. Botchan is so proud to be Yedo man. Botchan is so confident of believing himself as an image of a true Yedo man and different from Noda’s appearance. Botchan believes that his characters are characters of a true Yedo man.
Botchan considers Yedo men as the highest race. It is probably because Yedo men come from a big city. He sometimes underestimates the villagers.
No sooner had the steamer stopped with its usual “booh” from its whistle than a boat from the shore came approaching the vessel to receive passengers. The boatman had only a yard of red cloth around his loins; he was as naked as the savages down in the South Sea Islands (Soseki, 1904:28).
In Botchan’s opinion, the people in the village are savage. It shows that he underestimates them. His value about other people is based on his opinion about his own origin. He thinks Yedo men are much civilize than those villagers.
Botchan is so proud of him self. It is shown in the following conversation between Botchan and Mr. Hotta.
“What is you native place?” “I am a Yedo man by birth.” “Exactly. That’s why I thought you were so proud and self-sufficient” (Soseki, 1904:135).
According to Mr. Hotta, Yedo men have their own characteristic. These characteristics can also be seen in Botchan’s character. Being proud and self sufficient, Botchan shows he has the characters of a Yedo man.
Botchan also mentions about his ancestors. His ancestors are proud knights. It shows that Botchan is not only an ordinary Yedo man but also comes from
However, it would never do for me to be beaten. My honor would be trodden down in the dust, if I should let things go on as they stood. An excusable shame would it be for a Yedo man to be called a coward. My ancestors were bodyguards to the Shogun; they all belonged to a very ancient stock of the Minamoto, a direct line of Emperor Seiwa, that is to say, I am a descendent of proud knight, Tada Mitsunaka. I am of noble birth- incomparably higher than those poor lowly peasant lads (Soseki, 1904:63). From the quotation above, it shows that Botchan is proud of his heredity blood. Botchan heredity has made him become a hot tempered man and does not like to be defeated by the villagers whom he thinks much lower than him.
Botchan is described as an honest man. This character can be seen from the statement of his faithful servant, Kiyo. According to Kiyo, Botchan has “a character straight like an arrow” (Soseki, 1904: 109). Kiyo believes Botchan would never do or say something that isn’t according to his own heart.
Each time Kiyo said such nice things to me, I would tell her that I hated sweet words. Upon this, the old woman would look into my face admiringly, and was happy to say that very thing more than anything else was ample proof of my having a nice character. It seemed as if she had created me by her own power and were proud of her handiwork, I felt rather suspicious (Soseki, 1904: 17-18).
Kiyo adores Botchan so much. In Kiyo’s eyes, Botchan has a fine character. It is contrary with what other people think about him. They think Botchan as trouble maker. However, Botchan refuses to be called as a nice son by Kiyo. Botchan thinks Kiyo is being dishonest. Botchan chooses to be said as a trouble maker rather than as a nice son because he realizes that he is really a naughty boy. He knows he has done a lot of troubles for his parents and his neighbors. It shows that Botchan does not like to hear sweet talk. Upon Botchan’s reaction toward Kiyo’s statement, Kiyo said that it was an example that Botchan does not like to boast himself. Botchan is an honest man. It proves Botchan is really an honest man.
Botchan’s frank manner is also shown when he talks to the principal. On the first day of Botchan’s arrival to the school, the principal asked him to be a good example of the school and a true educator who can manage his pupils. The following quotation is Botchan’s reaction toward the principal order.
Thinking that lack of traveling expanses would be far better than to be dishonest, I frankly said to him. “Mr. Principal, I can hardly do as you wish me to do. Please take this official writ.” At this, the astonished principal stared at me in the face with the badger eyes for some moments and then told me that that those were comply wishes, fulfillment of which would be hard for anybody, and that I need not worry about it (Soseki, 1904:33).
Botchan thinks he cannot fulfill the principal’s order. Botchan realizes that he is just a human being. He might also make mistakes. Botchan says directly to the principal that he cannot fulfill it and he chooses to resign from the job. Botchan thinks he can not fulfill the principal’s task. Botchan does not like making any promise if he thinks he can not fulfill it. Botchan’s frank manner makes the principal stunned. Botchan prefers losing his job rather than being dishonest to the principal.
Botchan is not afraid to admit and makes an apology to other people if he has done something wrong. He frankly confesses in front of other teachers that he went out to the hot spring on the night of his night duty.