Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management in the Philippines: A Focus on Polychlorinated Biphenyls

  A Quarterly Newsletter Published under

  Asian Regional Research Programme on Environmental A R R P E T A R R P E T Technology ( ARRPET ) Asian Institute of Technology

   Vol: 2 No: Special June 2002 S p e c i a l I s s u e S p e c i a l I s s u e

Special Issue

  

This is a special issue of HWTM Newsletter dedicated to National Workshop details conducted

by National Research Institutes in their respective countries. The full paper or other related

documents can be obtained from the respective NRI.

  C o n t e n t s C o n t e n t s

Contents

  1 National Workshop in Philippines

  4 National Workshop in Malaysia

  6 National Workshop in Sri Lanka

  8 National Workshop in Indonesia

  9 National Workshop in India

  11 National Workshop in China I n d u s t r i a l a n d H a z a r d o u s W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s : A F o c u s o n I n d u s t r i a l a n d H a z a r d o u s W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s : A F o c u s o n

  

Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management in the Philippines: A Focus on

P o l y c h l o r i n a t e d B i p h e n y l s P o l y c h l o r i n a t e d B i p h e n y l s

  

Polychlorinated Biphenyls

De la Salle University

Manila, Philippines

  

The De La Salle University-Manila National The presentation of papers is properly

Research Institute on Industrial and sequenced from laws and policies on

Hazardous Wastes of ARRPET conducted PCBs in the Philippines to the treatment of

the first national workshop on January 25, toxic chlorinated organic chemicals.

2002 at Angelo King International Center, Environmental responsibility was also given

Manila, Philippines. emphasis. Several experts were given the

opportunity to share their experiences in

A total of 89 participants attended the the management and treatment of PCBs

workshop. There are national research both local and abroad. partners that belong to government agencies, industries, academe and research groups.

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  P a p e r s P r e s e n t e d P a p e r s P r e s e n t e d

  Papers Presented

  • Relevant Laws & Regulations on the Management of PCBs in the Philippines - Ms. Leah Texon
  • National Initiatives on Dioxin, Furans & Dioxin-like PCBs - Ms. Ma Victoria Pasagui • NPC’s Management of PCBs - Engr. Miguel Bisnar •

  Safe Method of Encapsulating the PCB Contaminated Soil - Rolando Cuico & Jaime Barretto

  • Experiences in Training for Assessment& Inventory of PCBs (Phil. & California) - Dr.

  Genandrialine L. Peralta

  • Photodegradation & Volatilization Properties of PCBs - Ma Glenn Gesmundo, Dr. Barril
  • • An Assessment of PCB Management in the Philippines - Gerly Moradas & Susan

  • • Development of Analytical Techniques for PCB Analysis - Carl Renan Estrellan & Susan

  • • An Introduction to Global Positioning System (GPS) - Joseph Remigio & Ronaldo

  • • Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls - Josephine Borja, Joseph Auresenia, &

  • • Alternative Technology Options for the Chemical Treatment of Polychlorinated

  • • Membrane Technology: A Promising Route to PCB Treatment - Tender Ferolin & Julius

  • • EMS: Its Significance in the Support of Environmental Protection & Prevention of

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  I I N N T T H H E E P P H H

  Brochures describing the project and survey forms have been sent out to industries that are possible PCB generators and PCB recyclers or treaters. The goal of the survey is to identify sources of PCBs, storage and disposal practices and the type and disposal capacity of available facilities for PCBs and PCB-containing wastes and equipment. Government agencies were also asked to provide information on PCB management in the Philippines. Networking with possible research partners has been done. Studies have shown that several contaminated sites or “hotspots” were identified in the Philippines. According to report, the former US military bases in the country have left their own poisonous legacy and are a main contributor to the high level of (POPs) like PCBs still polluting the environment. Elevated levels of PCB in soil were detected in the decommissioned power plant and transformer in severely contaminated areas of Clark field, Pampanga. Another reported “hotspot” was the PCB contaminated soil of the former Rockwell power plant. Meralco claimed that the presence of PCBs in the soil at Rockwell was only incidental due to the temporary storage of retired electrical equipment containing PCBs awaiting final disposal. Meralco considered several alternative technologies before they came to a final decision to encapsulate PCB contaminated soil at Brgy. San Joaquin, Pasig City. Though there have been recent efforts to assess the Philippines’ pressing problem on PCBs, follow up study should still be carried out in order to identify other POPs found in the environment. The government, NGOs, academe and industries have acknowledged that this is a serious problem that requires concerted action.

  Polychlorinated Biphenyls or PCBs is one of the most persistent and potentially worrying groups of pollutants in our environment. The widespread use of PCBs in various industrial applications presents a major environmental issue because of the toxicity associated with bioaccumulation. Today, PCB is one of the 12 POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) banned worldwide under the Chemical Treaty signed in the Stockholm Convention in May 2001. This paper presents an assessment of the present management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Philippines with emphasis on its inventory to develop safe and environmentally sound technology to destroy stockpiles of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and identify existing storage, treatment and disposal methods to manage PCBs. Also, related studies on PCBs are included.

  Gerly B. Moradas & Susan M. Gallardo Chemical Engineering Department De La Salle University

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  A A S S S S E E S S S S M M E E N N T O O F F P P O O L L Y Y C C H H L L O O R R

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  ASSESSMENT

  S S e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

  Selected Abstracts

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  Donna Taleon

  Biphenyls - Carmela Centeno, Leonila Abella, Susan Gallardo

  Maridable

  Pollution in Balance with Socio- Economic Needs Ms. Grace Rosales ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

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OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

  ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF

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  I I R R O O N N M M E E N N T T A A L L M M A A N N A A G G E E M M E E N N T T S S Y Y S S T T E E M M S S : :

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  ~ ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS:

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  IN BALANCE WITH SOCIO-EC

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  ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE SUPPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND PREVENTION OF POL UTION

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  I I O O N N O O F F P P O O L L

  Ms. Grace Rosales Environmental Compliance Consultants International Organizations of all kinds are increasingly concerned to achieve and demonstrate sound environmental performance by controlling the impact of their activities, products or services on the environment, taking into account their environmental policy and objectives. They do so in the context of increasingly stringent legislation, the development of economic policies ad other measures to foster environmental protection and a general growth of concern from interested parties about environmental matters including sustainable development.

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  ONOMIC NEED

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  I I N N T T H H E E S S U U P P P P O O R R T T O O F F E E N N

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  A A L L T T E E R R N N A A T T

  The management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB-containing wastes is becoming a major global concern. Several countries, including the Philippines, are currently doing inventories on available technologies for the destruction of PCBs. Although high temperature incineration technology is a standard method of destruction for bulk PCBs, any high temperature burning is prohibited under the Clean Air Act of the Philippines. The formation and subsequent release of toxic gases is also a constant issue in the application of incineration for toxic and hazardous wastes. Thus, alternative treatment technologies are constantly being studied and evaluated. This paper presents an examination of several viable non-incineration technologies for their applicability to and limitations for treating PCB-contaminated materials. Discussion is, however, focused on the different chemical treatment options. The following alternative technologies are presented: chemical dechlorination, chemical reduction, solvent extraction and soil washing; while emerging alternative technologies discussed include supercritical water oxidation, solvated electron technology and photocatalysis. The paper covers a description of each technology, matrix- applicability and advantages and limitations of some technology options. Throughout the technology review and discussion process, it is apparent that the selection of applicable technology depends mainly on site-and matrix- specific characteristics. It may also be noted that no single non-incineration chemical technology is applicable to all PCB-contaminated materials. Combining two or more technologies in series may offer advantages over the use of a single technology in achieving the required degree of treatment.

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  Carmela R. Centeno, Leonila C. Abella, Susan M. Gallardo Chemical Engineering Department De La Salle University

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  I I P P H H E E N N Y Y L L S S

  I I N N A A T T E E D D B B

  P P O O L L Y Y C C H H L L O O R R

  POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

  I I C C A A L L T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T O O F F

  I I O O N N S S F F O O R R T T H H E E C C H H E E M M

  V V E E T T E E C C H H N N O O L L O O G G Y Y O O P P T T

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  Many organizations have undertaken environmental “reviews” or “audits” to assess their environmental performance. On their own, however, these “reviews” and “audits” may not be sufficient to provide an organization with the assurance that its performance not only meets, but will continue to meet, its legal and policy requirements. To be effective, they need to be conducted within a structured management system and integrated with overall management activity.

  W a s t e w a t e r T r e a t m e n t a n d R e c y c l i n g W a s t e w a t e r T r e a t m e n t a n d R e c y c l i n g

Wastewater Treatment and Recycling

  R e m o v a l o f R e c a l c i t r a n t C h l o r o o r g a n i c s a n d H e a v y M e t a l s R e m o v a l o f R e c a l c i t r a n t C h l o r o o r g a n i c s a n d H e a v y M e t a l s

Removal of Recalcitrant Chloroorganics and Heavy Metals

  

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

The Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia pollutants and heavy metals in water and

conducted the first National Workshop on wastewaters and to develop analytical

31st January 2002 at Renaissance Palm and treatment expertise with regards to

Garden Hotel, PutraJaya, Malaysia. A total these pollutants. These pollutants are

of 23 participants attended the workshop focussed on as they are often at low

from various backgrounds. There were concentrations but are often potentially

engineers, academicians, researchers, very detrimental to public health. This

scientists, policy makers who are the workshop focused on the removals of

National Research Partners for the ARRPET recalcitrant chloroorganics and heavy

project. metals and an event that served as a platform for exchange of ideas among

  

The objectives of this Regional Workshop professionals with wastewater treatment

were to raise awareness on recalcitrant and recycling interests.

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  P a p e r s P r e s e n t e d P a p e r s P r e s e n t e d

  Papers Presented

  • Chloroorganics in Water and Wastewaters – A Review - Rakmi Abd Rahman, Abu Zahrim Yaser an • d Chia S.K.
  • Wastewater Treatment of Pulp and Paper Effluents: Biodegradation of

  Chlorocatechol - Awang Bono and Jidon Janaun

  • High Molecular Weight Chlorolignin Degradation Using Phanerochaete

  Chrysosporium - Dwina Roosmini, Wisjnuprapto, Soepangat Soemarto, Oei Ban Liang

  • • Anaerobic Biodegradation of Recalcitrant Cryytalline Cellulose By Clostridium

  Thermocellum - Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Pang Wey Kit and Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff

  • • The Effect of O- (4-Bromo-2-Chlorophenyl)-O-Ethyl-S-Propyl Phosphorotioate) Exposure

  on the Health of Farmer - Katharina Oginawati, Juli Soemirat Slamet, Suphia Rachmawati

  • Residual Chlorine Decay in Drinking Water Distribution System – A Case Study - Othman Jaafar, Rakmi Abdul Rahman and Rosalam Hj. Sarbatly
  • Qualitative Quantitative Studies on Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air -

  Abdul A. H. Kadhum, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Wan R.W. Daud and Eman N. Ali

  • The Intriguing Aspects of Copper Cadmium Uptake by Pseudomonas testosteroni - Wan Azlina Ahmad
  • • Biosorption of Heavy Metals using Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans - Zainul Akmar Zakaria and

  Wan Azlina Ahmad

  • Predominant Microorganisms on the Biodegradation of Organophosphate – Katharina Oginawati, Moh. Irsyad, Agus J. Effendi, Betty Wediawaty, Nurulaini, Linda Setiawan
  • Catechol Synthesis via Methyl Group Removal from Guaiacol by an Anaerobic Bacterium Acetobacterium Woodii Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Zainatul'Asyiqin and Muhammad Zaki
  • Heavy Metals Removal for Leachate Sludge - Azni Idris, Abdul Ghani Liew Abdullah,

  AidaHapini Derum

  • The Use of Biosensors for the on Site Detection of Chloro-Organics and Heavy Metals in Wastewater - Lee Yook Heng
  • Review of Analysis of Chloroorganics in Wastewater – Rakmi Abd Rahman and Mey

  Chea, Khor

  • Biofilm Removal of Organics - Rakmi Abd Rahman, Norazwina Zainol and Zalina Haris

  Ahmad

  • • Removal of Recalcitrant Organics by Chemicobiological Treatment for Tannery

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  C), pH 8-9 and dissolved oxygen of 2-4 mg/L. The hydraulic retention time was 24 hours and the study was focussed on COD and colour of recalcitrant organics removals. The SBR had reduced the residual COD of 300-500 mg/L to below 60 mg/L; while colour reduction was from 150 PtCo to below 10 PtCo. These results show that chemicobiological treatment is effective in removing recalcitrant organics.

  Tanning wastewaters have high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour, indicating high concentration of recalcitrant organics. Considering the large amount and the low biodegradablility of such chemicals, a combined method of advanced oxidation process (AOPs) and biological treatment (chemicobiological) was investigated. Chemicobiological treatment through hydrogen peroxide oxidation aided by ferrous sulphate also known as Fenton's process followed by biological sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment was investigated in this study. The combined process chemically converts recalcitrant molecules to intermediates (such as short chain acids) which are then further amenable to biological depletion and these may enhance biodegradation of organic constituents. Experiments were carried out to study the effects and to obtain the optimum value of the three factors (concentrations of Fe 2+ , H 2 O 2 and OH

  • - ) on COD and colour removals from tanning wastewater. The optimal pH was found to be at pH 2.9-3.9; the optimum H
  • 2 O 2 and FeSO 4 concentrations were found to be 2040-3400 mg/L and 200 mg/L respectively resulting in 60% COD and 90% colour removals. The chemically treated effluent was then fed into the SBR reactor. A lab scale biological SBR with granular activated carbon (GAC, size 2.0-3.0 mm) as media was operated at room temperature (28-30 o

      Rakmi Abd. Rahman, Nor Zaini Md Noor and Abu Zahrim Yaser Department of Chemical and Process Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

      F F O O R R T T A A N N N N E E R R Y Y W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R

      I I C C A A L L T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T

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      I I T T R R A A N N T T O O R R G G A A N N

      V V A A L L O O F F R R E E C C A A L L C C

      R R E E M M O O

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      Department of Chemical and Process Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Chloororganics have become a major concern to public health due to its toxicological characteristics. The sources of chloroorganics from industries include industrial plants for pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, etc. Wastewater treatments using physicochemical and biological processes are reviewed here. Where chlorine is involved, organochlorides (AOX) may be formed, whether in the production process or during wastewater treatment. Application of biological treatment alone to remove/eliminate chloororganic compounds in wastewater is generally not sufficient due to compound recalcitrance and toxicity. Several physicochemical treatments followed by biological treatment have been found to be effective as shown here.

      Wastewater - Rakmi Abd. Rahman, Nor Zaini Md Noor and Abu Zahrim Yaser ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

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      I I E E W W Rakmi Abd. Rahman, Abu Zahrim Yaser and Chia S.K.

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      V V

      I I N N W W A A T T E E R R AN N D D W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R S S A A R R E E

      I I C C S S

      O O R R G G A A N N

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      C C H H L L O O R R O O

      ND WASTEWATERS – A REVIEW

      A

      CHLORO RGANICS IN WATER A

      S S e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

      Selected Abstracts

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    REMOVAL OF RECALCITRANT ORGANICS BY CHEMICOBIOLOGICAL TREATMENT

    FOR TANNERY WASTEWATER

    • Need for research in hazardous waste management – Prof. N. Rathnayake •
    • • Regulatory and Enforcement Approaches towards hazardous waste management by

    • Overview of heavy metal analysis carried out by CET Division, ITI - Ms. Sharmini Wickramarathne
    • Heavy Metals in Dandugam Oya - Mrs. Wasantha Wijesinghe

      • Heavy metal levels of groundwater in Rathmalana-Moratuwa industrial area. A

    • Heavy metal pollution in port of Colombo Sri Lanka - Dr. Mahesh Jayaweera
    • • Evaluation of electrodialysis technique for heavy metal concentration in industrial

    • Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters & hazardous waters by electrowinning - Dr. D.M.D.O.K Dissanayake
    • Managing heavy metal rich groundwater by low – cost integrated approach encompassing phytoremediation followed by biogas production and composting in Rathmalana – Moratuwa industrial area - Dr. Mahesh Jayaweera

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      S S e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

      Ratmalana-Moratuwa industrial area with special emphasis on heavy metal contamination was studied. Groundwater samples (about 10) are taken from existing wells and analyzed for heavy metals. Results manifested that most of the wells (more than 50%) are polluted with heavy metals mainly due to the release of wastewaters from nearby industries. The paper is therefore meant to elucidate a total solution for remediation of groundwater quality with low-cost technologies together with some economic gains. The proposed low-cost integrated approach encompassing phytoremediation followed by biogas production and composting is found to be very promising in reducing heavy metal contamination of the groundwater in Ratmalana-Moratuwa industrial area.

      Mahesh Jayaweera Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa Management of groundwater quality in

      I I A A L L A A R R E E A A

      I I N N D D U U S S T T R R

      I I N N R R A A T T M M A A L L A A N N A A M M O O R R A A T T U U W W A A

      I I N N T T E E G G R R A A T T E E D D A A P P P P R R O O A A C C H H

      I I C C H H G G R R O O U U N N D D W W A A T T E E R R B B Y Y L L O O W W C C O O S S T T

      V V Y Y M M E E T T A A L L R R

      I I N N G G H H E E A A

      M M A A N N A A G G

      MANAGING HEAVY METAL RICH GROUNDWATER BY LOW –COST INTEGRATED APPROACH IN RATMALANA –MORATUWA INDUSTRIAL AREA

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      The University of Moratuwa conducted the first National Workshop on March 2, 2002 at Crystal Room, Taj Samudra, Colombo, Sri Lanka. A total of 82 participants attended the workshop from various backgrounds.

    University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

      I I n n d d u u s s t t r r i i a a l l

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    a s s t t e e w w a a t t e e r r s s a a n n d d H H a a z z a a r r d d o o u u s s W W a a t t e e r r s s in Sri Lanka i i n n S S r r i i L L a a

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      Heavy Metal Removal from Industrial Wastewaters and Hazardous Waters H H e e a a v v y y M M e e t t a a l l R R e e m m o o v v a a l l f f r r o o m m

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      wastewaters - Dr. Suren Wijekoon

      comprehensive survey carried out in 2002 - Miss. Dayani Gunawardhana

      CEA - Mr. K.G.D. Bandarathilake

      Proposed policies on hazardous waste management - Ms. Padmini Batuwitage

      P P a a p p e e r r s s P P r r e e s s e e n n t t e e d d

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      Phytoremediation experiments suggest that rhizofilteration and phytoextraction are the key mechanisms for removal of heavy metals from the aqueous phase. Phytoextraction was more responsible in translocating heavy metals to above- ground parts in the initial few weeks and rhizofilteration became prominent at the latter stages in which more metals are bound to below-ground parts. In all cases of metal removal, maximum bioaccumulation coefficient was far grater than 100. Once the heavy metal binding was complete, harvesting was suggested at the 13th week during which more metals were adsorbed only to root zone. This seems to be ideal period in which the harvesting is to be done and biogas production is to be commenced. In the experiment the below- ground parts were not taken for biogas production as they were considered to be hazardous material. Above-ground material was utilized for biogas production while below- ground parts were stored to be sent to secure landfills. About 62% of methane was formed at the end of 62 days in the biogas digester. Cow dung and urea added into the digester have helped to achieve a higher rate of biogas. Nevertheless, control of pH and moisture content is of paramount importance in optimizing the biogas percentage. Sludge taken from the biogas digester showed a considerable potential to be used as a supplement to compost.

      The essential characteristics for compost such as C:N ratio, N:P:K ratio and moisture content suggest that the dried sludge could be effectively used only as a supplement but did not show very promising attributes to be directly used as a compost. The crops to be tested with water hyacinth compost are yet to be identified. In general, the technologies described seem very promising, affordable with some tangible economic benefits and far more ease in applying even at the rural community levels.

    EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRODI

    INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

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      The metal production, processing and chemical industries have an increasingly difficult problem of controlling the effects arising from its wastewater. The wastewaters that could cause problems include rinse waters from metal electroplating solutions, waste from acidic and alkaline cleaning and pickling solutions, waste waters from mining and treatment of ores, metallurgical plants and rolling mills, photographic, textile, leather and chemical industries. These rinse waters, if discharged into the environment without treatment, can pollute natural resources and disturb natural processes. Conventionally, the processes and technologies involved the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste water are chemical precipitation, ion exchange, complexation, adsorption, evaporation and electrochemical process. Although these techniques are effective enough in improving the quality of the water effluent, they introduce some additional waste disposal problems such as disposal of hydroxide sludge. The aim of this research project will be to investigate some aspects of the use of electrowinning technique for selective removal and recovery of some heavy metals from industrial wastewater..

      

    D.M.D.O.K Dissanayake

    Dept. of Earth Resources Engineering

    University of Moratuwa

      I I N N G G

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      I I A A L L W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R S S A A N N D D H H A A Z Z A A R R D D O O U U S S W W A A T T ER R S S B B Y Y E E L L E E C C T T R R O O W W

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    ELECTROWINNING

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      Heavy metal contamination of water supplies has led to serious health and environmental p

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