Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management in the Philippines: A Focus on Polychlorinated Biphenyls

A Quarterly Newsletter Published under

Asian Regional Research Programme on Environmental

Technology ( A A ARRPET R R R R P P E E T T )

Asian Institute of Technology

Vol: 2 No: Special June 2002

S S Special Issue p p e e c c i i a a l l I I s s s s u u e e

This is a special issue of HWTM Newsletter dedicated to National Workshop details conducted by National Research Institutes in their respective countries. The full paper or other related documents can be obtained from the respective NRI.

C C Contents o o n n t t e e n n t t s s

National Workshop in Philippines

National Workshop in Malaysia

National Workshop in Sri Lanka

National Workshop in Indonesia

National Workshop in India

National Workshop in China

I Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management in the Philippines: A Focus on n d d u u s s t t r r i i a a l l a a n n d d H H a a z z a a r r d d o o u u s s W W a a s s t t e e M M a a n n a a g g e e m m e e n n t t i i n n t t h h e e P P h h i i l l i i p p p p i i n n e e s s : : A A F F o o c c u u s s o o n n

P P Polychlorinated Biphenyls o o l l y y c c h h l l o o r r i i n n a a t t e e d d B B i i p p h h e e n n y y l l s s

De la Salle University Manila, Philippines

The De La Salle University-Manila National The presentation of papers is properly Research Institute on Industrial and

sequenced from laws and policies on Hazardous Wastes of ARRPET conducted

PCBs in the Philippines to the treatment of the first national workshop on January 25,

toxic chlorinated organic chemicals. 2002 at Angelo King International Center,

Environmental responsibility was also given Manila, Philippines.

emphasis. Several experts were given the opportunity to share their experiences in

A total of 89 participants attended the the management and treatment of PCBs workshop. There are national research

both local and abroad.

partners that belong to government agencies, industries, academe and research groups.

P P Papers Presented a a p p e e r r s s P P r r e e s s e e n n t t e e d d

• Relevant Laws & Regulations on the Management of PCBs in the Philippines - Ms.

Leah Texon • National Initiatives on Dioxin, Furans & Dioxin-like PCBs - Ms. Ma Victoria Pasagui • NPC’s Management of PCBs - Engr. Miguel Bisnar • Safe Method of Encapsulating the PCB Contaminated Soil - Rolando Cuico & Jaime

Barretto • Experiences in Training for Assessment& Inventory of PCBs (Phil. & California) - Dr.

Genandrialine L. Peralta • Photodegradation & Volatilization Properties of PCBs - Ma Glenn Gesmundo, Dr. Barril

• An Assessment of PCB Management in the Philippines - Gerly Moradas & Susan

Gallardo • Development of Analytical Techniques for PCB Analysis - Carl Renan Estrellan & Susan

Gallardo • An Introduction to Global Positioning System (GPS) - Joseph Remigio & Ronaldo

Gallardo • Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls - Josephine Borja, Joseph Auresenia, &

Donna Taleon • Alternative Technology Options for the Chemical Treatment of Polychlorinated

Biphenyls - Carmela Centeno, Leonila Abella, Susan Gallardo • Membrane Technology: A Promising Route to PCB Treatment - Tender Ferolin & Julius

Maridable • EMS: Its Significance in the Support of Environmental Protection & Prevention of

Pollution in Balance with Socio- Economic Needs Ms. Grace Rosales

S S Selected Abstracts e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

A A ASSESSMENT S S S S E E S S S S M M E E N N T T O O OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES F F P P O O L L Y Y C C H H L L O O R R I I N N A A T T E E D D B B I I P P H H E E N N Y Y L L S S M M A A N N A A G G E E M M E E N N T T I I N N T T H H E E P P H H I I L L I I P P P P I I N N E E S S

Gerly B. Moradas & Susan M. Gallardo

Chemical Engineering Department De La Salle University

Polychlorinated Biphenyls or PCBs is one of Philippines. Networking with possible the most persistent and potentially

research partners has been done. worrying groups of pollutants in our environment. The widespread use of PCBs

Studies have shown that several in various industrial applications presents a

contaminated sites or “hotspots” were major environmental issue because of the

identified in the Philippines. According to toxicity associated with bioaccumulation.

report, the former US military bases in the Today, PCB is one of the 12 POPs

country have left their own poisonous (Persistent Organic Pollutants) banned

legacy and are a main contributor to the worldwide under the Chemical Treaty

high level of (POPs) like PCBs still polluting signed in the Stockholm Convention in

the environment. Elevated levels of PCB in May 2001.

soil were detected in the decommissioned power plant and transformer in severely

This paper presents an assessment of the contaminated areas of Clark field, present management of Polychlorinated

Pampanga. Another reported “hotspot” Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Philippines with

was the PCB contaminated soil of the emphasis on its inventory to develop safe

former Rockwell power plant. Meralco and environmentally sound technology to

claimed that the presence of PCBs in the destroy stockpiles of Polychlorinated

soil at Rockwell was only incidental due to Biphenyls and identify existing storage,

the temporary storage of retired electrical treatment and disposal methods to

equipment containing PCBs awaiting final manage PCBs. Also, related studies on

disposal. Meralco considered several PCBs are included.

alternative technologies before they came to a final decision to encapsulate

Brochures describing the project and PCB contaminated soil at Brgy. San survey forms have been sent out to

Joaquin, Pasig City.

industries that are possible PCB generators and PCB recyclers or treaters. The goal of

Though there have been recent efforts to the survey is to identify sources of PCBs,

assess the Philippines’ pressing problem on storage and disposal practices and the

PCBs, follow up study should still be carried type and disposal capacity of available

out in order to identify other POPs found in facilities for PCBs and PCB-containing

the environment. The government, NGOs, wastes and equipment. Government

academe and industries have agencies were also asked to provide

acknowledged that this is a serious information on PCB management in the

problem that requires concerted action.

A A ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF L L T T E E R R N N A A T T I I V V E E T T E E C C H H N N O O L L O O G G Y Y O O P P T T I I O O N N S S F F O O R R T T H H E E C C H H E E M M I I C C A A L L T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T O O F F

P P POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS O O L L Y Y C C H H L L O O R R I I N N A A T T E E D D B B I I P P H H E E N N Y Y L L S S

Carmela R. Centeno, Leonila C. Abella, Susan M. Gallardo

Chemical Engineering Department De La Salle University

The management of polychlorinated on the different chemical treatment biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB-containing

options. The following alternative wastes is becoming a major global

technologies are presented: chemical concern. Several countries, including the

dechlorination, chemical reduction, Philippines, are currently doing inventories

solvent extraction and soil washing; while on available technologies for the

emerging alternative technologies destruction of PCBs.

discussed include supercritical water oxidation, solvated electron technology

Although high temperature incineration and photocatalysis. The paper covers a technology is a standard method of

description of each technology, matrix- destruction for bulk PCBs, any high

applicability and advantages and temperature burning is prohibited under

limitations of some technology options. the Clean Air Act of the Philippines. The formation and subsequent release of toxic

Throughout the technology review and gases is also a constant issue in the

discussion process, it is apparent that the application of incineration for toxic and

selection of applicable technology hazardous wastes. Thus, alternative

depends mainly on site-and matrix- treatment technologies are constantly

specific characteristics. It may also be being studied and evaluated.

noted that no single non-incineration chemical technology is applicable to all

This paper presents an examination of PCB-contaminated materials. Combining several viable non-incineration two or more technologies in series may technologies for their applicability to and

offer advantages over the use of a single limitations for treating PCB-contaminated

technology in achieving the required materials. Discussion is, however, focused

degree of treatment.

E E ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: N N V V I I R R O O N N M M E E N N T T A A L L M M A A N N A A G G E E M M E E N N T T S S Y Y S S T T E E M M S S : :

I I ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN T T S S S S I I G G N N I I F F I I C C A A N N C C E E I I N N T T THE SUPPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND PREVENTION OF H H E E S S U U P P P P O O R R T T O O F F E E N N V V I I R R O O N N M M E E N N T T A A L L P P R R O O T T E E C C T T I I O O N N A A N N D D P P R R E E V V E E N N T T I I O O N N O O F F

P P POL UTION O O L L L L L U U T T I I O O N N I I IN BALANCE WITH SOCIO-EC N N B B A A L L A A N N C C E E W W I I T T H H S S O O C C I I O O - - E E CO C O ONOMIC NEED N N O O M M I I C C N N E E E E D D

Ms. Grace Rosales

Environmental Compliance Consultants International

Organizations of all kinds are increasingly concerned to achieve and demonstrate

Many organizations have undertaken sound environmental performance by

environmental “reviews” or “audits” to controlling the impact of their activities,

assess their environmental performance. products or services on the environment,

On their own, however, these “reviews” taking into account their environmental

and “audits” may not be sufficient to policy and objectives. They do so in the

provide an organization with the context of increasingly stringent legislation,

assurance that its performance not only the development of economic policies ad

meets, but will continue to meet, its legal other measures to foster environmental

and policy requirements. To be effective, protection and a general growth of

they need to be conducted within a concern from interested parties about

structured management system and environmental matters including integrated with overall management sustainable development.

activity.

W W Wastewater Treatment and Recycling a a s s t t e e w w a a t t e e r r T T r r e e a a t t m m e e n n t t a a n n d d R R e e c c y y c c l l i i n n g g

R R Removal of Recalcitrant Chloroorganics and Heavy Metals e e m m o o v v a a l l o o f f R R e e c c a a l l c c i i t t r r a a n n t t C C h h l l o o r r o o o o r r g g a a n n i i c c s s a a n n d d H H e e a a v v y y M M e e t t a a l l s s

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

The Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia pollutants and heavy metals in water and conducted the first National Workshop on

wastewaters and to develop analytical 31st January 2002 at Renaissance Palm

and treatment expertise with regards to Garden Hotel, PutraJaya, Malaysia. A total

these pollutants. These pollutants are of 23 participants attended the workshop

focussed on as they are often at low from various backgrounds. There were

concentrations but are often potentially engineers, academicians, researchers,

very detrimental to public health. This scientists, policy makers who are the

workshop focused on the removals of National Research Partners for the ARRPET

recalcitrant chloroorganics and heavy project.

metals and an event that served as a platform for exchange of ideas among

The objectives of this Regional Workshop professionals with wastewater treatment were to raise awareness on recalcitrant

and recycling interests.

P P Papers Presented a a p p e e r r s s P P r r e e s s e e n n t t e e d d

• Chloroorganics in Water and Wastewaters – A Review - Rakmi Abd Rahman, Abu

Zahrim Yaser an •

d Chia S.K. • Wastewater Treatment of Pulp and Paper Effluents: Biodegradation of Chlorocatechol - Awang Bono and Jidon Janaun • High Molecular Weight Chlorolignin Degradation Using Phanerochaete

Chrysosporium - Dwina Roosmini, Wisjnuprapto, Soepangat Soemarto, Oei Ban Liang • Anaerobic Biodegradation of Recalcitrant Cryytalline Cellulose By Clostridium

Thermocellum - Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Pang Wey Kit and Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff • The Effect of O- (4-Bromo-2-Chlorophenyl)-O-Ethyl-S-Propyl Phosphorotioate) Exposure

on the Health of Farmer - Katharina Oginawati, Juli Soemirat Slamet, Suphia Rachmawati

• Residual Chlorine Decay in Drinking Water Distribution System – A Case Study - Othman Jaafar, Rakmi Abdul Rahman and Rosalam Hj. Sarbatly • Qualitative Quantitative Studies on Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air - Abdul A. H. Kadhum, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Wan R.W. Daud and Eman N. Ali • The Intriguing Aspects of Copper Cadmium Uptake by Pseudomonas testosteroni -

Wan Azlina Ahmad • Biosorption of Heavy Metals using Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans - Zainul Akmar Zakaria and

Wan Azlina Ahmad • Predominant Microorganisms on the Biodegradation of Organophosphate – Katharina Oginawati, Moh. Irsyad, Agus J. Effendi, Betty Wediawaty, Nurulaini, Linda Setiawan

• Catechol Synthesis via Methyl Group Removal from Guaiacol by an Anaerobic Bacterium Acetobacterium Woodii Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Zainatul'Asyiqin and

Muhammad Zaki • Heavy Metals Removal for Leachate Sludge - Azni Idris, Abdul Ghani Liew Abdullah,

AidaHapini Derum • The Use of Biosensors for the on Site Detection of Chloro-Organics and Heavy Metals

in Wastewater - Lee Yook Heng • Review of Analysis of Chloroorganics in Wastewater – Rakmi Abd Rahman and Mey

Chea, Khor • Biofilm Removal of Organics - Rakmi Abd Rahman, Norazwina Zainol and Zalina Haris

Ahmad

• Removal of Recalcitrant Organics by Chemicobiological Treatment for Tannery

Wastewater - Rakmi Abd. Rahman, Nor Zaini Md Noor and Abu Zahrim Yaser

S S Selected Abstracts e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

C C CHLORO RGANICS IN WATER A H H L L O O R R O O O O O R R G G A A N N I I C C S S I I N N W W A A T T E E R R AN A N ND WASTEWATERS – A REVIEW D D W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R S S – – A A R R E E V V I I E E W W

Rakmi Abd. Rahman, Abu Zahrim Yaser and Chia S.K.

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Chloororganics have become a major formed, whether in the production process concern to public health due to its

or during wastewater treatment. toxicological characteristics. The sources

Application of biological treatment alone of chloroorganics from industries include

to remove/eliminate chloororganic industrial plants for pulp and paper, textile,

compounds in wastewater is generally not pharmaceuticals, chemicals, etc. sufficient due to compound recalcitrance Wastewater treatments using and toxicity. Several physicochemical physicochemical and biological processes

treatments followed by biological are reviewed here. Where chlorine is

treatment have been found to be involved, organochlorides (AOX) may be

effective as shown here.

R R REMOVAL OF RECALCITRANT ORGANICS BY CHEMICOBIOLOGICAL TREATMENT E E M M O O V V A A L L O O F F R R E E C C A A L L C C I I T T R R A A N N T T O O R R G G A A N N I I C C S S B B Y Y C C H H E E M M I I C C O O B B I I O O L L O O G G I I C C A A L L T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T

F F FOR TANNERY WASTEWATER O O R R T T A A N N N N E E R R Y Y W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R

Rakmi Abd. Rahman, Nor Zaini Md Noor and Abu Zahrim Yaser

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Tanning wastewaters have high chemical factors (concentrations of Fe 2+ ,H 2 O 2 and oxygen demand (COD) and colour,

OH - ) on COD and colour removals from indicating high concentration of

tanning wastewater. The optimal pH was recalcitrant organics. Considering the

found to be at pH 2.9-3.9; the optimum large amount and the low

H 2 O 2 and FeSO 4 concentrations were biodegradablility of such chemicals, a

found to be 2040-3400 mg/L and 200 mg/L combined method of advanced oxidation

respectively resulting in 60% COD and 90% process (AOPs) and biological treatment

colour removals. The chemically treated (chemicobiological) was investigated.

effluent was then fed into the SBR reactor. Chemicobiological treatment through

A lab scale biological SBR with granular hydrogen peroxide oxidation aided by

activated carbon (GAC, size 2.0-3.0 mm) ferrous sulphate also known as Fenton's

as media was operated at room process followed by biological sequencing

temperature (28-30 o C), pH 8-9 and batch reactor (SBR) treatment was

dissolved oxygen of 2-4 mg/L. The investigated in this study. The combined

hydraulic retention time was 24 hours and process chemically converts recalcitrant

the study was focussed on COD and molecules to intermediates (such as short

colour of recalcitrant organics removals. chain acids) which are then further

The SBR had reduced the residual COD of amenable to biological depletion and

300-500 mg/L to below 60 mg/L; while these may enhance biodegradation of

colour reduction was from 150 PtCo to organic constituents. Experiments were

below 10 PtCo. These results show that carried out to study the effects and to

chemicobiological treatment is effective obtain the optimum value of the three

in removing recalcitrant organics.

H H Heavy Metal Removal from Industrial Wastewaters and Hazardous Waters e e a a v v y y M M e e t t a a l l R R e e m m o o v v a a l l f f r r o o m m I I n n d d u u s s t t r r i i a a l l W W a a s s t t e e w w a a t t e e r r s s a a n n d d H H a a z z a a r r d d o o u u s s W W a a t t e e r r s s

i i in Sri Lanka n n S S r r i i L L a a n n k k a a

University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

The University of Moratuwa conducted the Sri Lanka. A total of 82 participants first National Workshop on March 2, 2002

attended the workshop from various at Crystal Room, Taj Samudra, Colombo,

backgrounds.

P P Papers Presented a a p p e e r r s s P P r r e e s s e e n n t t e e d d

• Need for research in hazardous waste management – Prof. N. Rathnayake • Proposed policies on hazardous waste management - Ms. Padmini Batuwitage • Regulatory and Enforcement Approaches towards hazardous waste management by

CEA - Mr. K.G.D. Bandarathilake • Overview of heavy metal analysis carried out by CET Division, ITI - Ms. Sharmini

Wickramarathne • Heavy Metals in Dandugam Oya - Mrs. Wasantha Wijesinghe • Heavy metal levels of groundwater in Rathmalana-Moratuwa industrial area. A

comprehensive survey carried out in 2002 - Miss. Dayani Gunawardhana • Heavy metal pollution in port of Colombo Sri Lanka - Dr. Mahesh Jayaweera • Evaluation of electrodialysis technique for heavy metal concentration in industrial

wastewaters - Dr. Suren Wijekoon • Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters & hazardous waters by

electrowinning - Dr. D.M.D.O.K Dissanayake • Managing heavy metal rich groundwater by low – cost integrated approach

encompassing phytoremediation followed by biogas production and composting in Rathmalana – Moratuwa industrial area - Dr. Mahesh Jayaweera

S S Selected Abstracts e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

M M MANAGING HEAVY METAL RICH GROUNDWATER BY LOW –COST INTEGRATED APPROACH IN A A N N A A G G I I N N G G H H E E A A V V Y Y M M E E T T A A L L R R I I C C H H G G R R O O U U N N D D W W A A T T E E R R B B Y Y L L O O W W – – C C O O S S T T I I N N T T E E G G R R A A T T E E D D A A P P P P R R O O A A C C H H I I N N

R R RATMALANA –MORATUWA INDUSTRIAL AREA A A T T M M A A L L A A N N A A – – M M O O R R A A T T U U W W A A I I N N D D U U S S T T R R I I A A L L A A R R E E A A

Mahesh Jayaweera

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Management of groundwater quality in Phytoremediation experiments suggest Ratmalana-Moratuwa industrial area with

that rhizofilteration and phytoextraction special emphasis on heavy metal

are the key mechanisms for removal of contamination was studied. Groundwater

heavy metals from the aqueous phase. samples (about 10) are taken from existing

Phytoextraction was more responsible in wells and analyzed for heavy metals. translocating heavy metals to above-

Results manifested that most of the wells ground parts in the initial few weeks and (more than 50%) are polluted with heavy

rhizofilteration became prominent at the metals mainly due to the release of

latter stages in which more metals are wastewaters from nearby industries. The

bound to below-ground parts. In all cases paper is therefore meant to elucidate a

of metal removal, maximum total solution for remediation of

bioaccumulation coefficient was far groundwater quality with low-cost

grater than 100. Once the heavy metal technologies together with some

binding was complete, harvesting was economic gains. The proposed low-cost

suggested at the 13th week during which integrated approach encompassing

more metals were adsorbed only to root phytoremediation followed by biogas

zone. This seems to be ideal period in production and composting is found to be

which the harvesting is to be done and very promising in reducing heavy metal

biogas production is to be commenced. contamination of the groundwater in

In the experiment the below- ground parts Ratmalana-Moratuwa industrial area.

were not taken for biogas production as were not taken for biogas production as

such as C:N ratio, N:P:K ratio and moisture utilized for biogas production while below-

content suggest that the dried sludge ground parts were stored to be sent to

could be effectively used only as a secure landfills.

supplement but did not show very promising attributes to be directly used as

About 62% of methane was formed at the

a compost. The crops to be tested with end of 62 days in the biogas digester. Cow

water hyacinth compost are yet to be dung and urea added into the digester

identified.

have helped to achieve a higher rate of biogas. Nevertheless, control of pH and

In general, the technologies described moisture content is of paramount

seem very promising, affordable with some importance in optimizing the biogas

tangible economic benefits and far more percentage. Sludge taken from the biogas

ease in applying even at the rural digester showed a considerable potential

community levels.

to be used as a supplement to compost.

E E EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRODI V V A A L L U U A A T T I I O O N N O O F F T T H H E E E E L L E E C C T T R R O O D D IA I A ALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN L L Y Y S S I I S S T T E E C C H H N N I I Q Q U U E E F F O O R R H H E E A A V V Y Y M M E E T T A A L L C C O O N N C C E E N N T T R R A A T T I I O O N N I I N N

I I INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER N N D D U U S S T T R R I I A A L L W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R

S. L. J. Wijeyekoon

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering University of Moratuwa

Heavy metal contamination of water electrodialysis technique are discussed supplies has led to serious health and

with particular emphasis for heavy metal environmental problems. Conventional

separation. The electrodialysis technique treatment methods such as chemical

for heavy metal concentration offer precipitation are less effective when metal

definite advantages in terms of cost, concentrations are low and have the

reliability and operational safety. This added disadvantage of producing a

paper discusses the details of the hazardous sludge creating disposal

technique and its suitability for heavy problems. Fundamental aspects of the

metal concentration for Sri Lanka.

R R REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS AND HAZARDOUS WATE E E M M O O V V A A L L O O F F H H E E A A V V Y Y M M E E T T A A L L S S F F R R O O M M I I N N D D U U S S T T R R I I A A L L W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R S S A A N N D D H H A A Z Z A A R R D D O O U U S S W W A A T T ER E R RS BY S S B B Y Y

E E ELECTROWINNING L L E E C C T T R R O O W W I I N N N N I I N N G G

D.M.D.O.K Dissanayake

Dept. of Earth Resources Engineering University of Moratuwa

The metal production, processing and technologies involved the removal of chemical industries have an increasingly

heavy metals from industrial waste water difficult problem of controlling the effects

are chemical precipitation, ion exchange, arising from its wastewater. The

complexation, adsorption, evaporation wastewaters that could cause problems

and electrochemical process. Although include rinse waters from metal

these techniques are effective enough in electroplating solutions, waste from acidic

improving the quality of the water effluent, and alkaline cleaning and pickling

they introduce some additional waste solutions, waste waters from mining and

disposal problems such as disposal of treatment of ores, metallurgical plants and

hydroxide sludge.

rolling mills, photographic, textile, leather and chemical industries. These rinse

The aim of this research project will be to waters, if discharged into the environment

investigate some aspects of the use of without treatment, can pollute natural

electrowinning technique for selective resources and disturb natural processes.

removal and recovery of some heavy Conventionally, the processes and

metals from industrial wastewater..

T T The Reduction of Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOX) in Pulp & Paper h h e e R R e e d d u u c c t t i i o o n n o o f f A A d d s s o o r r b b a a b b l l e e O O r r g g a a n n i i c c H H a a l l i i d d e e s s ( ( A A O O X X ) ) i i n n P P u u l l p p & & P P a a p p e e r r W W Wastewater and the Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution a a s s t t e e w w a a t t e e r r a a n n d d t t h h e e A A s s s s e e s s s s m m e e n n t t o o f f H H e e a a v v y y M M e e t t a a l l P P o o l l l l u u t t i i o o n n

Institute for Research and Development of Cellulose Industry Bandung , Indonesia

The Institute for Research and Development of Cellulose Industry

The objectives of this Regional Workshop conducted the first National Workshop on

were To get more information and to share March 5, 2002. A total of 75 participants

experiences in industrial hazardous waste attended the workshop from various

treatment and management in order to backgrounds. There were Policy makers,

establish comprehensive research plan, to Scientists, Engineers, Environmental

provide platform to exchange ideas with Consultants, Businessmen, Industrialists and

the national partner and to provide input Researchers who are the National

from national partners to address NRI Research Partners for the ARRPET project.

research.

P P Papers Presented a a p p e e r r s s P P r r e e s s e e n n t t e e d d

• An overview of efforts for reducing organo chlorine compounds in the pulp and

paper industries - Wieke Pratiwi and Susi Sugesty • Effluent treatment for reducing AOX in pulp and paper industries - Sri Purwati and

Yusup Setiawan • Current situation and handling of heavy metal pollution - Andoyo Sugiharto and

Taufan Hidayat • The process for producing pulp in PT. RAPP - M. Ali Sabri • The policy of pulp and paper industry development in the globalization era -

Hariyanto Eko Waluyo and Onny Sartono • Procedure for the determination of parameters in the effluent standard – M. Zakaria,

Safrudin and Budi Juliman • The wastewater treatment plant in Pt.Indah Kiat pulp and paper Perawang - Albert

Samosir

S S Selected Abstracts e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

C C CURR U U R R RE R E ENT SITUATION AND H N N T T S S I I T T U U A A T T I I O O N N A A N N D D HA H A ANDLING OF N N D D L L I I N N G G O O F F H H HEAVY METAL POL UTION E E A A V V Y Y M M E E T T A A L L P P O O L L L L L U U T T I I O O N N

Andoyo Sugiharto and Taufan Hidayat

Institute for Research and Development of Cellulose Industry

Bandung

In the effort to support the Indonesian Chrome pollution due to leather industries government policy on preserving

surveyed in some places in Java Island still environment, a preliminary survey on

exists although the Indonesian current situation and handling of heavy

government has made some efforts to metal pollution in Indonesia has been

prevent and control pollution. The efforts performed. The survey focused only on

are that Indonesian government has set chromium pollution generated in leather

up regulation to control environment, has industries in Indonesia.

introduced the benefits of implementing cleaner production concepts and even

has built wastewater treatment facility.

E E EF LUENT TREATMENT FOR REDUCING AOX IN PULP F F F F F L L U U E E N N T T T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T F F O O R R R R E E D D U U C C I I N N G G A A O O X X I I N N P P U U L L P P A A AND PAPER INDUSTRIES N N D D P P A A P P E E R R I I N N D D U U S S T T R R I I E E S S

Sri Purwati and Yusup Setiawan

Institute for Research and Development of Cellulose Industry

Bandung

Conventional bleaching process is still one of the effluent standard quality one practiced by old mills in Indonesia,

has to be bear in mind that this level whereas the new ones have implemented

should be reduced to a certain standard. ECF bleaching. The effluent from bleaching plant is a major source of water

It has been reported that in the pollution containing Adsorbable Organic

developed countries that AOX content in Halides (AOX). These compounds are toxic

the bleaching effluent can be reduced or for aquatic organism and have a potential

eliminated to a lower level either by for being widely distributed in the

internal or external measures. It is stated environment.

that an extensive practices of external measures on biological treatment, such as

AOX strength in the effluent of sequential treatment of up-flow anaerobic conventional bleaching mills are in the

sludge blanket (UASB) and activated range of 1.0 – 3.0 kg/ADT bleached pulp

sludge, can reduce AOX strength up to currently. Although the government of

80% removal.

Indonesia has not yet adopted AOX as

E E Effluent Management in Pulp & Paper Industry f f f f l l u u e e n n t t M M a a n n a a g g e e m m e e n n t t i i n n P P u u l l p p & & P P a a p p e e r r I I n n d d u u s s t t r r y y

Agharkar Research Institute Pune, India

A National Workshop on ‘Effluent The Workshop ended with a panel Management in Pulp & Paper Industry’

discussion. In the panel discussion was organized at Agharkar Research

questions related to all presentations were Institute on 2-3 May, 2002. In response, 40

discussed. The panel discussion was fruitful participants attended in the Workshop.

in answering the queries of industrial The participants included experts from

personnel and also explanation of certain different areas like pulp and paper

doubts. The Workshop gave a platform to industries, pollution control boards,

people from different fields to interact scientists, environmental consultants,

freely, present their problems and get students etc.

more knowledge.

P P Papers Presented a a p p e e r r s s P P r r e e s s e e n n t t e e d d

• Clean Technology Options for Paper Industry - Indian experiences - Prof. H. Veermani • Environmental Prospects & Status of Absorbable Organic Halides (AOX) released in

Pulp & Paper Industry - Dr. S. Panwar • Lowering AOX Levels in Pulp Mills - Dr. Pramod K. Bajpai • Permissible limits of Absorbable Organic Halides (AOX) for Pulp & Paper Industry - Dr.

P. M. Ansari •

A Status of Pulp and Paper Mill in the State of Maharashtra with reference to the Effluent Management in Pulp & Paper Industry - Mr. D. T. Devale • Environmental Audit in Pulp & Paper Industry - Mr. A. K. Mhaskar • Case study - Bilt Graphic Paper India Ltd. - Mr. S. P. Khare • Pollution Control in Pulp and Paper Mill - A Case Study - Dr. V. D. Khanolkar • Analysis of Organochlorines - Dr. D. G. Naik • Analytical Chemistry of Dioxins & Furans - Revisited & Their Pharmacokinetic

Assessment Dr. S. N. Karkhanis • Biotechnological Approaches for Reduction of Organochlorine Compounds - Dr.

Pratima Bajpai

• Efficiency in Pulp and Paper Industry - Smt. Nutan Zarapkar • How Clean is Clean? - Dr. Shyam Asolekar • Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Waste - Dr. A. D. Patwardhan

D. G. Naik

Agharkar Research Institute, Pune

Analysis of chloride ions is a much simpler With the availability of modern analytical matter. This is because the chloride ions

tools the problem of analysing can be made to react with a number of

organochlorines can be handled in a reagents in the quantitative way. However

totally different way. Gas chromatography this is not the case with the chlorine in

(GC), Gas chromatography-Mass organic compounds. The chlorine in such

Spectrometry (GC-MS) are the two major compounds is covalently bonded. These

important methods used. Availability of bonds are very strong which makes the

the authentic compound could be one of compounds stable and in turn unreactive.

the requirements, which may be felt difficult to fulfill. However for the industrial

One of the ways to analyze such samples either from the pesticide industry compounds is to convert organically

or from paper industry, authentic samples bonded chlorine into the chloride ions. This

can be made available from the readily is usually achieved by burning the

available materials. The help of other compounds in the presence of oxygen

analytical instruments like Nuclear gas (Schoniger technique). Since these

Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer experiments are carried out in the closed

(NMR), High Performance Liquid vessel, a careful attention has to be given

Chromatograph (HPLC) or Elemental to keep the reaction under control. To

Analyser is sought for the characterization overcome this 'Parr' peroxide bomb is

of the authentic compounds. The analyses used. Various reactions are involved in

carried out in this way are faster, these processes.

reproducible and give a permanent

record. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

D. T. Devale

Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, Mumbai

The situation in respect of pulp and paper manufacturing activity & the plant of M/s industries in the State of Maharashtra is not

Sinarmas Pulp & Paper Mills has been encouraging because almost all the pulp

taken over by M/s Ballarpur Management and paper units attached to the Sugar

which works on ready pulp. What is Co-Operative Society are either closed or

necessary is that we have to find out trying to switch over to the waste paper

adequate alternative economical feasible based technology. Similarly, almost all the

technology for treatment of black liquor medium scale industries except M/s

generated from Bugasse pulping plant. Pudumjee Pulp & Paper Mills Ltd. have

switched over to the waste paper based

T T Technical Improvements to Chromium-Contained Wastewater Treatment in e e c c h h n n i i c c a a l l I I m m p p r r o o v v e e m m e e n n t t s s t t o o C C h h r r o o m m i i u u m m - - C C o o n n t t a a i i n n e e d d W W a a s s t t e e w w a a t t e e r r T T r r e e a a t t m m e e n n t t i i n n

C C China Plus Paper ad Pulp Wastewater Treatment h h i i n n a a P P l l u u s s P P a a p p e e r r a a d d P P u u l l p p W W a a s s t t e e w w a a t t e e r r T T r r e e a a t t m m e e n n t t

South China Institute of Environmental Sciences Guangzhou, China

The South China Institute of Environmental The objectives of the workshop were to Sciences (SCIES) conducted the first

provide a platform for the exchange of National Workshop last May 8, 2002 at the

ideas with the national partners, to Center Building. A total of 42 participants

provide inputs from national partners to attended the workshop from various

address the issues on chromium removal backgrounds. There were engineers,

and recovery, to strengthen the academicians, researchers, scientists,

cooperation with national research policy makers who are the national

partners and to convene and discuss research partners for the ARRPET project.

concerns on the chromium-contained wastewater.

P P Papers Presented a a p p e e r r s s P P r r e e s s e e n n t t e e d d

• Potential improvements on chromium-contained wastewater treatment - Dr. Xihui

Zhang • Current situation of chromium wastewater treatment in the leather-tanning industry -

Mr. Jiande Fang • Case study of chromium-contained wastewater treatment in Zhongnan Leather

Process Plant - Dr. Guangming Zhang • Biological treatment of heavy metals in wastewaters - Dr. Hua Ying, Jinan • Bio-coagulant for wastewater treatment - Dr. Yongyou Hu • Review of electroplating chromium wastewater treatment in China - Mr. Wenquan

Yuan • Toxicity Analysis Methods of Effluent from Papermaking Industry - Dr. Qin Zhou • Trituration and application of lignin from pulp wastewater as water-stickability

reducing agent - Mr. Yang Shi

S S Selected Abstracts e e l l e e c c t t e e d d A A b b s s t t r r a a c c t t s s

C C CURRENT SITUATION OF CHROMIUM WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE LEATHER-TANNING U U R R R R E E N N T T S S I I T T U U A A T T I I O O N N O O F F C C H H R R O O M M I I U U M M W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T I I N N T T H H E E L L E E A A T T H H E E R R - - T T A A N N N N I I N N G G

I I INDUST N N D D U U S S TR T R RY Y Y

Jiande Fang, Xiudong Du

South China Institutes of Environmental Sciences

The paper reviewed the production, collection – treatment and reuse of characteristics and treatment methods of

chromium are the key points to treat the chromium-contained wastewater in the

wastewater to meet national discharge leather process industry. Wastewater

standards

discharged from leather tanning was more and to minimize adverse impacts on than 70,000,000 t/y in China, accounting

environment. Chemical sedimentation is for 0.3% of the total national industrial

the most popular method to treat and wastewater discharge, carrying 3500 tons

recover chromium from the wastewater. of chromium besides 120,000 tons of

However, majority still lack pollution control suspended solids and 150,000 tons of

facility and new technologies are needed organics in terms of COD. Separate

to improve the situation.

C C CASE STUDY OF CHROMIUM-CONTAINED WASTEWAT A A S S E E S S T T U U D D Y Y O O F F C C H H R R O O M M I I U U M M - - C C O O N N T T A A I I N N E E D D W W A A S S T T E E W W A A TE T E ER TREATMENT IN THE ZHONGNAN LEATHER R R T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T I I N N T T H H E E Z Z H H O O N N G G N N A A N N L L E E A A T T H H E E R R

P P PROCESS PLANT R R O O C C E E S S S S P P L L A A N N T T

Guangming Zhang and Anqi He

Environmental Engineering & Management Center Shenzhen Graduate School, Tsinghua University

The production, contents, treatment contained wastewater, sulfate-contained methods of chromium-contained wastewater and the remaining part. wastewater in Zhongnan Leather Process

NaOH was used to recover chromium from Plant was summarized and reported.

the chromium-contained wastewater, Wastewater was generated in all

chemical oxidation of sulfate was carried procedures with a total production of 1200

out, and the integrated wastewater was t/d, plus residential wastewater of 280 t/d.

biologically degraded. Separate The wastewater was treated in the

collection and recycle of chromium were planted and then piped to local

the key points in wastewater treatment, wastewater treatment plant for further

97% of chromium was recovered from the treatment. Separate collection and

effluent under steady operation treatment were performed for chromium-

~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

B B BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN WASTEWATERS I I O O L L O O G G I I C C A A L L T T R R E E A A T T M M E E N N T T O O F F H H E E A A V V Y Y M M E E T T A A L L S S I I N N W W A A S S T T E E W W A A T T E E R R S S

Hua Yin

Department of Environmental Engineering Jinan University

Biological treatment was regarded as hundreds times higher than would be better than traditional chemical treatment

used. The bio-coagulant had efficiency of wastewater since it was more natural.

comparable with commercial organic Bio-coagulation and bio-adsorption were

ones. More than 90% of Mn, Cu, Au, and discussed. A microorganism stream was

Cr could be removed by bio-sorption and gene-engineered to produce highly

the sorbant could be regenerated with efficient coagulate and two more were

strong acids, bases and high temperature gene-engineered for bio-adsorption. pyrolysis. More studies are needed to

Acute toxicity of the products were tested further elucidate the mechanisms, employing lab mice and the results

improve the efficiency, and simplify the showed no hazard at concentrations

regeneration process.

~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

H H HWTM Newsletter W W T T M M N N e e w w s s l l e e t t t t e e r r

This newsletter is published and distributed by Asian Institute of Technology under the Sida funded project “ARRPET”. Materials published may be cited, provided a written permission must be obtained from the respective author (s).

For further information:

Dr. Ajit P. Annachhatre

Tel/Fax: +66 02 524 5644

Principal Investigator,HWTM

E-mail: ajit@ait.ac.th

UEEM/SERD, Asian Institute of Technology URL: http://www.arrpet.ait.ac.th/hwtm PO Box 4, Pathumthani 12120, THAILAND


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