The relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill (a correlational research at the first grade of the SMAN 01 Pamijahan Bogor)
DEDE NURUL FARIDAH 109014000010
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
THE FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
THE SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA
Dede Nurul Faridah (109014000010). The Relationship between
Students’ Learning Style and Their Achievement in Listening Skill: A Correlational Research at the First Grade of the SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor. A Skripsi of the Department of English Education at the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training of the Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, 2014.
Keywords: Students’ Learning Style, Students’ Achievement in Listening Skill
This research aimed to describe about the relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill. The method which was used in this research was survey method through correlational research. The population of the research was the first grade students of SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor in the 2013/2014 academic year. However, only class of X-4 was chosen as the sample by using random cluster sampling. Furthermore there were two variables in this research. The first one was students’ learning style (variable X) and the second one was students’ achievement in listening skill (variable Y). The students’ learning style score was taken from the questionnaire whereas the student’ achievement in listening was taken from documentation. In analyzing the data and testing the hypothesis, the writer used Coefficient Contingency (C) which has close relationship with Chi-square (χ2) formula.
Based on the data analysis, it was found that the obtained χ2 = 0.310 is smaller than the χ2 table with significance level 0.05 = 5.591 (0.310 < 5.591). It means that null hypothesis (H0) is accepted and the
alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected. From the research finding, it can be concluded that there was no significant relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill. It means that students’ learning style is not a dominant factor that affects listening achievement. In this case, other factors such as motivation, aptitude, cognitive ability, and any other factors are maybe more dominant in affecting listening skill achievement than students’ learning style.
Dede Nurul Faridah (109014000010). The Relationship between
Students’ Learning Style and Their Achievement in Listening Skill: A Correlational Research at the First Grade of the SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor. Skripsi Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2014.
Kata Kunci: Gaya Belajar Siswa, Prestasi Siswa dalam Keterampilan Menyimak
Penelitian ini bertujuan menjelaskan bagaimana hubungan antara gaya belajar siswa dan prestasi siswa dalam keterampilan menyimak Bahasa Inggris. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode survey dengan studi korelasi. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas satu SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor tahun akademik 2013/2014. Dengan menggunakan teknik random cluster sampling, hanya kelas X-4 yang dipilih sebagai sampel. Dalam penelitian ini terdapat dua variabel. Diantaranya adalah gaya belajar siswa (variabel X) dan prestasi siswa dalam keterampilan menyimak. Nilai gaya belajar siswa diambil dari angket yang disebarkan kepada mereka sedangkan nilai menyimak diambil dengan cara dokumentasi. Dalam menganalisis data dan menguji hipotesis, penulis menggunakan analisis koefisien kontingensi yang berhubungan erat dengan rumus Chi-square (χ2).
Berdasarkan analisis data, ditemukan bahwa hipotesis nol (H0)
diterima dan hipotesis alternatif (Ha) ditolak. Hasil tersebut dapat dilihat dari nilai Chi-square (χ2) hitung= 0.310 lebih kecil dari nilai Chi-square (χ2) tabel dengan level signifikansi 0.05 = 5.591 (0.310 < 5.591). Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara gaya belajar siswa dengan prestasi mereka dalam keterampilan mendengarkan. In berarti bahwa gaya belajar siswa tidak mempengaruhi prestasi siswa dalam keterampilan menyimak secara dominan. Mungkin, faktor lain seperti motivasi, bakat, kemampuan kognitif, dan faktor lain lebih berperan secara dominan dalam mempengaruhi keterampilan menyimak.
Alhmadulillahirabbil’alamiin all praises are given by the writer to Allah SWT, the Lord of the world, the Greatest of the greats. Only by His power, bestowal, affection, and guidance, the writer can finish her scientific paper “Skripsi”. Peace and Blessing be upon to our beloved Prophet, Muhammad SAW, his family, his companions, and his followers.
This scientific paper “Skripsi” is presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, the Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Strata I (S.Pd.) in English Language Teaching.
In finishing this Skripsi, the writer realizes that there are many relatives who give their help, guidance, and motivation. May Allah SWT give reward for their kindness. Amiin. First, the writer would like to express her special gratitude to her advisors, Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M.Ed., as the first advisor and Neneng Sunengsih, M.Pd., as the second advisor for their great contribution, guidance, kindness, and patience in finishing the Skripsi. The writer realizes without them her Skripsi will not finish until now.
Moreover, the writer also would like to express her thanks and appreciation to all people who helped her in completing this Skripsi, particularly to:
1. Dr. Hj. Nurlena Rifa’i, Ph.D., the Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, the Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta. 2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd., the Head of the Department of English Education, the
Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, the Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta.
3. Zaharil Anasy, M.TESOL., the Secretary of the Department of English Education, the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, the Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta.
4. The Department of English Education lecturers and staffs who gave knowledge and guidance to the writer, whom their names cannot be mentioned one by one.
5. The headmaster of the SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor, Nandang Suherwan, S.Pd., M.M., and the English teacher of the SMA N 01 Pamijajan Bogor, Jajang Ridwansyah M., M.Si. who always guided the writer admirably in doing her research.
6. The SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor administration staffs, teachers and X-4 students who accepted and gave permission to the writer to do her research so the writer got all related data.
7. The headmaster of the SMA N 04 Tangerang Selatan, Suhermin, S.Pd., the English teacher of the SMA N 04 Tangerang Selatan, Nina Herlina, S.Pd., the SMA N 04 Tangerang Selatan administration staffs and X-8 students who accepted and gave permission to the writer to conduct the research try out. 8. The writer’s beloved parents H. Syamsul Amri and Hj. Nyai Onih Nikmah,
who always support, pray, guide, educate, take care, motivate, and love the writer since her childhood. The writer realizes, without them the writer is nothing.
9. The writer also gives thanks to her beloved and amazing brothers, Sopyan Abdillah, Siti Sayyidatul Hilmiah, S.H.I, Neng Malia Ulfah, S.Pd.I., Lulu Ilmaknun, and Salsabila Ismatul Mu’alimah, who always support, give idea, pray and love the writer, and also always listen to the writer’s complaint. 10. The writer’s beloved friends, Siti Nurfitriani, Elva Farhi Qolbina, Anggi Eka
Maulani, Noriska Silviana, Siti Nurlatifah Humairah Lutfi, Ats-Tsauratul M, Hanifah Muslimah, Sri Mayendra, and Yulia Ratnasari who always give support and help in doing and finishing her Skripsi. The writer is so lucky to have them all.
11. All of the writer’s friends who have spent time four years in this university especially for A class 2009 the Department of English Education.
May Allah SWT bless all of us. Amiin. The writer realizes that this Skripsi is far from being perfect. Therefore, the writer accepts any constructive suggestion to make this Skripsi better. Finally, the writer hopes this Skripsi will be a valuable writing. Amiin…
Jakarta, April 2014
TABLE OF CONTENT ……….. vi
LIST OF TABLES………..…….……… ix
LIST OF CHARTS……….……….. x
LIST OF APPENDICES………. xi
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ………...…...…. 1
A. The Background of the Research ……….… 1
B. The Formulation of the Problem………... 4
C. The Limitation of the Problem ………... 4
D. The Purpose of the Research ………... 4
E. The Significances of the Research ………... 4
CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW……….……….. 5
A. Learning Style………...… 5
1. The Understanding of Learning Style……… 5
2. The Types and Characteristics of Learning Style…... 6
a. Visual Learning Style………...… 7
b. Auditory Learning Style………...… 8
c. Kinesthetic Learning Style……….……..… 9
B. Listening……….………..… 10
1. The Understanding of Listening……… 10
2. The Factors Affecting Listening………..….. 11
3. The Types of Listening………..…… 12
4. The Types of Listening Activities………..… 12
C. Listening Skill Achievement………...…. 13
1. The Understanding of Achievement……….……. 13
2. The Factors Affecting Achievement……….…. 14 3. The Understanding of Listening Skill Achievement…. 15
CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………. 19
A. The Place and the Time of the Research………...………. 19
B. The Method of the Research……….. 19
C. The Population and the Sample………..… 19
D. The Variable of the Research……….……… 19
1. The Students’ Learning Style……….….. 19
2. The Students’ Listening Skill Achievement……...….. 20
E. The Instrument of the Research………….……… 20
1. The Questionnaire………. 20
a. The Instrument Validity……….……… 22
b. The Instrument Reliability……….…………. 22
2. The Documentation……….……. 23
F. The Technique of the Data Collection…….………..…… 24
G. The Technique of the Data Analysis……….…. 24
H. The Statistical Hypothesis………..… 25
CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDING AND INTERPRETATION…… 26
A. Research Finding……….……….. 26
1. The Description of the Data……….…… 26
a. The Students’ Learning Style….……..………….. 27
b. The Students’ Listening Skill Achievement...…… 27
c. The Students’ Learning Style and Their Listening Skill Achievement………..…… 29
2. The Analysis of Data and the Test of Hypothesis.….. 31
B. Interpretation………...….. 34
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION……….… 35
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 The Questionnaire Item Scoring……….… 20 Table 3.2 Learning Style Instrument Prediction before the Instrument Validity
and Reliability………. 21
Table 3.3 Reliability Coefficient Correlation (r) Interpretation……….……… 22 Table 3.4 Learning Style Instrument Prediction in the Real Research……..…. 23 Table 3.5 The Indicator of the Students’ Listening Skill Achievement…....…. 24 Table 4.1 The Summary of the Students’ Learning Style (X)
and Listening Skill Achievement Score (Y).………...……... 26 Table 4.2 The Distribution of the Students’ Listening Achievement………… 29 Table 4.3 The Analysis of Relationship between Students’ Learning Style
and Their Listening Skill Achievement……….…...….. 30 Table 4.4 The Coefficient Contingency (C) Table……….………....……. 31 Table 4.5 The Case Processing Summary of Chi-Square (χ2) Analysis…….…. 32 Table 4.6 Students’ Listening Achievement * Students’ Learning Style
Table 4.7 Chi-Square Tests……….…... 33 Table 4.8 The Symmetric Measures of Coefficient Contingency (C)……..… 33
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 4.1 The Ratio of the Student Total of Each Students’ Learning Style… 27 Chart 4.2 The Frequency Distribution of the Students’ Listening
Skill Achievement Score………..…….………….….…..…… 28 Chart 4.3 The Percentage Distribution the Students’ Listening
Skill Achievement………..…… 28 Chart 4.4 The Comparison between Each Students’ Learning Style
LIST OF APPENDICESAppendix 1 Profile of SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor
Appendix 2 Learning Style Questionnaire Prediction before Validity and Reliability Test
Appendix 3 Learning Style Questionnaire before Validity and Reliability Test Appendix 4 Questionnaire Recapitulation Data for Validity and Reliability Test Appendix 5 The Item Validity and Reliability
Appendix 6 Learning Style Questionnaire Prediction after Validity and Reliability Test
Appendix 7 Learning Style Questionnaire for the Research Appendix 8 Questionnaire Recapitulation Data
Appendix 9 List of the Students’ Listening Skill Daily Test Score
Appendix 10 Tabulation of the Students’ Learning Style (X) and the Students’ Listening Skill Achievement (Y)
Appendix 11 Pearson Product Moment (r) Table Appendix 12 Chi-square (χ2) Table
Appendix 13 Pengesahan Proposal Skripsi Appendix 14 Surat Bimbingan Skripsi
Appendix 15 Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian SMA N 04 Tangsel Appendix 16 Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian SMA N 01 Pamijahan Appendix 17 Surat Keterangan Melakukan Penelitian SMA N 01 Pamijahan Appendix 18 Reference Test
INTRODUCTIONA. The Background of the Research
It has been acknowledged that English has been used all over the world. It means that English is a means of communication that is used internationally by people to communicate with others to transfer ideas, thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or messages.1 Nowadays, people need to be able to use English in order to challenge globalization.
To prepare competitive society to challenge globalization, the government has decided some compulsory subjects that have to be taught to students. One of them is English. This subject becomes a compulsory subject in Junior and Senior High School levels.
In English, there are four basic language skills that teachers have to teach and students have to learn; they are reading, listening, writing, and speaking. Those skills are stated in the curriculum scope and curriculum objective of ELT in Indonesia as follow:
Ruang lingkup mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris meliputi:
1. Keterampilan berbahasa, yaitu mendengarkan, berbicara, membaca,dan menulis;
2. Kompetensi yang meliputi kompetensi tindak bahasa, linguistic (kebahasaan), sosiokultural, strategi, dan kompetensi wacana;
3. Pengembangan sikap yang positif terhadap bahasa Inggris sebagai alat komunikasi;.
Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris memiliki tujuan sebagai berikut:
1. Mengembangkan kemampuan berkomunikasi dalam bahasa tersebut, dalam bentuk lisan dan tulis. Kemampuan berkomunikasi meliputi mendengarkan (listening), berbicara (speaking), membaca (reading), dan menulis (writing).
2. Menumbuhkan kesadaran tentang hakikat dan pentingnya bahasa Inggris sebagai salah satu bahasa asing untuk menjadi alat utama belajar.
3. Mengembangkan pemahaman tentang saling keterkaitan antar bahasa dan budaya serta memperluas cakrawala budaya. Dengan demikian siswa memiliki wawasan lintas budaya dan melibatkan
Muhammad Farkhan, An Introduction to Linguistics, (Jakarta: UIN Jakarta Press. 2006), p. 8.
diri dalam keragaman budaya.2
Those skills are important in teaching and learning English. Those skills cannot be separated and related each other. It is impossible if we talk to people without listening to their speaking and also it is impossible to write without reading what we write.
Listening is a receptive skill besides reading that teachers have to teach. Listening plays an important role in language teaching. It means that teaching listening becomes an important task for English teachers to conduct in order to achieve the curriculum objective.
Moreover, teaching listening also has attracted a greater level of interest in recent years than in the past. University entrance exams, school exams, and other examinations often include listening component. It indicates that listening skill is one of main components of second language proficiency, and also reflects that if listening is not tested, teachers will not teach it. 3
For many students, listening is a difficult skill to improve because in listening, students have to pay much attention, they have to concentrate, and sometimes they feel asleep. It also needs a quiet situation without any noise to do because when there are a lot of noise, listening in English will be hard to do.
To make students easy in the listening subject, teachers have to employ appropriate strategies. The appropriate strategies in teaching listening can be decided based on understanding students’ learning style. In fact, there are many teachers who do not pay attention to learning styles of their students. Moreover, many students also do not pay attention to their own learning style whereas knowing it can help them to learn listening easily. According to Chiya in Jowkar, “teachers should consider students’ learning styles and enhance students’ learning strategies for their successful learning. When teachers are aware of the importance
Kompetensi Dasar Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA & MA, (Jakarta: Pusat Kurikulum, Balitbang Depdiknas, 2003), p. 14.
Jack C. Richards, Teaching Listening and Speaking: from Theory to Practice, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 1.
of learning styles and learning strategies, they can provide a good map to their students.”4
The students’ success in learning listening can be measured by their achievement in the subject. Achievement itself derives from students’ comprehension, understanding and mastery about certain information or skills which is taken from some tests which are given to the students. In learning listening, students certainly have different levels in achievements. According to Ellis, the different achievements are affected by individual differences such as motivation, aptitude, personality, cognitive style, learning strategies and preferred learning style.5
Learning style refers to individuals’ fastest and best way to learn. Every student absolutely has different way in learning. They have their own way in receiving information from the outside. Some students learn best by seeing, some students learn best by hearing and listening, and others learn best by touching and moving.
Learning style is one of the main factors that help determine how and how well the students learn a second language or foreign language which can influence their comprehension both in reading, writing, listening and speaking.6 It means that learning styles have relationship through English skills comprehension. Some researches on learning styles and language learning performance show that there is a relationship between learning styles of the students and the success of the students in language learning.7 Language learning includes English language skills comprehension such reading, writing, speaking, and listening.
From the explanation above, the writer believes that the students’ learning style also correlates with the students’ listening skill achievement. Because of
Mehdi Jowkar, The Relationship between Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Listening Comprehension Strategies of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners, SAVAP International, 2012, p. 739.
Rod Ellis, Second Language Acquisition, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 73.
Rebecca L. Oxford, Language Learning Styles and Strategies: an Overview, (Oxford: GALA, 2003), p. 1.
Nabiollah Sadeghi et al., Learning Styles, Personality Types and Reading Comprehension Performance, English Language Teaching, 5, 2012, p. 120
that, the writer decides to do a research about “The Relationship between Students’ Learning Style and Their Achievement in Listening Skill.”
B. The Formulation of the Problem
The formulation of the problem in this research is formulated as follows: “Was there any significant relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill?”
C. The Limitation of the Problem
This research is focused on the students’ learning style and the students’ English achievement. Learning styles questionnaire in this research are based on the characteristics of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles whereas, the students’ English achievement is in the area of listening skill. To test the theory, the students with their own learning style will be identified by their English listening achievement which reflects their competence in listening skill.
D. The Purpose of the Research
In this research, the writer was to describe the relationship exists between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill.
E. The Significance of the Research
The research finding is expected to broaden the writer’s perception of the students’ learning style in particular and the readers in general. In addition, the research finding can be used as reference for further research focusing on the same research.
5 A. Learning Style
1. The Understanding of Learning Style
People’s ability in understanding and absorbing information is definitely different from each other. Some are fast, some are moderate, and some are slow. Therefore, they have to use different learning styles according to their easiest way to understand the same information or lesson. These people’s different learning styles are their specific way in learning. People’s specific ways in learning are affected by subject matter, context, age, prior knowledge, gender, motivation, and ethnicity.1
Different learning styles indicate individuals’ fastest and best way to absorb and comprehend information from the outside. Understanding learning style is a key to develop individuals’ ability in their work, school, and environment. By understanding it, they are be able to learn easily, communicate easily, and get maximum result in learning.
Many experts define what learning style actually is. According to Dunn and Dunn in Dunn and Griggs, learning style is the beginning way of students to focus on, process, absorb, and remember new and difficult information in which it is derived from biological and developmental characteristics.2 DePorter and Hernacki state that students’ learning style is the combination of how students absorb, manage, and process information.3 Zhang and Stenberg in Santrock also define that students’ learning style is students’ preferred ways to use their abilities
Maria Hsueh-Yu Cheng and Kingsley Banya, “Bridging the Gap between Teaching
Style and Learning Style”, in Joy M. Reid (ed.), Understanding Learning Styles in the Second
Language Classroom, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998), p. 80. 2
Rita Dunn, “Capitalizing on College Students’ Learning Styles: Theory, Practice, and
Research”, in Rita Dunn and Shirley A. Griggs (ed.), Practical Approaches to Using Learning
Styles in Higher Education, (Westport: Bergin & Garvey, 2000), p. 8.
Bobbi DePorter and Mike Hernacki, Quantum Learning: Membiasakan Belajar Nyaman dan Menyenangkan, Translated from Quantum Learning: Unleasing the Genius in You by Alwiyah Abdurrahman, (Bandung: Penerbit Kaifa, 1999), 4th Edition, p. 110.
in learning.4 Moreover, Nasution states that students’ learning style is students’ way in receiving information in learning activity.5
From the definition above, it can be concluded that students’ learning style is a term used to describe the students’ beggining way to receive any information. It also refers to the students’ easiest, fastest, and preferred way to receive and understand any information in learning activity. It is possible for every student to have the combination of learning styles, but every student usually have a dominant learning style or their own preference style.
2. The Types and Characteristics of Learning Style
According to Adi Gunawan in his book “Genius Learning Strategy”, there are seven general approaches in classifying types and characteristics of learning style; they are:6
a. The approach based on information processing; determining a different way in processing new information. This approach is developed by Kagan, Kolb, Honey and Umford Gregorc, Butler, and McCharty.
b. The approach based on personality; determining different types of personal characters. This approach is developed by Myer-Briggs, Lawrence, Keirsey & Bartes, Simon & Byram, Singer-Loomis, Grey-Whellright, Holland, dan Geering.
c. The approach based on perceptual modality; determining dependency level through certain sensory perception. The approach is developed by Bandler and Grinder and Messick.
d. The approach based on environment; determining different response through physical, psychological, and social condition, and instructional. This approach is developed by Witkin and Eison Canfield.
John W. Santrock, Educational Psychology, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011), 5th Edition, p. 129.
Nasution, Berbagai Pendekatan dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar, (Jakarta: Bumi
Aksara, 2008), 11th Edition, p. 93.
Adi W. Gunawan, Genius Learning Strategy, (Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2004), 2nd Edition, p. 140.
e. The approach based on social interaction; determining different ways in connecting with others. This approach is developed by Grasha-Reichman, Perry, Mann, Furmann-Jacobs, dan Merill.
f. The approach based on intelligence; determining different talent. This approach is developed by Gardner dan Handy.
g. The approach based on cerebral area; determining relative domination of cerebral area, such as left hemisphere and right hemisphere. This approach is developed by Sperry, Bogen, Edwards, and Herman.
In Indonesia the most well-known approach to classify learning style is the approach based on perceptual modality.7 According to this approach there are three types of learning style; they are auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles.
According to the research which was done in USA by Prof. Ken and Rita Dunn, and some programming Neuro-linguists there are three types of learning style. Those types are:8
a. Visual. Learn by seeing something. We prefer to see pictures and diagrams. We prefer to see exhibition, modeling, or watching video. b. Auditory. Learn by hearing something. We prefer to listen to audio
cassette, causeri-lecturing, discussion, debate, and verbal instruction. c. Kinesthetic. Learn by physical activity and direct involvement. We
prefer to move, touch, feel, and experience by ourselves.
Furthermore, students’ behavior with one of those types of learning style is explained as follow:
a. Visual Learning Style
Students with visual learning style like to learn by seeing and observing things.9 It includes seeing and observing books, pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, displays, handouts, films, flip-chart, etc.
Ibid., p. 142.
Colin Rose and Malcolm J. Nicholl, Cara Belajar Cepat Abad XXI, Translated from Accelerated Learning for the 21th Century by Dedy Ahimsa, (Bandung: Nuansa, 2002), 3rd Edition, pp. 130—131.
Visual students are also neat and disciplinary.10 They have neat hand-writing and they usually learn with orderly books and pens. This type of students cannot bear if their room is in chaos with things. They also usually give attention to their appearance both in and outside school.11
Visual students usually have problem in remembering verbal instruction.12 They usually forget to convey verbal message and also feel hard to choose words when they want to reveal something. Therefore visual students prefer to demonstrate something than to present it.
Mostly, students with visual learning style understand well about position, shape, numeral, and color. These students remember thing visually.13 These students can exactly remember a picture of an object although the position of it is changed.
b. Auditory Learning Style
Students with auditory style prefer to learn by hearing and listening.14 They are easy to understand and comprehend lesson or information by listening to the lectures, discussions, or recording. Therefore, they will fell disturbed when there is noise around them.
This type of students also have problem with visual works.15 They are hard to read small characters and easily tired to read. They are also usually wrong to read.
Moreover, they have sensitivity through music. 16They can repeat and imitate tone, rhythm, and sound of voice. These students also like to listen to
Bobbi DePorter and Mike Hernacki (1999), op.cit., p. 116.
Gavin Reid, Learning Style and Inclusion, (London: Paul Chapman Publishing, 2005), p. 93.
Bobbi DePorter and Mike Hernacki (1999), loc.cit.
13 Blue Wooldridge, “Increasing the Effectiveness of University/College Instruction:
Integrating the Results of Learning Style Research into Course Design and Delivery”, in Ronald R, Sims and Serbrenia J. Sims (ed.), The Importance of Learning Styles, (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1995), p. 53.
Gavin Reid (2005), op.cit., p. 92.
Bobbi DePorter and Mike Hernacki (1999), op.cit., p. 118.
music. Usually, these students prefer to spend their holiday by listening to music than to play with their friends. They also can remember lyric easily.
Furthermore, this type of students likes oral reports.17 They like to speak, discuss, and explain things. They prefer to get oral test or assignment than to get written test or assignment. In discussing activity, they are usually become vocalist and they usually master the conversation.
c. Kinesthetic Learning Style
In kinesthetic style, students have orientation to do trial-error activity. They are brave to take a risk.18 In answering question, they prefer to just answer than to read the instruction before. They also learn practically and learn through manipulation.
These students always have orientation to physic and movement.19 They cannot stand still for a long time. Because of that these students need more time to do anything. In class, these students prefer to learn by playing games that incite themselves. In explaining information or talking, they usually gesticulate.
Mostly, the students with kinesthetic learning style Learning through physical activity.20 When they are reading a book, usually they point toward words that they read. Usually they also understand and comprehend lesson easily by rewriting the material that they have learnt.
They also give response to physical attention and touch people to get their attention.21 Because of that, to get people’s attention they usually touch and stand near the people whom they talk to. Moreover, these students are also sensitive to the people’s expression.
Grace Fleming, Auditory Learning Style, 2014, (www.homeworktips.about.com).
Gavin Reid (2005), op.cit., p.121.
Ronald R, Sims and Serbrenia J. Sims (1995), loc.cit.
Joy M. Reid (1998), op.cit., p. 163.
1. The Understanding of Listening
In daily activity, listening is a skill used dominantly by people over the world.22 People often listen to news reports, songs from tape or television, or people often listen to people speaking around us directly or by phone. In general, there are four reasons to listening. Those are: 23
a. to engage social rituals
People can get in touch with others by listening to the other’s talks, as it the nature feeling.
b. to exchange information
Through listening to the news, people know some information that happen in other country or local region.
c. to share feeling
By listening, people can solve their problems by asking other for suggestions or advices.
d. to enjoy themselves
Listening to the music or song are very enjoyable activities. People can do this kind of activity where ever they are. The aim is to entertain and make fine feelings.
Listening is a receptive skill besides reading. It emphasizes that listening requires active participation from the listeners.24
In the same way, Harmer expresses that listening is a “receptive skill” where people get the idea according to what they heard.25
Basically, listening has different meaning with hearing. Listening involves an active process which requires an analysis of sounds. In contrast, hearing only
22Joan Morley, “Listening Comprehension in Second/Foreign Language Instruction”, in
Marianne Celce-Murcia (ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, (Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1991) 2nd Edition, p. 82.
Tricia Hedge, Teaching and Learning in Language Classroom, (New York: Oxford University Press. 2000), p. 228.
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman. 2001), 3rd Edition, p. 181.
perceives sounds in a passive way.26 Moreover, Rixon also states that hearing is simply the recognition of sounds which does not need any conscious attention to do. It is clearly different with listening. Listening implies some conscious attention to the message of what is said.27
Listening to a language can be defined as the ability to receive and decode oral communication by processing a language sample. Listening is two-way process, involving reception, or the decoding of input, and production, involving predicting and compensating.28
Listening also can be defined as everything that impinges on the sound recognition/discrimination, the patterning of spoken language and the construction of meaning”.29
From the definition above, it can be concluded that listening is different from hearing. Listening is a receptive skill that needs some conscious attention to do. It involves reception and decoding any information on the sound recognition, the patterning of spoken language, and the construction of meaning.
2. The Factors Affecting Listening
In listening, another language such as English, listeners must have difficulties in doing it. At least, there are four factors that affect listening.30 Those are (1) the listeners. The more listeners’ are interested in the topic, the easier they listen to the topic discussed. (2) Background knowledge. Without adequate background knowledge, the listeners with poor listening skills will have difficult time accessing difficult information. (3) Speaking style. The manner in which people speak may have an effect on listening. If the people use a fast of speech, the listeners may have difficulty receiving the information that they try to understand. (4) Visual input. For some people, visual supports aid listening for new information.
Underwood M., Teaching Listening, (New York: Longman. 1989), p. 2.
Selagh Rixon, Developing Listening Skills, (London: Macmillan Publishers, 1986), p. 28.
Tricia McErlain, The Nature of Listening: The Need for Listening in English for Academic Purpose, 1999, (http://www.aelfe.org).
Marianne Celce-Murcia (1991), op.cit., p. 83.
Michele Norflee, Factors That Affect Listening Comprehension, 2014, (www.education.seattlepi.com).
3. The Types of Listening
According to Derrington and Groom, there are five types of listening. 31 The first is Informative listening which consists of information retained by the listeners. The Second is appreciative listening. That is when the listeners listen to gain satisfaction and listen according to their styles and feels about it for example listening to music. The third is critical listening. It is based on retaining information and analyzing it deeply. The next is discriminative listening in which the listeners identify emotions and inferences through the tone of voice. The last is empathic listening which consists on non-verbal behavior of the listeners that is attending to what is said. All these types of listening help us to identify the kind of material that can be used depending on the students’ learning style and their listening need.
4. The Types of Listening Activities
In listening, there are four activities which learners often do in classroom activity. Those types are no overt response, short response, longer response, and extended response. 32
a. No overt response
In no overt response activity, Students do not have to do anything in response to the listening text. Often students' facial expression and body language will betray what they have understood. Activities of this type include storytelling, listening to songs or watching movies and videos.33
b. Short response
In this activity, learners obey instruction and they perform actions by drawing shapes or picture to response the instructions. For example ticking of items,
Chris Derrington and Barry Groom, A Team Approach to Behavior Management, (London: Paul Chapman Publishing, 2004), pp. 42—43.
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 113—114.
Louanne Piccolo, Methods to Improve Listening Skills, 2014, (www.brighthubeducation.com).
true/false, detecting mistakes, cloze, guessing definitions, skimming, and scanning.34
c. Longer response
In this activity, students can engage in answering questions verbally about a listening text, taking notes from a mini-lecture by rewriting what you said in different words to the ones you used or writing a brief summary of a listening text.35
d. Extended response
This activity can be called “combined skills” activity because in this listening activity learners are only “jump-off point” for extended reading, writing, or speaking for example problem-solving and interpretation.36
C. Listening Skill Achievement 1. The Understanding of Achievement
Students’ understanding about material that they have been learnt and their intelligent ability determine their success in getting achievement. To know students’ achievement, it needs to do an evaluation after they passed their learning activity.
Achievement is used to “describe school-based learning”. In schools the students experience many changes and many sources based on school’s curriculum. The curriculum describes the skills, performance, knowledge, attitudes that the students have to learn in school, and also what achievement that the students have to achieve during their school years.37
According to Gregory in Santrock, achievement is the material that the student has learnt or what skills that the student has mastered.38 A similar understanding also given by Nana Sudjana; he states that achievement is “kemampuan-kemampuan yang dialami seseorang setelah ia menerima
Penny Ur (1996), op cit., 113
Louanne Piccolo (2014), loc.cit.
Penny Ur (1996), op.cit., 114
Peter W. Airasian, Classroom Assessment Concepts and Applications, (McGraw-Hill, 2008), p. 242.
pengalaman belajar.”39 Furthermore, Gronlund also states that achievement is something that students have learnt.40 It means that achievement is as result of measurement and evaluation in learning for a period of time. It cannot be achieved if the students do not learn before.
Moreover, “achievement is the extent to which a person has achieved, something acquired certain information or mastered certain skills, usually as a result of specific information.”41
Based on this definition, after learning in a period of time, the students will get their result. This result is generally called achievement. The students’ achievement is based on what they have learnt. For example, in schools students is taught some skills in English such as listening, reading, writing, and speaking. To get their result or achievement, they have to be able to master those skills.
Generally, to know the students’ achievement the teachers give them a test which is known by achievement test. Achievement test is a test which “is used to determine what you have learned (such as vocabulary, reading comprehension, and math skills).”42
From the definitions above, it can be concluded that achievement is students’ attainment about learning material based on what they learnt in a period of time that tested by the teachers using achievement test in schools.
2. The Factors Affecting Achievement
According to Suryabrata, there are two factors affecting listening; they are intern and extern factors;43 (1) intern factor is a factor that comes from the individual itself including physiological and psychological factor. Physiological factor usually includes physical condition of the individual such as health and others whereas psychological factor usually connected with physiological
Nana Sudjana, Penelitian Hasil Proses Belajar Mengajar, (Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya, 2001), p. 34.
Norman E. Gronlund, Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching, (New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1976), p. 331.
M. Chabib Thoha, Teknik Evaluasi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003), p. 44.
Santrock (2011), loc.cit.
condition such as motivation, interest, aptitude, and cognitive ability. (2) extern factor is factor that comes from the outside including social and nonsocial factor. Social factor is related to social interaction between people whereas nonsocial factor includes learning place, the instrument used to learn, weather, and others.
Besides those two factors, there is another factor that affects achievement; that is learning style. According to Kolb and Kolb in Bhatti and Bart, learning style is influential through achievement.44Learning style is individual’ easiest and fastest ability to absorb, manage, and process any information, to understand material given, to solve a difficulty faced.
3. The Understanding of Listening Skill Achievement
Listening is a receptive skill that requires active participation from the listeners.45 In learning listening, every student is demanded to get achievement as a sign of successful teaching and learning. Listening achievement as one of achievement that students have to get in order to finish their learning in English.
Listening skill achievement itself is students’ mastery about listening skill subject that is taken from the test score. Achievement only can be achieved if the students pass their learning in listening from a period of time. The students will get their goal in listening if they understand and have high score in listening test.
D. The Previous Research
The research is focused on students’ learning styles and listening achievement. From the previous researches, the writer gets the idea to do a further research about the relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill. Those related researches are explained as follow: 1. The Relationship between English Listening Proficiency Levels and Learning
Styles by Farinaz Shirani Bidabadi and Hamidah Yamat.
Several factors have been investigated in order to understand how learners attempt to learn a second language, one of which is learning style. Learners
Rahmatullah Bhatti & William M. Bart, On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement, Current Issues in Education, 16, 2013, p. 1.
particularly EFL learners from different English language backgrounds and listening proficiency may vary from one another in their learning style preferences. With such a view, it is essential to consider the differences in learning styles and listening proficiency levels in teaching because this would have an impact on the learning process. The aim of the research was to identify Iranian freshmen’s levels of English listening proficiency and their learning style preferences as well as the relationship between them. A group of 92 freshmen from a population of 120 freshmen were randomly selected from a university in Esfahan, Iran. The Oxford Placement Test was first administered to identify the freshmen’s listening proficiency levels and the learning style preferences. Questionnaire was employed to identify their preferred learning styles. Based on the results obtained from the Oxford Placement Test, 19 freshmen were identified as advanced learners, 39 intermediate learners, and 34 low proficiency learners. The descriptive analysis of the learning style preferences indicated that all the learners preferred high level learning styles and considered themselves as communicative learners. The Pearson Correlation analysis also indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between the learners’ English listening proficiency levels and their learning style preferences. The implication of the research is that all lecturers should be aware of their learners’ learning style preferences and their English listening proficiency levels in order to match their teaching styles with their learners’ learning style preferences.46
2. Learning Style and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students by Rajshree S. Vaishnav
The objectives of the research are to know types of learning style prevalent among secondary school students, to study the relation between learning styles and academic achievement of secondary school students, and to compare the effect of different learning style on academic achievement secondary school students. The research was conducted on three learning styles; they are visual,
Farinaz Shirani Bidabadi and Hamidah Yamat, The Relationship between English Listening Proficiency Levels and Learning Styles, GEMA Online™ Journal of Language Studies, 12, 2012.
auditory, and kinesthetic (VAK). A sample of 200 students of class 9th, 10th and 11th standard of Maharashtra state was selected for the research. The findings of the research reveal that kinesthetic learning style was found to be more prevalent than visual and auditory learning style. There existed positive high correlation between kinesthetic learning style and academic achievement of students. Very negligible positive correlation was found between visual learning style and academic achievement of students. Whereas positive low correlation between auditory learning style and academic achievement of students. The main effects of the three variables, visual, auditory and kinesthetic, are significant on academic achievement.47
3. Learning Styles and Academic Performance of Students in English as a Second-Language Class in Iran by Chermahini, Ghandari, and Thalab
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between learning styles and the academic performance of students who attend an English class to learn English as a second language in Iran. A randomly selected group of 488 high school students (248 male and 240 female) participated in this research. They were asked to fill out the Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory to identify four basic learning types: Accommodating, Diverging, Assimilating, and Converging. Academic performance evaluated by achievement test in the English language. The survey results indicated significant relationships between the different learning styles and the performance in an English test, and the performance resulted differently in four groups with different preferred learning styles. The finding leads to conclude that learning styles can be considered as a good predictor of any second language academic performance, and it should be taken into account to enhance students’ performances specifically in learning and teaching the second language.48
Rajshree S. Vaishnav, Learning Style and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students, Voice of Research, Vol. 1, 2013.
Soghra Akbari Chermahini, Ali Ghanbari, and Mohammad Ghanbari Talab, Learning Styles and Academic Performance of Students in English as a Second-Language Class in Iran, Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy (BJSEP), Vol. 7, No. 2, 2013.
E. The Thinking Framework
In this research, there are two variables; they are students’ learning style as dependent variable and students’ listening skill achievement as independent variable. To support the research, the writer explains those two variables as follow.
Listening skill is an important skill in language teaching and learning. In English language teaching-learning, listening is important because listening skill becomes one four basic skills that have to be taught to students. Even, in some examination listening skill often included such as in university entrance examination, school examination, and others. Understanding learning style of the students is really needed for the teachers and the students in teaching-learning listening because by understanding it the teachers can decide the appropriate strategies to teach listening. For the students, understanding their own learning style can help them to get maximum achievement in the subject because a good understanding and effective using of learning style leads a good achievement. Conversely, a bad understanding and ineffective using of learning style leads a bad achievement.
Based on the theory, it is believed that there is a significant relationship between students’ learning style and listening skill achievement because the students who have good understanding and using their learning style effectively will get good achievement than the students who have bad understanding and using their learning style ineffectively.
F. The Theoretical Hypothesis
Based on the theories have been elucidated above, it could be propose a hypothesis; that is there is a significant relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill.
19 A. The Place and the Time of the Research
This research was conducted at the first grade of the SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor which is located on Jl. Gunung Salak Endah (GSE) KM. 03 Gunung Sari Pamijahan Bogor. This research was conducted in January 2014 in the 2013/2014 academic year.
B. The Method of the Research
The method which was used in the research was survey method. Specifically, the research was conducted through correlational research. In this research, the writer investigated the possibility of relationship between independent variable (X variable) and dependent variable (Y variable). The X variable was the students’ learning style and the Y variable was the students’ achievement in listening skill.
C. The Population and the Sample
The research population was the SMA N 01 Pamijahan Bogor first grade students consisting of 141 students. Those students are distributed into four classes; they are class of X-1 until class of X-4. Random cluster sampling was used to decide the sample. Based on the sampling technique, class of X-4 was decided as the sample.
D. The Variable of the Research 1. The Students’ Learning Style
Learning style was the individual’s fastest and best way to receive, absorb, and understand any information and skills from the outside. Learning style in this research was the score that the students of class of X-4 obtained after they answered the items on the questionnaire. The option that they chose determined
what type of learning style they had. Whether they had visual, auditory, or they had kinesthetic learning style.
2. The Students’ Listening Skill Achievement
Achievement was what the students have achieved or the skills that they have mastered during the school years. In this research, the students’ listening skill achievement was the score that students of X-4 class obtained after they followed teaching-learning listening in the first semester in the 2013/2014 academic year.
E. The Instrument of the Research
The instrument used in the research was questionnaire and documentation which could be explained as follow:
1. The Questionnaire
In this research, the questionnaire was adapted from Perceptual Learning Style Preference Survey by Joy Reid. The items on the questionnaire made by Joy Reid were selected based on the indicators of students’ learning style made by the writer. The questionnaire was distributed to the sample about the students’ learning style characteristics in statement form. The purpose of questionnaire was to find out in which type of learning styles the students were. The questionnaire was based on the characteristics of each learning style (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles). The items were divided into two forms, positive and negative items. Each item had five choices which represented each type of learning styles. Those options were based on agreement level of Likert-Type Scale Anchors. Each option had its own score as in Table 3.1. The indicators of students’ learning style can be seen in Table 3.2.
The Questionnaire Item Scoring Option
Agree Neither Agree or Disagree
Disagree Strongly Disagree
Positive 5 4 3 2 1
Learning Style Instrument Prediction before the Instrument Validity and Reliability
Dimension Indicators Item No.
(+) (-) Visual Learning
a. Neat and disciplinary
b. Hard to receive verbal instruction c. Understand well about position,
shape, numeral, and color d. Learning by visual association
1, 2 4 8 9, 11 3 5 6, 7 10 Auditory Learning Style
a. Weak in visual activity b. Good in oral activity
c. Having sensitivity through music d. Learning by hearing/listening
12, 13 16, 17 19 21, 22 14 15, 18 20 - Kinesthetic Learning Style
a. Having orientation to do trial-error activity
b. Learning through physical activity
c. Physical-oriented and always moving
d. Having sensitivity through expression and gesture
24, 25 26, 27 28, 30 31, 33 23 - 29 32
Total 21 12
Total Item 33
Note: The above total items in the questionnaire were before validity and reliability test of instrument. After the test of instrument, there were only 28 items which were used to determine the students’ learning style.
In order to get a valid and reliable instrument, a try out research was conducted at the first grade of the SMA N 04 Tangerang Selatan which is located on Jl. WR. Supratman Komp. PERTAMINA Pondok Ranji Ciputat in December 2013. The try out class was class X-8 which consisted of 39 students.
a. The Instrument Validity
Validity is a criterion to show legality level of an instrument. A valid instrument can produce a high validity of data. Conversely, an invalid instrument can produce a low validity of data. SPSS 16.0 program was used to test the validity of items in the instrument. The validity criterion is presented on the coefficient correlation (r) interpretation (see Appendix 11).
The judgment criteria whether the item is valid/invalid is based on the result of Corrected Item-Total Correlation. If the score is smaller than 0.316 (< 0.316) the item is invalid (dropped). In contrast if the score is higher than 0.316 (> 0.316) the item is valid.
Before the testing, there were 33 items in the questionnaire. After the test, there were only 28 valid items which were used to determine the students’ learning style; they were number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, and 33. Those valid items were used in the real research. The remaining items were invalid; they were number 11, 12, 19, 28, and 31.
b. The Instrument Reliability
Reliability is a consistency of an instrument. It means that an instrument can be called reliable if it has a consistency in the result of measurement. The reliability of an instrument is needed to support the validity of an instrument.
Alpha Cronbach formula was used to test the reliability of the instrument. The calculation used SPSS 16.0. The reliability criterion according to Goilford is presented on the as Table 3.3.
Reliability Coefficient Correlation (r) Interpretation Coefficient Correlation (r) Interpretation
0.00–0.20 Not reliable
0.21–0.40 Less reliable
0.41–0.70 Reliable enough
The reliability coefficient obtained from the calculation was 0.921. From the interpretation of reliability coefficient correlation (r) as in Table 3.4, it could be concluded that the questionnaire was very reliable.
The indicators of learning style used to determine the students’ learning style for the real research can be seen in Table 3.4.
Learning Style Instrument Prediction in the Real Research
Dimension Indicators Item No.
(+) (-) Visual Learning
e. Neat and disciplinary
f. Hard to receive verbal instruction g. Understand well about position, shape,
numeral, and color
h. Learning by visual association
1, 2 4 8 9 3 5 6, 7 10 Auditory Learning Style
e. Weak in visual activity f. Good in oral activity
g. Having sensitivity through music h. Learning by hearing/listening
11 14, 15 - 18, 19 12 13, 16 17 - Kinesthetic Learning Style
e. Having orientation to do trial-error activity
f. Learning through physical activity g. Physical-oriented and always moving h. Having sensitivity through expression
and gesture 21, 22 23, 24 26 28 20 - 25 27
Total 16 12
Total Item 28
2. The Documentation
In this documentation, the instrument used was the writer itself. The documentation was used to know the students’ listening skill achievement. The indicator of the students’ listening achievement can be seen in Table 3.5.
The Indicator of Students’ Listening Achievement
Indicator Listening Achievement Value
A 80–100 Very good
B 66–79 Good
C 56–65 Fair
D 40–55 Poor
E ≤39 Fail
F. The Technique of the Data Collection
The technique of the data collection used in the research was non-test technique. There were two instruments of non-test technique applied; they were questionnaire and documentation.
In answering the questionnaire, the students are asked to choose one option by giving mark (X) or checklist (√). To identify the students’ learning style, the writer counted the mean score of each learning style type (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic). The students’ highest mean score of learning style determined in which type they were.
The data of the students’ listening skill achievement was collected by the writer from the English teacher as documentation. The writer asked the English teacher of the class of X-4 for the data of the students’ listening daily test.
G. The Technique of the Data Analysis
In the research, there are two techniques of data analysis used. The analysis was calculated by using SPSS 16.0 program. Those techniques were descriptive analysis and inferential analysis.
Descriptive analysis was used to describe the condition or the characteristic of data obtained from measurement of each variable statistically. Descriptive statistics quantities which were used in the research were mean, median, mode, and standard deviation. Moreover, each research variable was presented using distribution table and charts.
Inferential analysis was used to analyze, to estimate, and to draw out conclusion concerning about the data obtained or phenomena occurred based on the result of hypothesis testing. Because the data were presented in the categorical form, nonparametric statistics was used to analyze the data and to test the hypothesis. The nonparametric was Coefficient Contingency (C) which has close relationship with Chi-Square (χ2) formula.
H. The Statistical Hypothesis
The statistical hypothesis with consists of Ha (Alternative Hypothesis) and H0
(Null Hypothesis) with the significance level α=0.05 in this research was formulated as follow:
H0 : χ2 = 0
Ha: χ2≠ 0
H0 : There was no significant relationship between students’ learning style in their
achievement in listening skill
Ha : There was a significant relationship between students’ learning style in their achievement in listening skill
The hypothesis criterion was according to Chi-Square analysis “Rejecting H0 if counted χ2 > χ2 table or χ2 > χ2(k-1)(r-1) and accepting H0 if counted χ2 < χ2
table or χ2 < χ2
RESEARCH FINDING AND INTERPRETATIONA. Research Finding
1. The Description of the Data
The writer took the students’ learning style score (variable X) by using 28 items in the questionnaire and students’ listening skill achievement (variable Y) by using English listening skill score in listening daily test at the first semester in the 2013/2014 academic year. Those scores were described and analyzed. The description of data included mean, median, mode, standard deviation, range, minimum score, and maximum score. If X was independent variable and Y was dependent variable, the summary of the result of data was presented as follow:
The Summary of the Students’ Learning Style (X) and Listening Skill Achievement Score (Y) No Variable
Parameter X Y
1 Mean 91.9 80.4
2 Median 92 81
3 Mode 96 79
4 Minimum score 81 70
5 Maximum score 107 90
6 Range 26 20
7 Standard deviation 5.685 5.158
From the Table 4.1, it could be described that the mean score of the students’ learning style (X) was 91.9, the median score was 92, the mode score was 96, the minimum score was 81, the maximum score was 107, the range score was 26, and the standard deviation score was 5.685. Whereas the mean score of the students’ listening achievement (Y) was 80.4, the median score was 81, the mode score was 79, the minimum score was 70, the maximum score was 90, the range score was 20, and the standard deviation score was 5.158.
a. The Students’ Learning Style
To determine the students’ learning style (X), the writer counted mean score for each type of learning style. The highest students’ mean score determined what type they were (the process of the students’ learning style mean score calculation could be seen in Appendix 10). From the calculation, it was obtained that the most dominant students’ learning style was visual (20 students), followed by auditory (11 students), and the last was kinesthetic (4 students). The ratio of the student total of each learning style could be seen in Chart 4.1
The Ratio of the Student Total of Each Students’ Learning Style
b. The Students’ Listening Skill Achievement
The students’ listening skill achievement was from their listening daily test result at the first semester in the academic year 2013/2014. The data was taken from the English teacher of the class. The total score of students’ listening skill achievement (Y) was 2815 from 35 students. From the Table 4.1, it could be seen that the highest score was 90 and the lowest score was 70. Based on the data, the range score was 20 (90-70), the mean score was 80.4 (2815:35), and the standard
20 11 4 0 5 10 15 20 25
Visual Auditory Kinesthetic
T o tal o f St u d e n t
deviation score was 5.158 (the list students’ listening achievement score could be seen in Appendix 9).
The presentation of frequency and percentage distribution of the students’ listening skill achievement score were presented in Chart 4.2 and Chart 4.3:
The Frequency Distribution of Students’
Listening Skill Achievement Score
The Percentage Distribution of Students’ Listening Skill Achievement Score
From the Chart 4.2 and 4.3 , it could be seen that the students who got 70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 83, and 90 was only one student for each score (2.9%), the students who got 73, 77, 78, 80, 85, and 86 was two students for each score (5.7%), the students who got 81, 82, 84, and 88 was three students for each score (8.6%), and the students who got 79 was four students (11,4%).
After describing the frequency and percentage distribution of the students’ listening skill achievement, the writer categorized the score into Table 4.2.
The Distribution of the Students’ Listening Achievement Category Range Score Value F Percentage
A 80 – 100 Very good 20 57.1%
B 66 – 79 Good 15 42.9%
C 56 – 65 Fair - -
D 40 – 55 Poor - -
E ≤ 39 Fail - -
Total 35 100%
Based on the Table 4.5, there were five categories of the students’ listening skill achievement score, the first was A which was very good achievement, the second was B which was good achievement, the third was C which was fair achievement, the fourth was D which was poor achievement, and E which was failed achievement. Based on the categories, the writer concluded that the students’ with very good achievement in listening were more dominant than the students’ with good achievement. Moreover, there were no students who got fair, poor, and fail achievement in listening. It could be seen from Table 4.5 that there were 20 (57.1%) students who had very good achievement and 15 (42.9%) students who had good achievement.
c. The Students’ Learning Style and Their Listening Skill Achievement
The distribution of the students’ learning style and their listening skill achievement could be seen in Table 4.3.
The Analysis of Relationship between Students’ Learning Style and Their Listening Skill Achievement
Visual 20 17 71 88 80 4.952
Auditory 11 17 73 90 82.2 5.250
Kinesthetic 4 12 70 82 77.8 5.679
Total 35 20 70 90 80
From the Table 4.3, it could be seen that there was no significant difference between the mean listening skill score of each students’ learning style. The mean score of the students with visual learning style was 80, the mean score of the students with auditory learning style was 82.2, and the mean score of the students’ with kinesthetic learning style was 77.8. Moreover, the mean score of all students’ was 80. It meant that the students’ with kinesthetic learning style had the lowest mean score, the students’ with visual learning style had the average mean score, and the students’ with auditory learning style had the highest mean score. Those students’ listening skill mean score also could be defined as in Chart 4.4.
The Comparison between Each Students’ Learning Style
and Their Listening Skill Mean Score
80 82.2 77.8 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83
Visual Auditory Kinesthetic
From the Chart 4.4, the distribution of the students’ learning style and the students’ listening skill were distributed into following Coefficient Contingency (C) Table:
The Coefficient Contingency (C) Table
Students’ Learning Style Total
Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Students’
Listening Achievement Category
Very Good 11 (31.4%) 7 (20%) 2 (5.7%) 20 (57.1%) Good 9 (25.7%) 4 (11.4%) 2 (5.7%) 15
Fair - - - -
Poor - - - -
Fail - - - -
Total 20 (57.1%) 11
4 (11.4%) 35 (100%)
From the Table 4.4, it was found that the students’ listening achievement was only in two categories, very good and good. The first one which was the most students’ achievement were in very good category 20 (57.1%), the students with auditory learning style 11 (31.4%), the students with visual learning style 7 (20%), and the students with kinesthetic learning style 2 (5.7%). The second one was in good category 15 (42.9%), the students with auditory learning style 9 (25.7%), the students with visual learning style 4 (11.4%), and the students with kinesthetic learning style 2 (5.7%).
2. The Analysis of Data and the Test of Hypothesis
Because the data were presented in the categorical form, the calculation used to analyze the data and to test the hypothesis in the research was nonparametric statistics. The non parametric statistics which was used was Coefficient Contingency (C) analysis which has close relationship with Chi-Square (χ2) formula. The following description was the process of Coefficient Contingency (C) analysis:
The Case Processing Summary of Chi-Square (χ2) Analysis
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Students' Listening Achievement * Students' Learning Style
35 100.0% 0 .0% 35 100.0%
Students' Listening Achievement * Students' Learning Style Cross-tabulation
Students' Learning Style
Visual Auditory Kinesthetic
Students' Listening Achievement
Count 11 7 2 20
Expected Count 11.4 6.3 2.3 20.0
% within Students'
Listening Achievement 55.0% 35.0% 10.0% 100.0%
% within Students'
Learning Style 55.0% 63.6% 50.0% 57.1%
Good Count 9 4 2 15
Expected Count 8.6 4.7 1.7 15.0
% within Students'
Listening Achievement 60.0% 26.7% 13.3% 100.0%
% within Students'
Learning Style 45.0% 36.4% 50.0% 42.9%
Total Count 20 11 4 35
Expected Count 20.0 11.0 4.0 35.0
% within Students'
Listening Achievement 57.1% 31.4% 11.4% 100.0%
% within Students'
Table 4.7 Chi-Square Tests
Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .310a 2 .856
Likelihood Ratio .312 2 .855
Linear-by-Linear Association .005 1 .944
N of Valid Cases 35
a. 3 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count was 1.71.
The Symmetric Measures of Coefficient Contingency (C)
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .094 .856
N of Valid Cases 35
Having analyzing the questionnaire and the students’ listening skill achievement, it was found that the obtained Chi-square (χ2) was 0.310. The writer determined degree of freedom (df) = (k-1) (r-1). k was sample group whereas r was total of listening skill achievement category. From the students' listening achievement and students' learning style cross-tabulation, it could be seen that k = 3 and r = 2. df = (3-1) (2-1) = 2. Based on df 2 and significance level 5%, Chi-square (χ2) table = 5.591 (see Appendix 12). The test of hypothesis in this research was based on χ2 criteria. Based on the criteria, H0 was rejected if obtained
χ2 > χ2
table and H0 was accepted if counted χ2 < χ2 table. From the calculation, it could be concluded that the obtained Chi-squwere (χ2) was smaller than Chi-squwere (χ2) table (0.310 < 5.591). It means that H0 was accepted and Ha was
From the data of students’ learning style and their listening achievement, it was found that the obtained Chi-square (χ2) was 0.310. The writer determined degree of freedom (df) = (3-1) (2-1) = 2. Based on df 2 and significance level 5%, Chi-square (χ2) table = 5.591. It means the obtained χ2 was smaller than χ2 table (0.310 < 5.591). It meant that H0 was accepted and Ha was rejected. Since H0 was
accepted, the finding shows that there was no significant relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill at the first grade of the SMA N 1 Pamijahan Bogor.
The finding contradicts and refuses the theory that learning style is influential through achievement.1 The insignificance finding occurred since learning style was not the only factor that affects students’ achievement both in listening and in other subjects. There are some other factors affecting achievement such as motivation, aptitude, cognitive ability, interest, weather, and others.2 There are also some factors that affect listening process such as listener factor, background knowledge, speaking style and visual input.3 Since those factors occur while students are listening, the students will have difficulty in listening. The writer believes that those other factors give dominant effect to listening achievement.
The finding of this research also has no similarity through the previous researches. It is inversely proportional and contradicts the research findings which that there is a significant relationship between learning style and language skill comprehension. The finding occurs since there are some differences between culture, interest, motivation, teaching method, and any others of each subject of the researches.
Rahmatullah Bhatti & William M. Bart, On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement, Current Issues in Education, 16, 2013, p. 1.
Rod Ellis, Second Language Acquisition, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 73.
Michele Norflee, Factors That Affect Listening Comprehension, 2014, (www.education.seattlepi.com).
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONA. Conclusion
As it has been explained in the previous chapters, students’ learning style is one of the factors that affects students’ achievement in any subjects and skills such as in listening, writing, and others. It is really important for the students to understand their own learning style well in order to get maximum result in learning. To prove that assumption and to get the empirical evidence whether or not there is a significant relationship between students’ learning style and their listening skill achievement, the writer conducted the research focused on the topic.
From the research finding and interpretation, it was found that the finding contradicted and refused the theory that the students’ learning style is a factor that affects students’ achievement in listening skill. The finding showed that the null hypothesis (H0) was accepted and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) was rejected. It
could be seen from the result of the obtained χ2 = 0.310 was smaller than the χ2 table with significance level 0.05 = 5.591 (0.310 < 5.591). It meant that there was no significant relationship between students’ learning style and their achievement in listening skill at the first grade of the SMA N 1 Pamijahan Bogor. The insignificant result probably occurred since the students’ learning style was not the only factor that affects students’ listening achievement. Based on to the theories there were other factors that affect achievement such as motivation, aptitude, personality, cognitive style, learning strategies, and there were also the factors that affect listening.
Based on the finding, it can be concluded that the students’ learning style does not give dominant effect through listening achievement. In this case, the other factors maybe give more dominant effect through it. It also means that the students with good understanding and using their learning style effectively not certify will have good achievement in listening and the students with bad
understanding and using their learning style ineffectively not certify will have bad achievement in listening.
Based on the conclusion addressed above, it can be delivered some suggestion go to:
For the teachers and the students, they do not have to pay much attention to the students’ learning styles in teaching-learning listening. Somehow, considering the characteristics of students’ learning styles, there are some of them can be advantageous for the students. If the students can reinforce those characteristics, it can be helpful for them. In this way, the teachers also need to be able to encourage the students to reinforce them. Furthermore, regarding that English is a foreign-language, the teachers have to motivate the students to practice listening a lot.
For other researchers, they should do the researches which are the closest with this research and be extended to other variables in order to reveal any aspect that support, enhance, and develop the quality of the researches of listening skill.
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