IMPROVING THE GRADE X-F STUDENTS’ LISTENING COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT USING SCHEMA THEORY AT MAN JEMBER I IN THE 2008/2009 ACADEMIC YEAR

IMPROVING THE GRADE X-F STUDENTS’ LISTENING
COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT USING SCHEMA THEORY
AT MAN JEMBER I
IN THE 2008/2009 ACADEMIC YEAR

THESIS

Composed to Fulfill One of the Requirements to Obtain the S-1 Degree
at the English Education Program, Language & Arts Department,
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,
Jember University

By
RENGGO AYU SINGGIH PRAHESTI
NIM 030210401124

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM
LANGUAGE AND ARTS DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
JEMBER UNIVERSITY
2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TITLE PAGE .................................................................................................

i

DEDICATION................................................................................................

ii

MOTTO ..........................................................................................................

iii

CONSULTANT’S APPROVAL ...................................................................

iv

APPROVAL OF EXAMINATION COMMITTEE ...................................

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.............................................................................

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................

vii

THE LIST OF TABLES AND DIAGRAM .................................................

x

THE LIST OF APPENDICES ......................................................................

xi

SUMMARY ....................................................................................................

xii

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background.....................................................................

1

1.2 Research Problem...........................................................................

3

1.3 Research Objective.........................................................................

3

1.4 The Significance of the Research...................................................

4

1.

For The English Teacher.......................................................

4

2.

For The Students ...................................................................

4

3.

For The Researchers..............................................................

4

1.5 Operational Definition ...................................................................

4

1.

Schema Theory……...............................................................

4

2.

Students’ Listening Comprehension Achievement……........

5

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Nature of Listening Comprehension.......................................

6

2.2 Modes of Listening Process…. ......................................................

7

vii

2.3 Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension .................................

8

2.4 The Nature of Schema Theory .......................................................

10

2.5 The Use of Schema Theory in Teaching Listening
Comprehension ..............................................................................

13

2.6 Activate the Students’ Schema.......................................................

14

A. Pre-Listening Stage ...................................................................

14

1. Showing Picture .....................................................................

16

2. Giving guided – question…………………………………..

17

3. Playing tic-tac-toe Games…………………………………...

18

B. While-Listening and Post-Listening Stage................................

19

2.7 Action Hypotheses .........................................................................

20

CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design.............................................................................

21

3.2 Area Determination Method ..........................................................

23

3.3 Subject Determination Method ......................................................

23

3.4 Data Collection Method .................................................................

24

3.4.1 Listening Test........................................................................

24

3.4.2 Observation ...........................................................................

25

3.4.3 Interview ...............................................................................

27

3.4.4 Documentation……………………………………………..

27

3.5 Research Procedures ......................................................................

27

3.5.1 The Planning of the Actions..................................................

27

3.5.2 The Implementation of the Actions ......................................

28

3.5.3 Observation and Evaluation of the Actions ..........................

28

3.5.4 Data Analysis and Reflection of the Actions ........................

29

a. Data Analysis .......................................................................

29

b. Reflection .............................................................................

30

viii

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 The Results of Actions Cycle I ......................................................

31

4.1.1 The Results of Observation in Cycle I ..................................

31

4.1.2 The Results of Listening Comprehension Test in Cycle I ....

33

4.1.3 The Result of Reflection in Cycle I.......................................

33

4.2 The Results of the Actions Cycle II ...............................................

35

4.2.1 The Results of Observation in Cycle II.................................

35

4.2.2 The Result of Listening Comprehension Test in Cycle II ....

36

4.2.3 The Result of Reflection in Cycle II .....................................

36

4.3 Discussion ......................................................................................

37

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Conclusion .....................................................................................

41

5.2 Suggestions ....................................................................................

42

5.2.1 The English Teacher .............................................................

42

5.2.2 The Students..........................................................................

42

5.2.3 The Other Researchers ..........................................................

42

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

ix

SUMMARY

Improving the Grade XF Students’ Listening Comprehension Achievement by
Using Schema Theory at MAN Jember I in the 2008/2009 Academic Year;
Renggo Ayu Singgih Prahesti, 030210401124; 2008; 42 Pages; English Education
Program of Language and Arts Department of the Faculty of Teacher Training and
Education of Jember University.

This classroom action research was intended to improve the grade X-F
students’ listening comprehension achievement using schema theory at MAN Jember
I in the 2008/2009 Academic Year. It was begun by conducting informal interview
with the English teachers of the grade X of MAN Jember I. There were 7 classes at
the school. Class XF was chosen purposively as the subject of this research because
of their lowest score in the listening skill among other classes. Its mean score was 56
that was below the standard mean score (65).
Schema theory was chosen as the teaching technique that could help the
students to direct and manipulate their mind in recalling their prior knowledge to
comprehend the new knowledge easily. The schema theory consists of several
methods which can be applied in teaching listening. They were brainstorming, mindmapping,

discussion,

games,

guide-questions,

picture/

diagram,

prediction,

elimination and skimming. These knowledge-oriented activities aim to prepare the
students by encouraging them to activate relevant types of schema.
This research adopted the model of Kemmis and McTaggart Action Research
design. They were planning of the action, implementation of the action, monitoring
(by observation) and evaluation, and analysis and reflection.
This research was done in two cycles in which there were three meetings of
each cycle in which listening test was conducted in the third meeting. Listening test
score and observation were used as the primary data collection method in each cycle.

xii

Meanwhile, documentation and interview was used to get the secondary data. The
observation contained observation of students’ participation and teacher’s activity. In
addition, the reflection was done based on the findings during the observation and
compared to the criteria of the students’ success that were the standard mean score 65
was reached by 75% of the students and 75% of the students were actively involved
in the teaching learning process.
In the first cycle, the students’ mean score of listening test was 64.09 and it
was achieved by 59.09% of the students (26 students). Meanwhile, the results of the
observation showed that 28 students (63.6%) in meeting one and 31 students
(70.45%) in meeting two were actively involved in the teaching learning process.
Moreover, the teacher also completed the activity stated in the lesson plan. From the
results of cycle I, it could be said that it was necessary to conduct cycle II because the
students’ mean score had not met the target of the research yet.
In cycle two, the students showed their improvement. The mean score of
students’ listening test was 70,3. It was achieved by 81.8% of the students. Besides,
in the first meeting, there were 35 students (79.5%) who were active and in the
second meeting, there were 35 students (86.36%) actively involved in the teaching
learning process. The teacher also completed all the activities stated in the lesson
plan. It means that in the second cycle the students listening achievement and the
students’ participation improved significantly.
From the results of cycle two, it can be concluded that the schema theory
could improve the students’ listening comprehension achievement and the students’
participation in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, the teacher was
suggested to use schema theory as one alternative technique in teaching listening.

xiii


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