Analysis On Students'Structure Competence In Complex Sentences : A Case Study at 2nd Year class of SMU TRIGUNA

ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ STRUCTURE COMPETENCE
IN COMPLEX SENTENCES
( A Case Study at 2nd Year Class of SMU TRIGUNA)

A Skripsi
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training Sciences
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of S.Pd.(Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education

Written by:
Artila Fauzi
103014026988

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING SCIENCIES
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2008

ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ STRUCTURE COMPETENCE
IN COMPLEX SENTENCES
( A Case Study at 2nd Year Class of SMU TRIGUNA)

A Skripsi
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training Sciences
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of S.Pd.(Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education

By:
Artila Fauzi
NIM: 103014026988

Approved by Advisor

Drs. Zainal Arifin Toy, M. Sc.
NIP. 150 031 215

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING SCIENCIES
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2008

ENDORSEMENT SHEET
The Examination Committee of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training certifies
that the "Skripsi" (Scientific paper) entitled " ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’
STRUCTURE COMPETENCE IN COMPLEX SENTENCES( A Case Study at 2nd
Year Class of SMU TRIGUNA)" written by Artila Fauzi, whose student's registration
number : 103014026988, was examined by the committee on October 20th 2008 and
was declared to have passed, and therefore, fulfilled one of the requirements for the
academic title of "S.Pd" (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education at the
Department of English Education.

Jakarta, November 2008

Examination Committee

Chairman

: Drs. Syauki, M.Pd
NIP. 150 246 289

(_____________________)

Secretary

: Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd
NIP. 150 326 910

(_____________________)

Examiners

: 1. Prof. Dr. Hadjid Harna Widagda, M.Pd (_____________________)
NIP. 150 011 332

2. Drs. Sunardi Kartowisastro, Dpl. Ed
NIP. 150 022 779

(_____________________)

Acknowledged by
Dean of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training Education

Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A.
NIP. 150 231 356

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the Name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful
May peace and blessing of Allah be upon all of us

All praises be to Allah, Lord of the Universe, Who gives the writer guidance
and strength, so she could finish this “skripsi”. Peace and blessing be upon to the
Prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his relatives, and all his followers.
Many people have assisted the writer in writing this “skripsi”. So, she realized
that she would never finish it without the help of many people around her. Therefore,
the writer would really give her sincerest gratitude to her beloved parents especially her
dear mom Wati Setiawati , her beloved brothers and sisters (Adi, Ayu, Ama, Arsyad)
and to all her relatives who had given their love, support, advice, understanding, and
contribution both moral and material encouragement to her.
The writer would also like to offer her special thank to Mr. Zainal Arifin Toy,
M.Sc, as the writer's advisor for the time he spent, the guidance he gave to the writer
with patience and kindness, that the writer can finish writing her skripsi.
The writer would like to give her special thanks and appreciation to:
a. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiya and teaching Sciences.
b. Drs. Syauqi, M.Pd, the Dean of English Department, Mrs. Neneng, the Secretary of
English Department, Ms. Aida, Ms, Ertin, Ms. Yeni and all staffs of English
Department who had helped the writer to finish her “skripsi” soon and easy.
c. Drs. Munir Sonhadji, M.Ed, the writer’s Academic Guide lecturer.
d. All lecturers in English Department whose names can not be mentioned one by one
respectively for their delightfulness of teaching precious knowledge, giving many
advice to the writer along they were with her.
e. The headmaster and all the teachers, staffs and employees of SMU Triguna Utama
especially the English teacher Mrs. Burdah Darlina for their generosity to give the

writer opportunity to do her research at the school. All the students of 2nd Year Class
both Social and Science Program at SMU Triguna Utama for their co-operation in
helping the writer did her research.
f. The Corps of Violet Beret especially Mr. Eddyson hak, Dan Mujab, Dan Ghofar,
Pak Beni, Dan Singgih, Pak Rifa’I, Dan Rachmad, Pak Amri, Dan Yustam, Pak
Syahrun, Pak Andri, P Luqi and all the writer’s seniors and juniors at MENWA who
have given many experiences and sciences to the writer which the writer couldn’t
find anywhere but there along the writer’s dedication there for four years.
g. All Srikandi Widya III members Bu Anul, Bu Ratna, Bu Indah, Bu Debi, Bu Dian,
Pak Mul, Pak Fadil, Moh.Yahya who always give the writer spirit to face all her
problems along writing this skripsi.
h. The friends of her at HMI especially Ajat, kang Achan, Pia, Isyfa, Indi, Iman,
Daeng, Fifi, thank them all for being the nicest friends.
Finally, the writer realized that this “skripsi” is still far from being perfect. So,
hoping some suggestions, she wishes that may this “skripsi” be some valuable writing.
Ciputat, September 2008
The Writer

AF

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………… i
CONTENTS…..……………………….………………………………………………. iii
TABLE CONTENTS ……………….…………………………………………………. v
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..………………………………………………………
1
A. Background of Study ………………………………..………………………….
1
B. The Limitation & The Formulation of The Study ………………………………
2
C. The Use of Study ………………………………………………………………..
2
D. The Method of Study…………………………………………………………….
3
E. The Organization of Study..……………………………………………………..
3
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ………………………………………
4
A. Error Analysis ……………………………………………………………………
4
1. The Definitions and Types of Error Analysis ………………………………..
5
2. The Goals and Sources of Error Analysis………………………………….....
7
3. The Procedures of Error Analysis Research ………………………………..
9

B. Sentences

……………………………………………………………………….

10
1. Sentences Parts ……………………………………………………………..
10
2. Sentences Types …………………………………………………………….
13
CHAPTER

III

THE

PROFILE

OF

THE

SCHOOL

……………………………………25
A. English Subject ……………………………………………………………….....
25
1. English Teachers ……………………………………………………………
25
2. Text Books ……………………………………………………………….....
26
3. Method of Teaching ………………………………………………………...
26
B. Objectives of the four skills of the language ……………………………………
28
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS………...………….
30
a. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………..………………
30
1. Research Design …………………………………………………………….
30
2. Research objective …………………………………………………………..
30

3. Place and Time ……………………………………………………………...
30
4. Population and Sample ……………………………………………………...
31
5. Research Instrument ………………………………………………………...
31
6. Technique of Data Analysis…………………………………………………
31
B. RESEARCH

FINDINGS………………………………………………………..

32
1. Data

Identification……………………………………………………………32
2. Data

Description

and

Explanation……………………………………………33
3. Data

Interpretation……………………………………………………………42
CHAPTER
CLOSING………………………………………………………………..44
A. Conclusion
……………………………………………………………………….44
BIBLIOGRAPHY

IV

TABLE CONTENTS
Table I Common Cue Words that Begin Noun Clauses ……………………………….
15
Table II Common Cue Words that Begin Adjective Clause ..………………………….
15
Table III Common Subordinating Words for Adverb Clause ……………………….....
16
Table IV Question Items and Their Distributions .…………………………………….
32
Table V Question Items Which Are Correlated to Complex Sentences… … … … … … ..
32
Table VI Frequency of Error in Indirect Speech ...……………………………………..
33
Table VII Frequency of Error in Completing the Sentence with Subordinate Clause
.…34
Table VIII Frequency of Error in Arranging Jumbled Words Into Correct Complex
Sentences…………………………………………………………………...
40
Table IX Frequency of Error in Forming Subordinate Clause ……………………........
42

Table IX The Sequence of English Skill Area in Data Instrument Based on The
Frequency of Error ……………………………………….…………………..
42

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study
English is taught as a foreign language in Indonesia because there are so
many regional languages which becomes Indonesian first language. While,
Indonesian language becomes the formal language that should be mastered by all
Indonesian people. So, English just becomes a foreign language in Indonesia for the
limited English speakers in Indonesia.
Nowadays, the teaching role of English is widely developed in Indonesia.
Most education places headmasters tried to create an English milieu in their
institutions because they want the best for their students. Many strategies have been
done to achieve their goals. Includes applying curriculum which is stated by the
government. Some institutions are succeeded and some are not yet for the condition
of the area and the heterogeneous students’ backgrounds.
In teaching-learning process, of course, English has four basic skills which
should be mastered by the students, more over by the teachers: listening, speaking,
reading, writing. Writing is called the last because writing is viewed as the most
complex and hardest language skill among the others.
Writing is viewed as a useful, effective, enjoyable and above all necessary
component of a modern world. Because writing provides the pleasure of sending a
personal message to a friend. It also assumes career and financial importance in the
composition of a resume or a business letter. Thus, teaching writing needs extra
effort to do because in mastering writing skill, someone should master many skills:
words, sentences, essays, paragraphs, grammar and so on. Someone’s ability on the
other three skills also influence his ability in writing. The more he reads the more
sentences and words he gets, the correct he pronounces the words the correct he
spells them and the more he listens the more he can distinguish the sounds.
Unfortunately, the students of all levels especially the students of SMU
Triguna Utama always find difficulties in writing. Each student faces different
problems in writing such as in sentence patterns which contains the placement of
S+P+O or clauses which contains main clause and sub clause, diction, usage, tenses,
parts of speech, word form, word order, spelling and punctuation.

The problem in sentence pattern of clauses sometimes appears because of
the culture differences between Indonesian and English, the misconception in
applying the target language rule, the context of teaching which sometime was not
found in student’ real life, and the way the students get the massages across the
listener or the reader. The incorrect sentence structure may cause the sentence not
understandable and will make the paragraph even the text in a mess.
Meanwhile, students need to use complex sentences in making a narrative
essay efficiently. So, structuring the words to construct complex sentences correctly
plays an important role to make the texts in senses. Referring to the brief
explanation before, the writer would like to make a research about students’
problems or difficulties in structuring the words to construct complex sentences
correctly. Somehow, hopefully, this research paper be useful and a reference for the
next teacher to evaluate his teaching methods perhaps. Thus, the writer would give
the title for her term paper (skripsi): “ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ STRUCTURE
COMPETENCE IN COMPLEX SENTENCES” (A Case Study at 2nd Year Class of
SMU TRIGUNA UTAMA)

B. The Limitation & Formulation of Study
In the limitation of the study,

the writer would limit the problem on

students’ structure in complex sentences. While, for the formulation of the study, the
writer would construct some questions:
1. How did the students construct the complex sentences?
2. Could the students distinguish between noun, adjective and adverb clauses?

C. The Use of Study
This study will discuss students’ structure competence in constructing complex
sentences. Its aim is to know the students’ competence in distinguishing various
kinds of clauses, noun, adjective and adverb. Analyzing the students’ competence in
certain skill, in this case is constructing complex sentences, she will get to know
how far the curriculum aim, especially writing skill, has been reached by the
teacher. Hopefully, this will give some input for English students, other English
professionals either the teachers or the curriculum developers.

D. The Method of Study

In completing the data, she conducts field research. In the field research, the
questions sheets and students answers of some complex sentences are used as a
research instrument, through error analysis they are identified, described and
explained.

E. The Organization of Study
This skripsi is divided into five chapters, as follows:
The first chapter is an introduction, which consists of five parts. They are: the
background of the study, the limitation & the formulation of the study, the use of
study, the method of study, and the organization of study.
The second chapter is theoretical framework, which discusses about two parts:
first part is error analysis talks about the definitions and types of error analysis, the
goals and sources of error analysis, & the procedures of error analysis research;
second part is Sentences : Sentences Parts & Sentence Types.
The third chapter is the profile of the school, which consists of the books used
by the teacher, the teacher’s profile, the teacher’s method of teaching, and the
objective of four language skills.
The fourth chapter is research methodology and findings, which consists of two
parts: the first part is research methodology which talks about the research design,
research objective, place and time, population and sample, research instrument, and
technique of data analysis; the second part is research findings which talks about
data identification, data description and explanation, and data interpretation.
The last chapter is conclusion and suggestion which consists of two parts:
conclusion and suggestion.

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Error Analysis
It is unavoidable that the learners make some errors in their language
learning process. Although so many efforts the teachers do, students’ errors will
always occur. But through the errors, the students should learn. As the proverb says
“Who makes no mistakes, makes nothing.”
Errors have played an important role in the study of language acquisition in
general and examining second and foreign language acquisition in particular. When
the students made errors, it doesn’t mean that it is a failure or inadequacy but the
teacher can view them as important evidence of strategies or procedures employed.
In other words, errors give a sign to the teachers and researchers how the target
language learning is successfully achieved.
As quoted by H. Douglas Brown: “As Corder (1997; 167) noted: A learners
errors …… are significant in [that] they provide to the researcher evidence of how
language is learned or acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is
employing in the discovery of language… .”1
Pit Corder stated:
It is on the basis of information the teacher gets from errors
that he varies his teaching procedures and materials, the pace
of the progress, and the amount of practice, which he plans
at any moment. For this reason, it is important that the
teacher should be able not only to detect and describe errors
linguistically but also understand the psychological reasons
for their occurrence.2

The study of learners’ errors is called error analysis. It is a way of looking at the
errors made by the learner of a target language. Since the analysis is based on
factual data of learners’ errors. It is a procedure, which is usually, used by language
teachers and researchers, which covers sample collection, identification of the

1

H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, (New Jersey: Prentice
Hall, 1980), p. 164
2
S. Pit Corder, Error Analysis and Inter language, (London: Oxford University Press, 1981),
p.35

sample, error explanation, error classification that are based on the cause of errors
and evaluation of errors.
Rod Ellis said:
Typically this involves the collection of samples of
classroom learner-language (usually written and usually
discrete, decontextualised utterances), the classification of
errors according to the different levels of language
description, the explanation of errors by reference to various
learning process and the evaluation of errors for the
purposes of assessment of remediation.3

To know further about error analysis, the study will discuss the following area:

1. The Definitions and Types of Error Analysis
There are several opinions given by some linguists to get clear
understanding about error. Dullay et. al. defined error as “flawed side of learner
speech of writing. They are those parts of conversation or composition that
deviate from selected norm of mature language performance.”4
Pit Corder said: “… the term erroneous to mean other superficially
deviant or inappropriate in terms of the target language grammar … .”5
Then, Douglas Brown said: “Put in another way, an error is a noticeable
deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the language
competence of the learner.”6 Sridhar stated: “Error on the other hand, are
systematic, consistent deviances stage of learning.”7
Error is usually compared with mistake. Both of them indicate that the
form of structure the learner used is unacceptable and inappropriate according to
the native speaker. We should distinguish errors from mistake in language
learner. Mistakes are inconsistent deviation caused by performance factors, e.g.
the slip of tongue.

3

Rod Ellis, Error Analysis, (London: Longman Group Limited, 1974), p.74
Dullay et. al., Language Two, (New York: Oxford Universities Press, 1982), p.138
5
Techniques in Applied Linguistics , vol 3, ed. J. P. B. Allen and S. Pit Corder, (London:
Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 122
6
H. Douglas Brown, op. cit., p. 165
7
Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher, ed. Jacek Fisiak, (England: Pergamon
Press, ltd., 1981), p. 224
4

According to Corder, Mistake refers to a performance error such as a
fatigue and inattention, while the error itself is one caused by lack of language
rule knowledge (competence factor) or systematic deviation due to the learner.8
Mistake (the error of performance) will characteristically be unsystematic.
The errors are systematic. It is natural for the learners to make errors;
even many native speakers make many mistakes in speaking. The errors are
necessary part of learning language and the process of leading to the errors is
clearly a creative one. Errors are also believed to be an indicator of the learners’
stage in their target language development and it can determine their level of
mastery of language system.
Relating to the students’ error, there is error analysis. And to understand
more about error analysis some authors have defined it. It is clear that error
analysis is used as an instrument for evaluating teaching process and remedial
activities conducted. While errors are divided into: transfer error, analogical
error and teaching induced error. These three types of errors are viewed from the
psychological process in acquiring a second language.
a. Transfer error is error caused by interference from a mother tongue. A
student who has not known the rules of the target language will use the
same rules as he obtained in his native language. S. Pit Corder stated: “
It is clear that on this theory, the making of errors is an evitable, even
perhaps a necessary part of the learning process. It also accounts for the
similarity of many errors to the forms of mother tongue, we can call this
a transfer error.”9

b. Analogical Error is an error caused by misconception in applying the
rules of the target language. As S. Pit Corder stated: “However, even
when a learner has discovered a correct rule he may still continue to
make errors because he has not yet discovered the precise set of
categories to which the rule applies. Errors of this sort are errors of over
generalization or analogical errors”10

8

Dullay et.al., Op. Cit. p.139
J. P. B. Allen and S. Pit Corder (ed), Techniques in Applied Linguistics, vol. 3, (London:
Oxford University Press, 1974), p.130
10
Ibid.
9

c. Teaching Induced Error is error that has something to do with the
methods or materials of the teaching. Pit Corder stated: There is a third
type of error which is more difficult to establish in any particular case,
namely errors arising from the methods or materials used in the
teaching……only this class of error, teaching induced error, is avoidable
or redundant and represents in efficiency in the learning-teaching
process.11

2. The Goals and Sources of Error Analysis
Speaking about the goal of error analysis, it is for pragmatic use. Sridhar in
Contrastive Analysis, Error, and Interlanguage wrote:
It was believed that error analysis, by identifying the areas of difficulty
for the learner, could help in (i) determining the sequence of presentation
of target items in textbook and classroom, with the difficult items
following the easier ones; (ii) deciding the relative degree of emphasis,
explanation and practice required in putting across various items in the
target language; (iii) devising remedial lesson and exercises, and finally
(iv) selecting items for testing the learners’ proficiency.12

According to Corder, error analysis has two functions: theoretical and
practical. The most practical use of the analysis of error is for the teacher. It is
for feedback value in designing pedagogical material and strategies. Sujoko in
his book Error Analysis wrote:
“ …….. Because errors provide feedback, (i) they tell the teacher
something about the effectiveness of his teaching technique, (ii) show
him what parts of the syllabus he has been following have been
inadequately learned or taught and need further attention, (iii) they
enable him to decide whether he must devote more time to the item he
has been working on, (iv) they provide the information for designing a
remedial syllabus or a program of re-teaching.”13

11

Ibid.
Jacek Fisiak (ed), Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher, (England: Pentagon
Press Ltd., 1981), pp. 221-222
13
Sujoko, Error Analysis, (Surakarta: FKIP Universitas Sebelas Maret, 1999), p.18
12

Dullay stated that studying learners’ errors serves two major purposes:
1) It provides data from which inferences about the nature of language
learning process can be made; 2) It indicates to teachers and curriculum
developers, which part of the target language students have most difficulty
producing correctly and which errors types detract most from a learners’
ability to communicate effectively.14
Speaking about the sources of errors, the sources of errors can be
divided into two types. First, errors, which caused by the interference of the
learner’s mother tongue, is called Interlingual. Second is Intralingual errors
which reflect the learners competence at a particular stage and illustrate
some of the general characteristic of language acquisition. It is related to a
specific interpretation of the target language which manifested as a universal
phenomena. They include generalization (over-generalization and ignorance
of rule restrictions), incomplete application of rules and false concept
hypothesis.
Jack C. Richards stated in his book: “An examination of the errors
…… suggests that intralingual errors are those which reflect the general
characteristics of rule learning, such as faulty generalization, incomplete
application of rules, and failure to learn conditions under which rules
apply.”15
On the other hand, Brown (1987) divides sources of errors, based on
the backgrounds that underline them, into four types. Interlingual Transfer
is interference from the native language or second language when he is
attempting, once, learners have begun to acquire parts of the new system.
Intralingual transfer generalization, within the target language is
manifested. The third major of errors sources is the Context of Learning.
Context refers, example, to the classroom with its teacher and its materials.
Communication Strategy is the forth error source. It actually includes the
former three sources as a learner tries to get a message across to the listener
or the reader.16

3. The Procedures of Error Analysis Research
14
15

Dullay, et. al. Op Cit, p. 138
Jack C. Richards (ed), Error Analysis, 3rd impression, (London: Longman Group Limited,

1997), p.174
16

H. Douglas Brown, Op Cit, pp. 177-183

In the language teaching either a native language or a second language
teaching, study about learners’ errors is very important. And there are
several procedures in analyzing the errors: sample collection, sample
identification, error explanation and error classification. Corder (1994)
suggests the following steps in error analysis research:
a. Collection of a sample of language learner.
b. Identification of error.
c. Description of error.
d. Explanation of error.
e. Evaluation of error17

Roger T Bell said: “…a step by step the procedure which teachers can
follow in order to recognize when error has occurred, describe what it is and
explain why it exists.”18
The first step in the process of analysis is recognition or identification of
errors. It crucially depends on correct interpretation of the learners’
intentions. It can be arrived by authoritative interpretation or plausible
interpretation.
It is called authoritative interpretation is when the learner is asked in his
mother tongue what he is intended to express with his utterance of the target
language. In contrast, plausible interpretation is that the learner is not
available for consultation; we interpret his utterance on the basis of the
learners’ utterance. Theo Van Els stated: Corder differentiates between: -an
authoritative interpretation: if the learner is available, we can ask him to
express his attention in his mother tongue, and then translate his utterance
into the target language, using whatever we can glean from his original
attempt as a guide to the form he aimed at; - a plausible interpretation: if the
learner is absent, we have to do the best whatever we know about him and
his knowledge of the world and the target language.19
The second step is describing error. It begins only when an identification
stage has taken place. The description of learner errors involves a
comparison of the learners’ idiosyncratic utterances with a reconstruction of
17

Rod Ellis, The Study of Second Language, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 48
Roger T Bell, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: Approach and Method in Language
Teaching, 1st ed, (London: Bastford Academic and Education Ltd, 1981), p. 171
19
Theo Van Els, et. al., Applied Linguistics and The Learning Teaching of Foreign
Language, 5th ed, (London: Edward Arnold Ltd., 1991), pp.52-53
18

those utterances in the target language. It requires, therefore, attention to the
surface properties of the learners’ utterances.
Finally, the last step in the process of analysis is the explanation of error
that can be regarded as a linguistic problem. This step attempts to account
for how and why the learners’ errors happen.

B. Sentences
A Sentence is a group of words with a period, exclamation point, or question
mark at the end.20

1. Sentences Parts
Before talking about sentences types, the writer would first remind about
sentences parts:
a. The Subject (simple & complete subjects)of a sentence is the noun, or noun
substitute like “who,” about which we say something, or ask a question21,
e.g.
The theory was valid. (simple subject)
The woman in the blue house by the river wrote bizarre sentences on
the walls. (Complete subject)
b. The Predicate (simple & complete predicates) is the verb along with its
modifiers and complements. The predicate is what the sentence says about
the subject; most often, the predicate is the action that goes on in the
sentence22, e.g.
The theory was valid. (Simple predicate)
The woman in the blue house wrote on the walls with invisible liquids.
(Complete predicate)
c. The objects come in several forms: direct, indirect, prepositions,
complementary objects & subjective complements.
The direct object is the part of the sentence that the predicate acts upon23,
e.g.
The president washed the dishes.

Donald Hall, Writing Well, 2nd ed, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) p. 118
Ibid, pp.118-119
22
Ibid, p. 119
23
Ibid, p. 119

20

21

An indirect object usually comes before a direct object, and tells us to whom
or for whom (or to what or for what) the predicate acts24, e.g.
Sam wrote her a new song.
Most of the time, the indirect object replaces a prepositional phrase using
“to” or “for,”25 e.g.
Sam wrote a new song for her.
In that sentence “her” is object of preposition, nouns or noun substitutes that
a preposition relates to another word or word group.26
Dick the Bruiser was barred from the premises. (preposition followed
by an object)
d. A phrase is a group of words which work together as a unit, but which lack a
subject and a predicate.27
The bat in the attic is not a vampire. (prepositional phrase)
More and more people will be buying sub-compact cars as gasoline
prices rise. (verbal phrase)
Hockey fans tend to enjoy violence. (Infinitive phrase)
Establishing a fascist state requires ruthlessness and ambition. (gerund
phrase)
Doubting the medical assumptions of his time, Pasteur sought further
knowledge about what causes disease. (participle phrases)
e. A clause is a group of words, used as part of a sentence, which contains a
subject and a predicate. A clause may be main (independent) or subordinate
(dependent). A main clause can be a simple sentence itself28, e.g.
The thin dog barked.
A subordinate clause is not a complete sentence by itself, and may be used as
a noun, an adjective or an adverb29, e.g.
Whether the new league will flourish is a question that no one can
answer with certainty. (Noun clause)
The cricket, which appeared to be wearing a tiny tuxedo, did not
answer his naïve questions. (Adjective clause)

24

Ibid, p. 119
Ibid, p. 119
26
Ibid, p.120
27
Ibid, p. 120
28
Ibid, p.120
29
Ibid, pp. 120-121
25

She ordered the troops to attack when it became apparent that to delay
any longer would be suicidal. (Adverb clause)
f. A modifier is any word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or
adverb. In the sentence
The bat in the attic is not vampire.
the phrase “in the attic” does something to, modifies, “bat,” telling us which
bat. While in the sentence
The vampire flew slowly around the room when he assumed the form of
a bat.
there are three modifiers, all acting as adverbs. The single word “slowly”
tells us about the way the vampire flew; then a prepositional phrase “around
the room” tells us where the vampire flew; and the subordinate clause “when
he assumed the form of a bat” tells us when it happened.30

2. Sentences Types
a. Simple Sentences
As long as the sentence remains one clause, containing one predicate, it is
simple sentence.31 A sentence can be quite long and yet still be simple by
elaborating the predicate with prepositional phrases32, e.g.
Neal runs / with his wife/ at waterman Gymnasium / before classes.
A subject can be long, too, e.g.
The ape-man in the gray loincloth, a wooden spear in his hand, attacked.
Or the verb can be elaborated, e.g.
The ape-man attacked swiftly, with a sharp cry, from the rocks.
Or we can have a direct object, and the object can be elaborated, e.g.
The ape-man attacked the sluggish warriors, those intruders tired from
their lengthy searching.
Or the simple sentence can have all its parts elaborated and remain simple e.g.
The ape-man in the gray loincloth, a wooden spear in his hand, attacked the
sluggish warriors swiftly from behind the rocks, the boulders shining in the
hot sun.

30

Ibid, p.121
Ibid, p.121
32
Ibid, p.121
31

The basic sentence is still “ The-ape-man attacked,” though by the time we have
more definition for each of the parts, more information, and too many
adjectives.33
b. Compound Sentences
A Compound sentence has two or more main clauses, each containing a subject
and a predicate, each describing an action complete in itself. The clauses in the
compound sentence are joined by a connective – “and,” “but,” “or,” or “nor” –
or by a semicolon or colon.34
The economy stagnates and prices rise.
We can lower the price of admission or we can stage fewer plays.
He never went the snake house again; he had been revolted by the alligator.
In the compound sentence, notice that the two complete clauses are nearly equal
in importance, or coordinate. A compound sentence, of course, can have more
than two parts.35
Lolich pitched a curve, the runner on first sprinted toward second, and
Veryzer ran to cover the base.
c. Complex Sentences
If, however, one part of the sentence depends on the other –if the one is the
cause of the other, for instance— the sentence is more likely complex than
compound. 36 A complex sentence, then, consists of one main clause and one or
more subordinate clauses along with whatever other phrases the sentence
accumulates.37 Subordinate clause is the clause that depends upon the other, for
explanation or completion. A complex sentence would be:
Because the economy stagnates, high prices find new buyers. 38
The first clause in the sentence is subordinate.
There are three kinds of subordinate clauses—noun, adjective, and adverb—
which function just like the parts of speech:
1) Main clause
2) Subordinate clauses
a) Noun Clauses

33

Ibid, p.122
Ibid, p.122
35
Ibid, p.123
36
Ibid.
37
Bob Brannan, A Writer’s Workshop Crafting Paragraphs, Building Essays, (Boston:
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003), p.503.
38
Donald Hall, Loc Cit,
34

Noun clauses are subordinate clauses that function the same way single
nouns and noun phrases do in a sentence and are frequently used as
subjects,39 for example:
What the candidate said surprised everyone.
Here are some example sentences with noun clauses used in other ways
besides as subjects:40


Jason mentioned that he would leave for Lawrence in the morning.
(direct object)



Hoang asked for whatever help his friends would give. (object of
preposition)



The administration’s feeling is that no one deserves a salary
increase. (complement)

Because noun clauses are an essential part of sentences—unlike many
adverb and adjective clauses—they are not set off with commas, and
perhaps for this reason do not usually cause punctuation problems. Here
is a list of common cue words that begin noun clauses:
Table I
Common Cue Words That Begin Noun Clauses
Who

That

Whatever

What

Where

Whether

Which

Whose

Whoever

When

Why

How

Note: Some of these words can also introduce adjective and adverb
clauses.41
b) Adjective Clauses
Adjective clauses (also called relative clauses) function much like single
adjectives and adjective phrases do, describing nouns and pronouns, for
example:42
I drive a truck that is old.
Adjective clauses can begin with several cue words, including whose,
when, where, and why, but usually begin with one of these relative
pronouns:
Table II
Common Cue Words That Begin Adjective Clauses
39

Bob Brannan, Op Cit, p.498
Ibid.
41
Ibid, p.499.
42
Ibid.
40

Who

Which

That

Note: These words also sometimes introduce noun clauses.


Essential adjective clauses do not use a comma, because if removing
them could alter the main idea.43

Gina Caldarello is the woman who is responsible for the accident.


Nonessential adjective clauses can be removed from

sentence

without significantly changing the meaning, so the commas are set
off whether they appear in the middle of the main clause or at the
end. As in the following example:44
Tara Farnsworth, who is an exceptional student, is a fine athlete.
I stayed out too late last night, which caused me to oversleep my 8:00
class.
c) Adverb Clauses
Adverb clauses function like single adverbs and adverb phrases,
describing verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They give additional
information about a main clause, telling when, why, where, how, and to
what extent, as in the following example:


When the carolers came to our house, we served them hot chocolate.
(when)



Because it began to rain, the party headed indoors. (Why)



Where Amanda and her friends go, trouble is sure to follow. (where)



As if he had not eaten for week, Brad wolfed down his hamburger.
(how)



Until he could stand it no more, Max listened to the meaningless
lecture. (extent)

Adverb clauses, like other adverbs, are flexible parts of sentences and
can frequently be moved. For example: the subordinate and main clauses
in any of the above examples could be reversed easily, like this:
We serve them hot chocolate, when the carolers came to our house.
Clauses beginning with though, although and even though usually do use
a comma even when they follow a main clause because these
subordinating words announce strong contrast.45

43

Ibid.
Ibid.
45
Ibid, p 500
44

Adverb clauses always begin with a subordinating conjunction. Here is a
list of common subordinating words:
Table III
Common Subordinating Words for Adverb Clauses
Coordinating conjunctions
After

As though

In order that

So that

Whenever

Although

Because

Now that

Though

Where

As

Before

Once

Till

Whereas

As if

Even though

Rather than

Until

Wherever

As long as

If

Since

When

While

Note: some of these words can also introduce prepositional phrases, noun
clauses, and adjective clauses.
According to Willis (1964), complex sentences are sentences with
various kinds of sentence modifiers: appositive-phrases, adjective clauses,
adverbial clauses, verb clusters, prepositional-phrase modifiers, and adjective
clusters.46
1) The Pattern of Sentences with Appositive Phrases.
One simple method of expanding a subject-predicate construction into a
more complex sentence, and thus avoiding the composition of a second,
unnecessary sentence, is the use of appositive phrase. An appositive is
usually a noun phrase that makes a full, separate statement about some other
noun in the sentence.47 Here are some examples that show how separate full
statements can be converted into appositives:
Ecology is the study of the mutual relation between organisms and their
environment. It is required for a degree in forestry.
Ecology, the study of the mutual relation between organisms and their
environment, is required for a degree in forestry.
My Uncle Bert was a golf instructor. My Uncle Bert moved here from
New Mexico in 1959.
My Uncle, a golf instructor, moved here from New Mexico in 1959.
Joe was the mailman. Joe said hello.
Joe, the mailman, said hello.

46

Hullon Willis, Structure, Style, and Usage, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,

1964), p.152
47

Ibid, p139

Tartuffe is Moliere’s best known play. It is about a religious hypocrite
who tries to make love to his patron’s wife.
Tartuffe, Moliere’s best known play, is about a religious hypocrite who
tries to make love to his patron’s wife.
The nation’s mightiest “affair of honor” is, of course, the Civil War. It
accounts for an average of ten romantic novels a year.
The nation’s mightiest “affair of honor” –the Civil War, of course—
accounts for an average of ten romantic novels a year.
The man is the laboratory director. The man is wearing the green
uniform.
The man, the laboratory director, is wearing the green uniform.
The logic of appositive phrase is that of identification or definition—that is,
the appositive identifies or defines a noun by making a direct statement
about what the noun is. Thus the verb is (are) or was (were) will always fit
between an appositive and the noun it is in apposition to.48
An appositive usually comes after the noun it is in apposition to and is
usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. An appositive
may be separated by dashes when it is long or when there is a sharp break
between it and the rest of the sentence.49
Sometimes the appositive construction is in apposition to an entire sentence
rather than to just one noun. In such cases, it comes at the end of a sentence
and makes a statement about the whole idea of the sentence,50 e.g.
He was known to have supported the subversive committee for
Democratic Principles. This fact hurt his political career.
He was known to have supported the subversive committee for
Democratic Principles, a fact hurt his political career.
2) The Pattern of Sentences with Adjective-Clause Modifiers.
The adjective clause is one of three types of constructions called
dependent or subordinate clauses in traditional grammar. It is called
dependent or subordinate because, although it contains a subject and
predicate, it is incorporated within another sentence and is connected to
(dependent on) some word or words in the main sentence.51
48

Ibid.
Ibid, p.140
50
Ibid.
51
Ibid, p.141
49

An adjective clause is a subordinated construction rather than a simple
sentence because it begins with a word (usually who, which, that, whom, or
whose) that keeps it from being a self-contained sentence. These words may
be called relative pronouns or subordinators.52
The logic of the adjective clause is somewhat like that of the appositive
in that it makes a statement of identification, definition, or description about
a noun or about the whole idea of a sentence,53 e.g.
The President proposed a compromise. It would have perpetuated the
unsettled condition.
The President proposed a compromise that would have perpetuated the
unsettled condition.
The president was a certain kind of politician. This was the kind whose
sense of compromise never deserted him.
The president was a certain kind of politician whose sense of
compromise never deserted him.
Like the appositive construction, the adjective clause can modify the whole
idea of a sentence as well as a single noun in it,54 e.g.
The mayor wanted to employ additional policemen. This seemed like a
good idea.
The mayor wanted to employ additional policemen which seemed like a
good idea.
Sometimes an adjective clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by
commas, and sometimes it is not. When the clause is necessary to identify
the noun it modifies, it is not separated by commas,55 e.g.
The player maintains the highest batting average. The player will
receive a trophy.
The player who maintains the highest batting average will receive a
trophy.

52

Ibid.
Ibid.
54
Ibid, p.142
55
Ibid, p.143
53

When an adjective clause modifies a noun already fully identified, it is set
off from the rest of the sentence with commas,56
Sinclair Lewis’ novel Babbitt satirized American materialism. Sinclair
Lewis’ novel Babbitt won him the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Sinclair Lewis’ novel Babbitt, which satirized American materialism,
won him the Nobel Prize for Literature.
When an adjective clause is not set off by commas, it is called restrictive or
essential clause, because it is needed to identify its noun. When such a
clause is set off by commas, it is called nonrestrictive or nonessential,
because it is not needed to identify its noun.57
3) The Pattern of Sentences with Adverbial-Clause Modifiers.
The adverbial clause is another of the dependent clauses of traditional
grammar. Such clauses are frequently said to—and in some cases do—
modify the verb in the main sentence. But more often, adverbial clauses
seem to modify the whole sentence rather just the verb. Sometimes they are
called sentence modifiers rather than adverbial clauses.58
Like the adjective clause, the adverbial clause is introduced by a word
(when, if, because, though, and so on) that keeps it from standing by itself as
a simple sentence. This word incorporates the clause into the main sentence,
making the clause subordinate or dependent in much the same way that
words like who and that make adjective clauses dependent. There are many
of these words and they express various kinds of logic. As a group they may
be called subordinating conjunctions or subordinators.59
Several of these subordinators express the logic of cause-and-result:
because, since, in that, now that, in order that, and in as much as60, e.g.
He couldn’t go on. He was just too tired.
He couldn’t go on, because he was just too tired.
He did it. He needed the money.
Because he needed the money, he did it
Some of the subordinators express the logic of contrast: although, though,
whereas, and sometimes while61, e.g.
56

Ibid, p. 143
Ibid.
58
Ibid, p.144
59
Ibid, pp.144-145
60
Ibid, p. 145
57

His grandfather is sixty years old. He has white hair all over his head.
He is still very healthy.
Although his grandfather who has white hair all over his head is sixty
years old, he is still very healthy.
Rommie fell off his bicycle. He hurt himself. He did not cry.
Though Rommie fell off his bicycle till hurt himself, he did not cry.
Mr. Amin Rais lost the national election. He remained the leader of his
own party.
Though Mr. Amin Rais lost the national election, he remained the
leader of his own party.
The logic of condition is expressed by the subordinators if and unless,
If sewer bonds are not voted for the West Knolls District, real estate
sales will continue to be slow there.
Real estate sales will continue to be slow in the West Knolls District
unless sewer bonds are voted in.
In each of these cases the truth of one statement depends on (is conditional
on) the truth of the other. 62
The logic of manner or method is expressed by the subordinators as,
as……as, as if, and as though, e.g.
She acted as if nothing happened before.
The Teamster’s President used his powers as extensively as the law
would allow.
In each of these cases the subordinator tells how something was done.63
The logic of a time relationship expressed by the subordinators after, as, as
soon as, before, since, until, when, and while. Also the logic of cause-andresult is sometimes combined with the time relationship,64
61

Ibid.
Ibid, p.146
63
Ibid.
62

The President saw that his bill was in danger of being defeated. The
President quickly called conferences with his Senate leaders.
When the President saw that his bill was in danger of being defeated, he
quickly called conferences with his Senate leaders.
Though in these examples when, before, and after seem to express only a
time relationship between the two statements, the reader understands in each
case that the second statement is the result of the first.
No simple rule can be stated governing the punctuation of all adverbial
clauses. However, when the clause comes first in a sentence, it is usually
separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma unless it is short.65
4) The Pattern of Sentences with Verb-Cluster Modifiers.
A cluster is one kind of phrase, and a phrase is a group of words (without
a subject and predicate, which form a clause) acting as a unit. In the kind of
phrase called a cluster there is always a headword—the dominant word of
the phrase about which other words cluster. In a verb cluster the headword is
a verb—any form of a verb: to explain, explained, to be explained,
explaining, had explained, had been explained, had been explaining, having
explaining, having explained, having been explained, being explained. A
verb cluster is formed when modifiers or objects or both are joined to such
verbs or verb phrases to form a unit.66
Though it has various functions, a verb cluster can act as a sentence
modifier or as the modifier of a noun within a main sentence. Because the
cluster usually appears to modify a specific noun, it is often called an
adjective phrase or an adjectival67, e.g.
The lawyer chose his words carefully. He was trying hard to control his
temper.
The lawyer chose his words carefully, trying hard to control his
temper.
The 39th Regiment fought savagely. It broke out of the German trap.
64

Ibid
Ibid, pp. 146-1

Dokumen yang terkait

Language Disorder In Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Study Of Five Schizophrenia Paranoid Patients In Simeulue District Hospital

1 32 102

Error analysis on descriptive text ( A case study at the eight grade of SMP Islamiyah Sawangan)

0 8 55

An Error Analysis On Students' Grammar : A Case Study at First Year of SMAN 6 Pandeglang Banten

1 6 72

Error Analysis of Students' Writing Test Focused On Tenses : A case study in the third Year Class of Junior High School of paramarta At Jombang,Ciputat Banten

4 15 80

An error analysis on students difficulties in learning english pronouns (A case study at the second year class of MTS Jami'yatul kahair kampung Utan Ciputat

6 39 51

AN ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH (A Case Study at the Second Grade of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan)

0 32 68

A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON STUDENT INTERACTION IN WRITING CLASS AT THE SEVENTH YEAR OF SMP NEGERI 3 SAWIT Descriptive Study On Student Interaction In Writing Class At The Seventh Year Of SMP Negeri 3 Sawit In 2013/2014 Academic Year.

0 1 11

A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH COMPOUND – COMPLEX SENTENCE A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH COMPOUND – COMPLEX SENTENCE INTO INDONESIAN (A CASE STUDY OF THE FIFTH SEMESTER S

0 1 11

TEACHING SPEAKING THROUGH STORYTELLING : A Case Study at a Year Ten Class of a MAN in Kendari.

0 0 38

AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE IN WRITING DESCRIPTIVE TEXTS: A CASE STUDY AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMAN 1 LINGSAR IN ACADEMIC YEAR 20142015

0 0 13

Dokumen baru

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

119 3984 16

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

40 1057 43

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

40 945 23

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

21 632 24

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

28 790 23

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

60 1348 14

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

66 1253 50

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

20 825 17

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

32 1111 30

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

41 1350 23