Analysis On Students'Structure Competence In Complex Sentences : A Case Study at 2nd Year class of SMU TRIGUNA
ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ STRUCTURE COMPETENCE IN COMPLEX SENTENCES
( A Case Study at 2nd Year Class of SMU TRIGUNA)
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training Sciences In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of S.Pd.(Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education
Written by: Artila Fauzi 103014026988
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING SCIENCIES SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA
ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ STRUCTURE COMPETENCE IN COMPLEX SENTENCES
( A Case Study at 2nd Year Class of SMU TRIGUNA)
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training Sciences In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of S.Pd.(Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education
By: Artila Fauzi NIM: 103014026988
Approved by Advisor
Drs. Zainal Arifin Toy, M. Sc. NIP. 150 031 215
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING SCIENCIES SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA
The Examination Committee of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training certifies that the "Skripsi" (Scientific paper) entitled " ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ STRUCTURE COMPETENCE IN COMPLEX SENTENCES( A Case Study at 2nd Year Class of SMU TRIGUNA)" written by Artila Fauzi, whose student's registration number : 103014026988, was examined by the committee on October 20th 2008 and was declared to have passed, and therefore, fulfilled one of the requirements for the academic title of "S.Pd" (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education at the Department of English Education.
Jakarta, November 2008
Chairman : Drs. Syauki, M.Pd (_____________________) NIP. 150 246 289
Secretary : Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd (_____________________) NIP. 150 326 910
Examiners : 1. Prof. Dr. Hadjid Harna Widagda, M.Pd (_____________________) NIP. 150 011 332
2. Drs. Sunardi Kartowisastro, Dpl. Ed (_____________________) NIP. 150 022 779
Dean of Tarbiya and Teachers' Training Education
Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A. NIP. 150 231 356
In the Name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful May peace and blessing of Allah be upon all of us
All praises be to Allah, Lord of the Universe, Who gives the writer guidance and strength, so she could finish this “skripsi”. Peace and blessing be upon to the Prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his relatives, and all his followers.
Many people have assisted the writer in writing this “skripsi”. So, she realized that she would never finish it without the help of many people around her. Therefore, the writer would really give her sincerest gratitude to her beloved parents especially her dear mom Wati Setiawati , her beloved brothers and sisters (Adi, Ayu, Ama, Arsyad) and to all her relatives who had given their love, support, advice, understanding, and contribution both moral and material encouragement to her.
The writer would also like to offer her special thank to Mr. Zainal Arifin Toy, M.Sc, as the writer's advisor for the time he spent, the guidance he gave to the writer with patience and kindness, that the writer can finish writing her skripsi.
The writer would like to give her special thanks and appreciation to: a. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiya and teaching Sciences. b. Drs. Syauqi, M.Pd, the Dean of English Department, Mrs. Neneng, the Secretary of
English Department, Ms. Aida, Ms, Ertin, Ms. Yeni and all staffs of English Department who had helped the writer to finish her “skripsi” soon and easy.
c. Drs. Munir Sonhadji, M.Ed, the writer’s Academic Guide lecturer.
d. All lecturers in English Department whose names can not be mentioned one by one respectively for their delightfulness of teaching precious knowledge, giving many advice to the writer along they were with her.
e. The headmaster and all the teachers, staffs and employees of SMU Triguna Utama especially the English teacher Mrs. Burdah Darlina for their generosity to give the
writer opportunity to do her research at the school. All the students of 2nd Year Class both Social and Science Program at SMU Triguna Utama for their co-operation in helping the writer did her research.
f. The Corps of Violet Beret especially Mr. Eddyson hak, Dan Mujab, Dan Ghofar, Pak Beni, Dan Singgih, Pak Rifa’I, Dan Rachmad, Pak Amri, Dan Yustam, Pak Syahrun, Pak Andri, P Luqi and all the writer’s seniors and juniors at MENWA who have given many experiences and sciences to the writer which the writer couldn’t find anywhere but there along the writer’s dedication there for four years.
g. All Srikandi Widya III members Bu Anul, Bu Ratna, Bu Indah, Bu Debi, Bu Dian, Pak Mul, Pak Fadil, Moh.Yahya who always give the writer spirit to face all her problems along writing this skripsi.
h. The friends of her at HMI especially Ajat, kang Achan, Pia, Isyfa, Indi, Iman, Daeng, Fifi, thank them all for being the nicest friends.
Finally, the writer realized that this “skripsi” is still far from being perfect. So, hoping some suggestions, she wishes that may this “skripsi” be some valuable writing.
Ciputat, September 2008
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……… i CONTENTS…..……….………. iii TABLE CONTENTS ……….………. v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..……… 1
A. Background of Study ………..……….
B. The Limitation & The Formulation of The Study ……… 2
C. The Use of Study ………..
D. The Method of Study……….
E. The Organization of Study..……….. 3
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ……… 4
A. Error Analysis ………
1. The Definitions and Types of Error Analysis ……….. 5
2. The Goals and Sources of Error Analysis………... 7
3. The Procedures of Error Analysis Research ……….. 9
B. Sentences ………. 10
1. Sentences Parts ………..
2. Sentences Types ……….
CHAPTER III THE PROFILE OF THE SCHOOL ………25
A. English Subject ………...
1. English Teachers ………
2. Text Books ………...
3. Method of Teaching ………...
B. Objectives of the four skills of the language ……… 28
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS………...…………. 30
a. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………..………
1. Research Design ……….
2. Research objective ………..
3. Place and Time ………... 30
4. Population and Sample ………...
5. Research Instrument ………...
6. Technique of Data Analysis………
B. RESEARCH FINDINGS………..
32 1. Data
2. Data Description and
Explanation………33 3. Data
CHAPTER IV CLOSING………..44
Table I Common Cue Words that Begin Noun Clauses ………. 15
Table II Common Cue Words that Begin Adjective Clause ..………. 15
Table III Common Subordinating Words for Adverb Clause ………... 16
Table IV Question Items and Their Distributions .………. 32
Table V Question Items Which Are Correlated to Complex Sentences… … … …..
Table VI Frequency of Error in Indirect Speech ...……….. 33
Table VII Frequency of Error in Completing the Sentence with Subordinate Clause .…34
Table VIII Frequency of Error in Arranging Jumbled Words Into Correct Complex Sentences………... 40
Table IX Frequency of Error in Forming Subordinate Clause ………... 42
Table IX The Sequence of English Skill Area in Data Instrument Based on The Frequency of Error ……….……….. 42
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of Study
English is taught as a foreign language in Indonesia because there are so many regional languages which becomes Indonesian first language. While, Indonesian language becomes the formal language that should be mastered by all Indonesian people. So, English just becomes a foreign language in Indonesia for the limited English speakers in Indonesia.
Nowadays, the teaching role of English is widely developed in Indonesia. Most education places headmasters tried to create an English milieu in their institutions because they want the best for their students. Many strategies have been done to achieve their goals. Includes applying curriculum which is stated by the government. Some institutions are succeeded and some are not yet for the condition of the area and the heterogeneous students’ backgrounds.
In teaching-learning process, of course, English has four basic skills which should be mastered by the students, more over by the teachers: listening, speaking, reading, writing. Writing is called the last because writing is viewed as the most complex and hardest language skill among the others.
Writing is viewed as a useful, effective, enjoyable and above all necessary component of a modern world. Because writing provides the pleasure of sending a personal message to a friend. It also assumes career and financial importance in the composition of a resume or a business letter. Thus, teaching writing needs extra effort to do because in mastering writing skill, someone should master many skills: words, sentences, essays, paragraphs, grammar and so on. Someone’s ability on the other three skills also influence his ability in writing. The more he reads the more sentences and words he gets, the correct he pronounces the words the correct he spells them and the more he listens the more he can distinguish the sounds.
Unfortunately, the students of all levels especially the students of SMU Triguna Utama always find difficulties in writing. Each student faces different problems in writing such as in sentence patterns which contains the placement of S+P+O or clauses which contains main clause and sub clause, diction, usage, tenses, parts of speech, word form, word order, spelling and punctuation.
The problem in sentence pattern of clauses sometimes appears because of the culture differences between Indonesian and English, the misconception in applying the target language rule, the context of teaching which sometime was not found in student’ real life, and the way the students get the massages across the listener or the reader. The incorrect sentence structure may cause the sentence not understandable and will make the paragraph even the text in a mess.
Meanwhile, students need to use complex sentences in making a narrative essay efficiently. So, structuring the words to construct complex sentences correctly plays an important role to make the texts in senses. Referring to the brief explanation before, the writer would like to make a research about students’ problems or difficulties in structuring the words to construct complex sentences correctly. Somehow, hopefully, this research paper be useful and a reference for the next teacher to evaluate his teaching methods perhaps. Thus, the writer would give the title for her term paper (skripsi): “ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ STRUCTURE COMPETENCE IN COMPLEX SENTENCES” (A Case Study at 2nd Year Class of SMU TRIGUNA UTAMA)
B. The Limitation & Formulation of Study
In the limitation of the study, the writer would limit the problem on students’ structure in complex sentences. While, for the formulation of the study, the writer would construct some questions:
1. How did the students construct the complex sentences?
2. Could the students distinguish between noun, adjective and adverb clauses?
C. The Use of Study
This study will discuss students’ structure competence in constructing complex sentences. Its aim is to know the students’ competence in distinguishing various kinds of clauses, noun, adjective and adverb. Analyzing the students’ competence in certain skill, in this case is constructing complex sentences, she will get to know how far the curriculum aim, especially writing skill, has been reached by the teacher. Hopefully, this will give some input for English students, other English professionals either the teachers or the curriculum developers.
In completing the data, she conducts field research. In the field research, the questions sheets and students answers of some complex sentences are used as a research instrument, through error analysis they are identified, described and explained.
E. The Organization of Study
This skripsi is divided into five chapters, as follows:
The first chapter is an introduction, which consists of five parts. They are: the background of the study, the limitation & the formulation of the study, the use of study, the method of study, and the organization of study.
The second chapter is theoretical framework, which discusses about two parts: first part is error analysis talks about the definitions and types of error analysis, the goals and sources of error analysis, & the procedures of error analysis research; second part is Sentences : Sentences Parts & Sentence Types.
The third chapter is the profile of the school, which consists of the books used by the teacher, the teacher’s profile, the teacher’s method of teaching, and the objective of four language skills.
The fourth chapter is research methodology and findings, which consists of two parts: the first part is research methodology which talks about the research design, research objective, place and time, population and sample, research instrument, and technique of data analysis; the second part is research findings which talks about data identification, data description and explanation, and data interpretation.
The last chapter is conclusion and suggestion which consists of two parts: conclusion and suggestion.
A. Error Analysis
It is unavoidable that the learners make some errors in their language learning process. Although so many efforts the teachers do, students’ errors will always occur. But through the errors, the students should learn. As the proverb says
“Who makes no mistakes, makes nothing.”
Errors have played an important role in the study of language acquisition in general and examining second and foreign language acquisition in particular. When the students made errors, it doesn’t mean that it is a failure or inadequacy but the teacher can view them as important evidence of strategies or procedures employed. In other words, errors give a sign to the teachers and researchers how the target language learning is successfully achieved.
As quoted by H. Douglas Brown: “As Corder (1997; 167) noted: A learners errors …… are significant in [that] they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learned or acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in the discovery of language… .”1
Pit Corder stated:
It is on the basis of information the teacher gets from errors that he varies his teaching procedures and materials, the pace of the progress, and the amount of practice, which he plans at any moment. For this reason, it is important that the teacher should be able not only to detect and describe errors linguistically but also understand the psychological reasons for their occurrence.2
The study of learners’ errors is called error analysis. It is a way of looking at the errors made by the learner of a target language. Since the analysis is based on factual data of learners’ errors. It is a procedure, which is usually, used by language teachers and researchers, which covers sample collection, identification of the
1 H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1980), p. 164
S. Pit Corder, Error Analysis and Inter language, (London: Oxford University Press, 1981), p.35
sample, error explanation, error classification that are based on the cause of errors and evaluation of errors.
Rod Ellis said:
Typically this involves the collection of samples of classroom learner-language (usually written and usually discrete, decontextualised utterances), the classification of errors according to the different levels of language description, the explanation of errors by reference to various learning process and the evaluation of errors for the purposes of assessment of remediation.3
To know further about error analysis, the study will discuss the following area:
1. The Definitions and Types of Error Analysis
There are several opinions given by some linguists to get clear understanding about error. Dullay et. al. defined error as “flawed side of learner speech of writing. They are those parts of conversation or composition that deviate from selected norm of mature language performance.”4
Pit Corder said: “… the term erroneous to mean other superficially deviant or inappropriate in terms of the target language grammar … .”5
Then, Douglas Brown said: “Put in another way, an error is a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the language competence of the learner.”6 Sridhar stated: “Error on the other hand, are systematic, consistent deviances stage of learning.”7
Error is usually compared with mistake. Both of them indicate that the form of structure the learner used is unacceptable and inappropriate according to the native speaker. We should distinguish errors from mistake in language learner. Mistakes are inconsistent deviation caused by performance factors, e.g. the slip of tongue.
Rod Ellis, Error Analysis, (London: Longman Group Limited, 1974), p.74
Dullay et. al., Language Two, (New York: Oxford Universities Press, 1982), p.138
Techniques in Applied Linguistics , vol 3, ed. J. P. B. Allen and S. Pit Corder, (London: Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 122
H. Douglas Brown, op. cit., p. 165
Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher, ed. Jacek Fisiak, (England: Pergamon Press, ltd., 1981), p. 224
According to Corder, Mistake refers to a performance error such as a fatigue and inattention, while the error itself is one caused by lack of language rule knowledge (competence factor) or systematic deviation due to the learner.8 Mistake (the error of performance) will characteristically be unsystematic.
The errors are systematic. It is natural for the learners to make errors; even many native speakers make many mistakes in speaking. The errors are necessary part of learning language and the process of leading to the errors is clearly a creative one. Errors are also believed to be an indicator of the learners’ stage in their target language development and it can determine their level of mastery of language system.
Relating to the students’ error, there is error analysis. And to understand more about error analysis some authors have defined it. It is clear that error analysis is used as an instrument for evaluating teaching process and remedial activities conducted. While errors are divided into: transfer error, analogical error and teaching induced error. These three types of errors are viewed from the psychological process in acquiring a second language.
a. Transfer error is error caused by interference from a mother tongue. A student who has not known the rules of the target language will use the same rules as he obtained in his native language. S. Pit Corder stated: “ It is clear that on this theory, the making of errors is an evitable, even perhaps a necessary part of the learning process. It also accounts for the similarity of many errors to the forms of mother tongue, we can call this a transfer error.”9
b. Analogical Error is an error caused by misconception in applying the rules of the target language. As S. Pit Corder stated: “However, even when a learner has discovered a correct rule he may still continue to make errors because he has not yet discovered the precise set of categories to which the rule applies. Errors of this sort are errors of over generalization or analogical errors”10
Dullay et.al., Op. Cit. p.139
J. P. B. Allen and S. Pit Corder (ed), Techniques in Applied Linguistics, vol. 3, (London: Oxford University Press, 1974), p.130
c. Teaching Induced Error is error that has something to do with the methods or materials of the teaching. Pit Corder stated: There is a third type of error which is more difficult to establish in any particular case, namely errors arising from the methods or materials used in the teaching……only this class of error, teaching induced error, is avoidable or redundant and represents in efficiency in the learning-teaching process.11
2. The Goals and Sources of Error Analysis
Speaking about the goal of error analysis, it is for pragmatic use. Sridhar in
Contrastive Analysis, Error, and Interlanguage wrote:
It was believed that error analysis, by identifying the areas of difficulty for the learner, could help in (i) determining the sequence of presentation of target items in textbook and classroom, with the difficult items following the easier ones; (ii) deciding the relative degree of emphasis, explanation and practice required in putting across various items in the target language; (iii) devising remedial lesson and exercises, and finally (iv) selecting items for testing the learners’ proficiency.12
According to Corder, error analysis has two functions: theoretical and practical. The most practical use of the analysis of error is for the teacher. It is for feedback value in designing pedagogical material and strategies. Sujoko in his book Error Analysis wrote:
“ …….. Because errors provide feedback, (i) they tell the teacher something about the effectiveness of his teaching technique, (ii) show him what parts of the syllabus he has been following have been inadequately learned or taught and need further attention, (iii) they enable him to decide whether he must devote more time to the item he has been working on, (iv) they provide the information for designing a remedial syllabus or a program of re-teaching.”13
Jacek Fisiak (ed), Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher, (England: Pentagon Press Ltd., 1981), pp. 221-222
Dullay stated that studying learners’ errors serves two major purposes: 1) It provides data from which inferences about the nature of language learning process can be made; 2) It indicates to teachers and curriculum developers, which part of the target language students have most difficulty producing correctly and which errors types detract most from a learners’ ability to communicate effectively.14
Speaking about the sources of errors, the sources of errors can be divided into two types. First, errors, which caused by the interference of the learner’s mother tongue, is called Interlingual. Second is Intralingual errors which reflect the learners competence at a particular stage and illustrate some of the general characteristic of language acquisition. It is related to a specific interpretation of the target language which manifested as a universal phenomena. They include generalization (over-generalization and ignorance of rule restrictions), incomplete application of rules and false concept hypothesis.
Jack C. Richards stated in his book: “An examination of the errors …… suggests that intralingual errors are those which reflect the general characteristics of rule learning, such as faulty generalization, incomplete application of rules, and failure to learn conditions under which rules apply.”15
On the other hand, Brown (1987) divides sources of errors, based on the backgrounds that underline them, into four types. Interlingual Transfer is interference from the native language or second language when he is attempting, once, learners have begun to acquire parts of the new system. Intralingual transfer generalization, within the target language is manifested. The third major of errors sources is the Context of Learning. Context refers, example, to the classroom with its teacher and its materials. Communication Strategy is the forth error source. It actually includes the former three sources as a learner tries to get a message across to the listener or the reader.16
3. The Procedures of Error Analysis Research
Dullay, et. al. Op Cit, p. 138
Jack C. Richards (ed), Error Analysis, 3rd impression, (London: Longman Group Limited, 1997), p.174
In the language teaching either a native language or a second language teaching, study about learners’ errors is very important. And there are several procedures in analyzing the errors: sample collection, sample identification, error explanation and error classification. Corder (1994) suggests the following steps in error analysis research:
a. Collection of a sample of language learner. b. Identification of error.
c. Description of error. d. Explanation of error. e. Evaluation of error17
Roger T Bell said: “…a step by step the procedure which teachers can follow in order to recognize when error has occurred, describe what it is and explain why it exists.”18
The first step in the process of analysis is recognition or identification of errors. It crucially depends on correct interpretation of the learners’ intentions. It can be arrived by authoritative interpretation or plausible interpretation.
It is called authoritative interpretation is when the learner is asked in his mother tongue what he is intended to express with his utterance of the target language. In contrast, plausible interpretation is that the learner is not available for consultation; we interpret his utterance on the basis of the learners’ utterance. Theo Van Els stated: Corder differentiates between: -an
authoritative interpretation: if the learner is available, we can ask him to express his attention in his mother tongue, and then translate his utterance into the target language, using whatever we can glean from his original attempt as a guide to the form he aimed at; - a plausible interpretation: if the learner is absent, we have to do the best whatever we know about him and his knowledge of the world and the target language.19
The second step is describing error. It begins only when an identification stage has taken place. The description of learner errors involves a comparison of the learners’ idiosyncratic utterances with a reconstruction of
Rod Ellis, The Study of Second Language, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 48
Roger T Bell, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: Approach and Method in Language Teaching, 1st ed, (London: Bastford Academic and Education Ltd, 1981), p. 171
Theo Van Els, et. al., Applied Linguistics and The Learning Teaching of Foreign Language, 5th ed, (London: Edward Arnold Ltd., 1991), pp.52-53
those utterances in the target language. It requires, therefore, attention to the surface properties of the learners’ utterances.
Finally, the last step in the process of analysis is the explanation of error that can be regarded as a linguistic problem. This step attempts to account for how and why the learners’ errors happen.
A Sentence is a group of words with a period, exclamation point, or question mark at the end.20
1. Sentences Parts
Before talking about sentences types, the writer would first remind about sentences parts:
a. The Subject (simple & complete subjects)of a sentence is the noun, or noun substitute like “who,” about which we say something, or ask a question21, e.g.
The theory was valid. (simple subject)
The woman in the blue house by the river wrote bizarre sentences on the walls. (Complete subject)
b. The Predicate (simple & complete predicates) is the verb along with its modifiers and complements. The predicate is what the sentence says about the subject; most often, the predicate is the action that goes on in the sentence22, e.g.
The theory was valid. (Simple predicate)
The woman in the blue house wrote on the walls with invisible liquids.
c. The objects come in several forms: direct, indirect, prepositions, complementary objects & subjective complements.
The direct object is the part of the sentence that the predicate acts upon23, e.g.
The president washed the dishes.
Donald Hall, Writing Well, 2nd ed, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) p. 118
Ibid, p. 119
An indirect object usually comes before a direct object, and tells us to whom or for whom (or to what or for what) the predicate acts24, e.g.
Sam wrote her a new song.
Most of the time, the indirect object replaces a prepositional phrase using “to” or “for,”25 e.g.
Sam wrote a new song for her.
In that sentence “her” is object of preposition, nouns or noun substitutes that a preposition relates to another word or word group.26
Dick the Bruiser was barred from the premises. (preposition followed by an object)
d. A phrase is a group of words which work together as a unit, but which lack a subject and a predicate.27
The bat in the attic is not a vampire. (prepositional phrase)
More and more people will be buying sub-compact cars as gasoline prices rise. (verbal phrase)
Hockey fans tend to enjoy violence. (Infinitive phrase)
Establishing a fascist state requires ruthlessness and ambition. (gerund phrase)
Doubting the medical assumptions of his time, Pasteur sought further knowledge about what causes disease. (participle phrases)
e. A clause is a group of words, used as part of a sentence, which contains a subject and a predicate. A clause may be main (independent) or subordinate (dependent). A main clause can be a simple sentence itself28, e.g.
The thin dog barked.
A subordinate clause is not a complete sentence by itself, and may be used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb29, e.g.
Whether the new league will flourish is a question that no one can answer with certainty. (Noun clause)
The cricket, which appeared to be wearing a tiny tuxedo, did not answer his naïve questions. (Adjective clause)
Ibid, p. 119
Ibid, p. 119
Ibid, p. 120
She ordered the troops to attack when it became apparent that to delay any longer would be suicidal. (Adverb clause)
f. A modifier is any word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb. In the sentence
The bat in the attic is not vampire.
the phrase “in the attic” does something to, modifies, “bat,” telling us which bat. While in the sentence
The vampire flew slowly around the room when he assumed the form of a bat.
there are three modifiers, all acting as adverbs. The single word “slowly” tells us about the way the vampire flew; then a prepositional phrase “around the room” tells us where the vampire flew; and the subordinate clause “when he assumed the form of a bat” tells us when it happened.30
2. Sentences Types a. Simple Sentences
As long as the sentence remains one clause, containing one predicate, it is simple sentence.31 A sentence can be quite long and yet still be simple by elaborating the predicate with prepositional phrases32, e.g.
Neal runs / with his wife/ at waterman Gymnasium / before classes.
A subject can be long, too, e.g.
The ape-man in the gray loincloth, a wooden spear in his hand, attacked.
Or the verb can be elaborated, e.g.
The ape-man attacked swiftly, with a sharp cry, from the rocks.
Or we can have a direct object, and the object can be elaborated, e.g.
The ape-man attacked the sluggish warriors, those intruders tired from their lengthy searching.
Or the simple sentence can have all its parts elaborated and remain simple e.g. The ape-man in the gray loincloth, a wooden spear in his hand, attacked the sluggish warriors swiftly from behind the rocks, the boulders shining in the hot sun.
The basic sentence is still “ The-ape-man attacked,” though by the time we have more definition for each of the parts, more information, and too many adjectives.33
b. Compound Sentences
A Compound sentence has two or more main clauses, each containing a subject and a predicate, each describing an action complete in itself. The clauses in the compound sentence are joined by a connective – “and,” “but,” “or,” or “nor” – or by a semicolon or colon.34
The economy stagnates and prices rise.
We can lower the price of admission or we can stage fewer plays.
He never went the snake house again; he had been revolted by the alligator.
In the compound sentence, notice that the two complete clauses are nearly equal in importance, or coordinate. A compound sentence, of course, can have more than two parts.35
Lolich pitched a curve, the runner on first sprinted toward second, and Veryzer ran to cover the base.
c. Complex Sentences
If, however, one part of the sentence depends on the other –if the one is the cause of the other, for instance— the sentence is more likely complex than compound. 36 A complex sentence, then, consists of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses along with whatever other phrases the sentence accumulates.37 Subordinate clause is the clause that depends upon the other, for explanation or completion. A complex sentence would be:
Because the economy stagnates, high prices find new buyers. 38
The first clause in the sentence is subordinate.
There are three kinds of subordinate clauses—noun, adjective, and adverb— which function just like the parts of speech:
1) Main clause
2) Subordinate clauses a) Noun Clauses
Bob Brannan, A Writer’s Workshop Crafting Paragraphs, Building Essays, (Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003), p.503.
Noun clauses are subordinate clauses that function the same way single nouns and noun phrases do in a sentence and are frequently used as subjects,39 for example:
What the candidate said surprised everyone.
Here are some example sentences with noun clauses used in other ways besides as subjects:40
• Jason mentioned that he would leave for Lawrence in the morning. (direct object)
• Hoang asked for whatever help his friends would give. (object of preposition)
• The administration’s feeling is that no one deserves a salary increase. (complement)
Because noun clauses are an essential part of sentences—unlike many adverb and adjective clauses—they are not set off with commas, and perhaps for this reason do not usually cause punctuation problems. Here is a list of common cue words that begin noun clauses:
Common Cue Words That Begin Noun Clauses Who That Whatever What Where Whether Which Whose Whoever When Why How
Note: Some of these words can also introduce adjective and adverb clauses.41
b) Adjective Clauses
Adjective clauses (also called relative clauses) function much like single adjectives and adjective phrases do, describing nouns and pronouns, for example:42
I drive a truck that is old.
Adjective clauses can begin with several cue words, including whose, when, where, and why, but usually begin with one of these relative pronouns:
Common Cue Words That Begin Adjective Clauses
Bob Brannan, Op Cit, p.498
Who Which That Note: These words also sometimes introduce noun clauses.
• Essential adjective clauses do not use a comma, because if removing them could alter the main idea.43
Gina Caldarello is the woman who is responsible for the accident.
• Nonessential adjective clauses can be removed from sentence without significantly changing the meaning, so the commas are set off whether they appear in the middle of the main clause or at the end. As in the following example:44
Tara Farnsworth, who is an exceptional student, is a fine athlete.
I stayed out too late last night, which caused me to oversleep my 8:00 class.
c) Adverb Clauses
Adverb clauses function like single adverbs and adverb phrases, describing verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They give additional information about a main clause, telling when, why, where, how, and to what extent, as in the following example:
• When the carolers came to our house, we served them hot chocolate.
• Because it began to rain, the party headed indoors. (Why)
• Where Amanda and her friends go, trouble is sure to follow. (where)
• As if he had not eaten for week, Brad wolfed down his hamburger.
• Until he could stand it no more, Max listened to the meaningless lecture. (extent)
Adverb clauses, like other adverbs, are flexible parts of sentences and can frequently be moved. For example: the subordinate and main clauses in any of the above examples could be reversed easily, like this:
We serve them hot chocolate, when the carolers came to our house.
Clauses beginning with though, although and even though usually do use a comma even when they follow a main clause because these subordinating words announce strong contrast.45
Adverb clauses always begin with a subordinating conjunction. Here is a list of common subordinating words:
Common Subordinating Words for Adverb Clauses Coordinating conjunctions
After As though In order that So that Whenever Although Because Now that Though Where
As Before Once Till Whereas
As if Even though Rather than Until Wherever
As long as If Since When While
Note: some of these words can also introduce prepositional phrases, noun clauses, and adjective clauses.
According to Willis (1964), complex sentences are sentences with various kinds of sentence modifiers: appositive-phrases, adjective clauses, adverbial clauses, verb clusters, prepositional-phrase modifiers, and adjective clusters.46
1) The Pattern of Sentences with Appositive Phrases.
One simple method of expanding a subject-predicate construction into a more complex sentence, and thus avoiding the composition of a second, unnecessary sentence, is the use of appositive phrase. An appositive is usually a noun phrase that makes a full, separate statement about some other noun in the sentence.47 Here are some examples that show how separate full statements can be converted into appositives:
Ecology is the study of the mutual relation between organisms and their environment. It is required for a degree in forestry.
Ecology, the study of the mutual relation between organisms and their environment, is required for a degree in forestry.
My Uncle Bert was a golf instructor. My Uncle Bert moved here from New Mexico in 1959.
My Uncle, a golf instructor, moved here from New Mexico in 1959.
Joe was the mailman. Joe said hello.
Joe, the mailman, said hello.
Hullon Willis, Structure, Style, and Usage, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964), p.152
Tartuffe is Moliere’s best known play. It is about a religious hypocrite who tries to make love to his patron’s wife.
Tartuffe, Moliere’s best known play, is about a religious hypocrite who tries to make love to his patron’s wife.
The nation’s mightiest “affair of honor” is, of course, the Civil War. It accounts for an average of ten romantic novels a year.
The nation’s mightiest “affair of honor” –the Civil War, of course— accounts for an average of ten romantic novels a year.
The man is the laboratory director. The man is wearing the green uniform.
The man, the laboratory director, is wearing the green uniform.
The logic of appositive phrase is that of identification or definition—that is, the appositive identifies or defines a noun by making a direct statement about what the noun is. Thus the verb is (are) or was (were) will always fit between an appositive and the noun it is in apposition to.48
An appositive usually comes after the noun it is in apposition to and is usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. An appositive may be separated by dashes when it is long or when there is a sharp break between it and the rest of the sentence.49
Sometimes the appositive construction is in apposition to an entire sentence rather than to just one noun. In such cases, it comes at the end of a sentence and makes a statement about the whole idea of the sentence,50 e.g.
He was known to have supported the subversive committee for Democratic Principles. This fact hurt his political career.
He was known to have supported the subversive committee for Democratic Principles, a fact hurt his political career.
2) The Pattern of Sentences with Adjective-Clause Modifiers.
The adjective clause is one of three types of constructions called dependent or subordinate clauses in traditional grammar. It is called dependent or subordinate because, although it contains a subject and predicate, it is incorporated within another sentence and is connected to (dependent on) some word or words in the main sentence.51
An adjective clause is a subordinated construction rather than a simple sentence because it begins with a word (usually who, which, that, whom, or whose) that keeps it from being a self-contained sentence. These words may be called relative pronouns or subordinators.52
The logic of the adjective clause is somewhat like that of the appositive in that it makes a statement of identification, definition, or description about a noun or about the whole idea of a sentence,53 e.g.
The President proposed a compromise. It would have perpetuated the unsettled condition.
The President proposed a compromise that would have perpetuated the unsettled condition.
The president was a certain kind of politician. This was the kind whose sense of compromise never deserted him.
The president was a certain kind of politician whose sense of compromise never deserted him.
Like the appositive construction, the adjective clause can modify the whole idea of a sentence as well as a single noun in it,54 e.g.
The mayor wanted to employ additional policemen. This seemed like a good idea.
The mayor wanted to employ additional policemen which seemed like a good idea.
Sometimes an adjective clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas, and sometimes it is not. When the clause is necessary to identify the noun it modifies, it is not separated by commas,55 e.g.
The player maintains the highest batting average. The player will receive a trophy.
The player who maintains the highest batting average will receive a trophy.
When an adjective clause modifies a noun already fully identified, it is set off from the rest of the sentence with commas,56
Sinclair Lewis’ novel Babbitt satirized American materialism. Sinclair Lewis’ novel Babbitt won him the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Sinclair Lewis’ novel Babbitt, which satirized American materialism, won him the Nobel Prize for Literature.
When an adjective clause is not set off by commas, it is called restrictive or
essential clause, because it is needed to identify its noun. When such a clause is set off by commas, it is called nonrestrictive or nonessential, because it is not needed to identify its noun.57
3) The Pattern of Sentences with Adverbial-Clause Modifiers.
The adverbial clause is another of the dependent clauses of traditional grammar. Such clauses are frequently said to—and in some cases do— modify the verb in the main sentence. But more often, adverbial clauses seem to modify the whole sentence rather just the verb. Sometimes they are called sentence modifiers rather than adverbial clauses.58
Like the adjective clause, the adverbial clause is introduced by a word (when, if, because, though, and so on) that keeps it from standing by itself as a simple sentence. This word incorporates the clause into the main sentence, making the clause subordinate or dependent in much the same way that words like who and that make adjective clauses dependent. There are many of these words and they express various kinds of logic. As a group they may be called subordinating conjunctions or subordinators.59
Several of these subordinators express the logic of cause-and-result:
because, since, in that, now that, in order that, and in as much as60, e.g. He couldn’t go on. He was just too tired.
He couldn’t go on, because he was just too tired.
He did it. He needed the money.
Because he needed the money, he did it
Some of the subordinators express the logic of contrast: although, though, whereas, and sometimes while61, e.g.
Ibid, p. 143
His grandfather is sixty years old. He has white hair all over his head. He is still very healthy.
Although his grandfather who has white hair all over his head is sixty years old, he is still very healthy.
Rommie fell off his bicycle. He hurt himself. He did not cry.
Though Rommie fell off his bicycle till hurt himself, he did not cry.
Mr. Amin Rais lost the national election. He remained the leader of his own party.
Though Mr. Amin Rais lost the national election, he remained the leader of his own party.
The logic of condition is expressed by the subordinators if and unless, If sewer bonds are not voted for the West Knolls District, real estate sales will continue to be slow there.
Real estate sales will continue to be slow in the West Knolls District unless sewer bonds are voted in.
In each of these cases the truth of one statement depends on (is conditional on) the truth of the other. 62
The logic of manner or method is expressed by the subordinators as, as……as, as if, and as though, e.g.
She acted as if nothing happened before.
The Teamster’s President used his powers as extensively as the law would allow.
In each of these cases the subordinator tells how something was done.63 The logic of a time relationship expressed by the subordinators after, as, as soon as, before, since, until, when, and while. Also the logic of cause-and-result is sometimes combined with the time relationship,64
The President saw that his bill was in danger of being defeated. The President quickly called conferences with his Senate leaders.
When the President saw that his bill was in danger of being defeated, he quickly called conferences with his Senate leaders.
Though in these examples when, before, and after seem to express only a time relationship between the two statements, the reader understands in each case that the second statement is the result of the first.
No simple rule can be stated governing the punctuation of all adverbial clauses. However, when the clause comes first in a sentence, it is usually separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma unless it is short.65
4) The Pattern of Sentences with Verb-Cluster Modifiers.
A cluster is one kind of phrase, and a phrase is a group of words (without a subject and predicate, which form a clause) acting as a unit. In the kind of phrase called a cluster there is always a headword—the dominant word of the phrase about which other words cluster. In a verb cluster the headword is a verb—any form of a verb: to explain, explained, to be explained, explaining, had explained, had been explained, had been explaining, having explaining, having explained, having been explained, being explained. A verb cluster is formed when modifiers or objects or both are joined to such verbs or verb phrases to form a unit.66
Though it has various functions, a verb cluster can act as a sentence modifier or as the modifier of a noun within a main sentence. Because the cluster usually appears to modify a specific noun, it is often called an adjective phrase or an adjectival67, e.g.
The lawyer chose his words carefully. He was trying hard to control his temper.
The lawyer chose his words carefully, trying hard to control his temper.
The 39th Regiment fought savagely. It broke out of the German trap.
Ibid, pp. 146-147
The 39th Regimen, fighting savagely, broke out of the German trap.
The car was towed by a truck. It was taken to a garage for repair.
The car, towed by a truck, was taken to a garage for repair.
Most sentence pattern with the verb-cluster modifiers express a logic of cause-and-result.68
5) The Pattern of Sentences with Prepositional-Phrase Modifiers.
Prepositional phrases often combine with modifiers to form large elements that can act as sentence modifiers69, e.g.
Mr. Smith was in a state of shock over the accidental death of his wife. He entered the hospital for a rest and complete check-up.
In a state of shock over the accidental death of his wife, Mr. Smith entered the hospital for a rest and complete check-up.
6) The Pattern of Sentences with Adjective-Cluster Modifiers.
An adjective cluster in the new grammar is the same as an adjective phrase in the old: an adjective headword with its modifiers70, e.g.
Mary was intensely happy with her new kitchen. She delighted her husband with various culinary experiments.
Intensely happy with her new kitchen, Mary delighted her husband with various culinary experiments.
d. Compound-Complex Sentences
The combination of compound and complex sentences, is at least using two main clauses and one subordinate clause. E.g.
I was late because George had come over unexpectedly, and I drove as fast as I could.
The clause in italic is subordinate; the main clauses are in roman type.
Ibid, p. 149
Ibid, p. 150
THE PROFILE OF THE SCHOOL
The school where the writer would do the research is SMA TRIGUNA UTAMA which is built on 1984. It is stated on Jl. Ir. H. Juanda Km.2 Ciputat and has 9 classrooms. Facing the globalization, the headmaster of this school wished to make an English area at the school. In order to achieve this aim, he really intended in English subject to improve students’ English.
So, the English teacher of this school takes an important role in applying the headmaster’s objective. Unfortunately, because the teacher doesn’t only teach at this school but also at several other schools, he/she doesn’t have much time to supervise students’ active speaking intensively.
The more complicated problem is that according to the structure of school organization, Rectorate of UIN became the supervisor of this school but lately Rectorate of UIN didn’t give any advice for the development of this school concretely. The delegation from UIN only came once or twice for the last two years, only for saying hello to the staff of the school.
Moreover the help from government didn’t come to the independent school (Swasta) but little. This made the problem more complicated, because according to the students background which most of them came from the suffering family to get some food, it’s more difficult for the school to recruit more money from the students either for the text book, moreover, for the construction of the school building. The most pity condition that the students didn’t have the text book but LKS for the limited cost they had while some were still having an owe for the LKS.
C. English Subject 4. English Teachers
There are two English teachers at this school, Mrs. Burdah Darlina and Mr. Ase Komaruddin. But the writer would only describe one of them because she would only do a research at 2nd year class which is taught by Mrs. Burdah Darlina. She was graduated as an English bachelor at IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta on 1986, then took an undergraduate program of English Department (S1) at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah and graduated on 2004. And now she is taking a graduate program of English Program (S2) at UHAMKA. She is teaching
English at several schools: SMIP, SMK Muhammadiyah and SMA TRIGUNA UTAMA. While, she has been teaching for fourteen years.
5. Text Books
Because the teacher needs to collect much knowledge to be correlated to the curriculum and contextually suitable for the students, she should use several books, magazines, newspapers and others as the sources.
Although the headmaster stated KTSP as the school English curriculum, the teacher used several text books such as:
• Mastering English 2 for SMA Students of Science and Social Studies Eleventh Grade Based on 2004 Competency Based Curriculum, whose the authors are Hardy Tjandraatmaja et.al. (Bekasi: PT. Galaxy Puspa Mega, 2005)
• Informational English for the SMA Program IPA & IPS, whose the authors are Bambang Kaswanti & Tony Rogers. (Jakarta: PT.Widya Utama, 2005)
• Dimensi Bahasa Inggris XI SMA SEMESTER GENAP. (Jakarta: Penerbit Swadaya Murni, 2006)
Because the more the teacher got the sources, the more the students got different knowledge.
6. Method of Teaching
In teaching and learning activities, the teacher used several method:
• Presentation method (ceramah)
The teacher talked about the material for several minutes, of course, in English, explained the text which would be given to the students. But some times the teacher translated what she explained for the different background condition of the students, more over for the class of social program, the teacher explained the lesson in Indonesian because the students wouldn’t understand well if she explained it in full English.
• Active learning
The teacher gave students chances to talk (answer and/or ask questions) while others gave responses and some times she chose several couple students to practice the dialogue using the suitable choreography. But again, the problem is the limited time the class had so the students couldn’t show
their performance completely. And the teacher couldn’t test all of the students but some of them.
• Task-based learning
To ensure that students acquire the lesson, the teacher gave some activities to be done by the students, usually at home as home assignments, but some times those were given at class. The problem the teacher faced on this method is that not all the students did the home assignment by themselves, some were cheating to whom had done the work and some hadn’t done the task at all.
• Translation Method
Because the main objective in learning English is that the students feel fun when learning it, the teacher would help the students when they felt difficult in acquiring the material in target language by translating it into the students’ first language. This often happened when the students didn’t know or actually forgot the meaning of many vocabularies. The teacher realized that this was not the best way to educate students to be self sufficient, but the different background of the students which the majority came from the middle to the lower life stage, insisted the teacher to do this way.
In applying these methods, the teacher didn’t use one method in one session, but she mixed the methods. It’s up to the objectives she would get in each session whether she would emphasis on listening, speaking, reading or writing. But on most of the session she spent, its objective is to make students understand the text. Because students understanding on the essays would be really implied on students final test (UAS).
D. Objectives of the four skills of the language
Based on the curriculum the teacher used, competence based-curriculum 2004, the standard of English competency for XI class level is:
Berkomunikasi lisan dan tertulis menggunakan ragam bahasa yang sesuai dengan lancar dan akurat dalam wacana interaksional dan/atau monolog, terutama dalam wacana berbentuk deskriptif, naratif, anekdot, ekposisi analitis, dan ekposisi hortatory yang mengarah kepada variasi makna interpersonal.71 the objectives of the four language skills are:
Kurikulum 2004 Berbasis Kompetensi Sekolah Menengah Atas dan Madrasah Aliyah, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2004, p. 321
Memahami wacana transaksional dan obrolan yang mengarah kepada variasi makna interpersonal dan/atau monolog lisan terutama dalam wacana berbentuk deskriptif, naratif, anekdot, eksposisi analitis, dan eksposisi hortatory.72
Mengungkapkan makna yang terkait dengan wacana transaksional yng mengarah kepada variasi makna interpersonal dan/atau monolog lisan terutama dalam wacana berbentuk deskriptif, naratif, anekdot, ekposisi analitis, dan eksposisi hortatory.73
Memahami nuansa makna dan langkah-langkah pengembangan retorika di dalam teks tertulis yang berbentuk deskriptif, naratif, anekdot, eksposisi analitis, dan eksposisi hortatory dengan penekanan pada makna ideasional (gagasan) dan makna tekstual (yang diungkapkan pada susunan klimat dan teks)74
Mengungkapkan nuansa makna dengan langkah-langkah pengembangan retorika yang benar di dalam teks tertulis berbentuk deskriptif, naratif, anekdot, eksposisi analitis, dan eksposisi hortatory sederhana dengan penekanan pada makna ideasional dan makna tekstual.75
But, in teaching and learning activities, the teacher didn’t use the objective in the curriculum as the aim. Because she said what the students would face most in UAS (Final Examination) is text reading test either the questions about searching main ideas, main paragraphs, inferences, stated details, unstated details, vocabularies, references, the structure of the text, the type of the text or other questions related to the text.
So, the teacher focused her learning and teaching objective on students’ preparation for the final test. She argued that if she followed the curriculum, the students wouldn’t find what they learnt because the curriculum makers of the government who thought ideally didn’t know well the real condition of the
Ibid, p. 323
education field. But, if she focused the teaching learning activity objectives on students’ preparation for the final test, minimally the students would understand what they learned easily.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS
C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
7. Research Design
In designing the research, correlating to the chapter, the writer would use analytical-descriptive method, while the data the writer collected are students' answer sheets about complex sentences which are suitable with the curriculum and of course which had been learnt by the students.
After collecting the data, the writer analyzed the data with several steps: she identified the errors students made, described the errors, explained why the errors exist and last evaluated the errors by giving the right answers.
At last, the writer would get a conclusion about the students’ skills in forming English sentences especially in complex sentences.
8. Research Objective
The objective of the research in this “skripsi” is to know the students’ skill in writing especially in forming complex sentences. Because, hearing from the teacher that the students still can’t order the narrative texts well. By knowing their skill in forming complex sentences, the writer hoped it can help students’ lack in ordering the narrative texts. Besides, may the research enhance the writer’s knowledge in English and help the English teachers to correct the lack.
9. Place and Time
As stated in Chapter One on the method of study, a field research was also conducted. The field research was taken on May 13th 2008 at 2nd Year Class of Science Program & on May 28th 2008 at 2nd Year Class of Social Program of SMU TRIGUNA.
10.Population and Sample
In this research, the writer took the population from all students of SMU TRIGUNA 2nd Year Class Period 2007-2008 both science class which are 33 students and social class which are 41 students. The total number of the students is 74. While for the research respondent, the writer took 70 sample from the 74
population, because when the field research was conducted there were four students who were not present at the class, one student of Science Class got some illness and three students of Social Class were absent with no reason.
In collecting the data, the writer used a question sheet and students’ answer about complex sentences as the research instrument. On multiple choice item, the students were asked to determine the indirect speech of 4 direct speeches. On essay item the students were asked to complete three main clauses with the suitable subordinate clauses. The students were asked to match several common subordinating words for adverbial clause into the blanks in the incomplete complex sentences. The students are asked to arrange the complex sentences in the jumbled words. And last they are asked to determine the subordinate clauses found in the story and to determine the functions.
12.Technique of Data Analysis
In this part, to analyze students’ answer on forming complex sentences, the writer would classify the error items. Then the errors frequency was calculated using statistical method, according to Anas Sudjiono (2000) it is called relative frequency distribution, which its formula is:
P = x 100% P = Percentage
F = Frequency of error occurred/the right answer N = Number of sample observed
D. RESEARCH FINDINGS 4. Data Identification
As the writer mentioned in the preceding chapter that this “skripsi” discussed the students’ structure in complex sentences. To get the data she took the question sheet and students’ answer to be analyzed. Then the data were identified, the test covered 7 skill areas, which are broken down into 30 items. The following table is the classification of each item based on its skill area.
Question Items and Their Distributions
No Skill Area Item Number Total
1 Reading skill 1,2,3 3
2 Indirect speech 4,5,6,7,8,9,10 7
3 Completing the Sentence with Subordinate clauses
4 Matching the Words into the blanks in the sentences
5 Arranging Jumbled Words into Correct Complex Sentence
6 Expressing the opinion 26,27 2
7 Determining the Clauses and Its Function Found in The Text
But because the writer would only analyze the questions which were correlated to the complex sentence and had been learnt by the students, she’d break them on :
Question Items Which Are Correlated to Complex Sentences
No Skill Area Item Number
Total of item
1 Indirect speech 6,8,9,10 4
2 Completing the Sentence with Subordinate clauses
3 Arranging jumbled words into correct complex sentences
4 Determining the clauses and its function found in the text
5. Data Description and Explanation
After classifying the items into their skill area, the data was analyzed. The result of data analysis will be described and explained as follows.
a. Indirect Speech
The sentences on this item, which are correlated to complex sentences, are: Ryan said that his aunt had invited him the day before (item 6), Laila asked me if I liked sate(item 8), Marwan asked Tini what she wrote then (item 9), he asked you why you go(item 10).
Table VI Frequency of Error
In Indirect Speech Which Used Complex Sentences
No Category Item Sample
Frequency of Error
Percentage of Error 1 Indirect Past
6 70 37 52,85%
2 Indirect Yes/no question
8 70 55 78,57%
3 Indirect W/H question
9 70 53 75,71%
4 Indirect W/H question
10 70 60 85,71%
Total 4 280 205 73,21%
In these items, the students are still confused to construct the indirect speech. This fact was shown by the table above that 73,21% of students made the errors in these items. There were 37 students (52,85%) who made error in item 6 (Indirect past statement), 55 students (78,57%) who made error in item 8 (Indirect yes/no question), 53 students (75,71%) who made error in item 9 (Indirect W/H question), 60 students (85,71%) who made error in item 10 (Indirect W/H question). So, there are only 26,79% of the students who could form the correct indirect speech which contain the subordinating conjunctions.
b. Completing the Sentence with Subordinate Clauses
In this item, the students are asked to complete the prepared main clauses: I feel sad when…… (item 11), I like the book which ……(item 12), I don’t understand what …... (item 13) with the subordinate clauses whether as an adverb, an adjective, or a noun.
Table VII Frequency of Error
In Completing The Sentences With Subordinate Clauses
No Category Item Sample
Frequency of Error
Percentage of Error 1 Subordinate clause
11 70 45 64,28%
2 Subordinate clause as Adjective
12 70 51 72,85%
3 Subordinate clause as Noun
13 70 51 72,85%
Total 3 210 147 69,99%
In these items, the students are still confused to form the subordinate clauses. This fact was shown by the table above that 69,99% of the students made the errors in these items. There are 45 students (64,28%) who made error in forming adverb clause, 51 students (72,85%) who made error in forming adjective clause, and 51 students (72,85%) who made error in forming noun clause. Thus, there are only 30,01% of the students who could form correct subordinate clauses.
The students’ error in complex sentences will be explained how and why those occurred and come into several types and sources of errors: interlingual transfer error, intralingual transfer generalization, context of learning and communication strategy. The explanation about the errors occurred and their classification will come next.
1) Interlingual transfer error
The students’ structure error which include into this type of error are:
• I feel sad when broken heart.
• I feel sad when broken love.
• I feel sad when my cat death.
• I feel sad when I broken heart.
• I feel sad when foother sick.
• I feel sad when farewale graduations day.
• I feel sad when my mother sick.
• I feel sad when my grand mother angry.
• I feel sad when my parents angry.
• I feel sad when my father angry.
• I feel sad when my father sick.
• I feel sad when I sick in hospital.
• I feel sad when I feel broken home.
• I feel sad when I jealous with my boyfriend.
• I feel sad when I won’t be able to solve his problem family.
• I like the book which add accurate.
• I like the book which very scary.
• I like the book which popular now.
• I like the book which very interesting.
• I like the book which funny and interesting.
• I like the book which for education and to enjoy
• I like the book which very good and popular.
• I don’t understand what my friend say because the voice very slowly
• I don’t understand what a meaning for population
• I don’t understand what the grandfather’s argument.
The errors found in those sentences happened because the interference of students’ language. The students didn’t know the rules of the target language yet so they used their mother tongue rules that they didn’t need to put certain subject and or certain verb either in subordinate clauses as in those sentences, they had no different form between noun and verb such as in the word “death”, and they still misspelled in writing the words “foother and farewale”. While the kind of error which was caused by students interference of their mother tongue, according to Brown, included to the interlingual transfer error type.
2) Intralingual transfer generalization
While, the other types of errors such intralingual transfer generalization found in these following sentences:
• I feel sad when I am see he walking with my friend.
• I feel sad when I watching television when the situation was sad.
• I like the book which my friend borrow for me.
• I like the book which my friend give me.
• I like the book which tell about football.
• I like the book which tell about music.
• I like the book which someone is very special bought for me.
• I don’t understand what my girl friend was do for me last night.
• I don’t understand what my brother talking with me.
• I don’t understand what you say now.
• I don’t understand what my friend say because the voice very slowly The errors found in those sentences are caused by students’ misconception in applying the target language rules whether the over generalization such as in the phrases “someone is very special, my brother talking with me, I am see he walking”, the ignorance of rule restriction such as in the phrases “my uncle give, my friend borrow, my friend give, which tell, you say now, my friend say, the voice very slowly”, incomplete application such as in the phrases “I watching,
or false concept hypothesis such as the phrases “ was do for me, you say now.” According to Brown, the errors which are caused by students’ misconception, overgeneralization, incomplete application and false concept hypothesis such those included to intralingual transfer generalization error type.
3) Communication strategy
The students’ structure errors which come into this type of error are:
• I feel sad when I see my friend happen crash.
• I feel sad when I can’t understand study at school.
• I feel sad when I can’t a good value.
• I feel sad when I give number agle mathematic in school.
• I feel sad when I this broken heart because soul mate.
• I feel sad when if my mother like angry.
• I feel sad when If I come late to school or love for hurt.
• I feel sad when moment he is go to Bali.
• I feel sad when I in live went with grandmother to forever.
• I feel sad when far dear grandmother because I very regret.
• I feel sad when I feel soulmat is dath.
• I feel sad when I am to see sick my father.
• I feel sad when I see my friend is can happen crash
• I feel sad when I have very much problem.
• I feel sad when I fall from the motorcycle.
• I feel sad when to help my close friend solve his problem.
• I like the book which bought someone is special for me.
• I like the book which story to make agreeable for reading story.
• I like the book which I like read a book.
• I like the book which someone is very special bought for me.
• I like the book which father for me.
• I like the book which my brother can buy a futsal.
• I like the book which because I like hidding.
• I like the book which my mother can buy a guitar.
• I like the book which my mother.
• I like the book which because add accurate.
• I like the book which if I can buy a book with my money.
• I like the book which because my parents give me you.
• I like the book which if I’m and my mother shopping on book store.
• I like the book which story.
• I like the book which point of view.
• I like the book which because story.
• I like the book which background.
• I like the book which story and wallpaper.
• I like the book which my friend gave for me and when it I lost his.
• I like the book which my mamy buy the book to give me.
• I like the book which my teacher give the book for read.
• I like the book which best friend bought my favourite books for me.
• I like the book which street story and pictures.
• I like the book which my boyfriend finding my favourite books and bought for me.
• I like the book which because my parents give me books.
• I don’t understand what about the history Candi Borobudur.
• I don’t understand what all about love.
• I don’t understand what the kinds shoes which he like.
• I don’t understand what my do rewaine pupil bech again to teacher.
• I don’t understand what listening from my teacher when speak English.
• I don’t understand what when the friend asked me to do.
• I don’t understand what when the teacher teach me.
• I don’t understand what teacher me to do.
• I don’t understand what because study English is very hard.
• I don’t understand what if I can studies hard in the class.
• I don’t understand what when on the study Kimia of class.
• I don’t understand what the children study to work.
• I don’t understand what the lesson mathematic because it’s very difficult for me and when the teacher asked me about it.
• I don’t understand what My teacher don’t be seurius when explaining in front of class.
• I don’t understand what about the histories Keraton Jogja.
• I don’t understand what the teacher give me task very difficult.
• I don’t understand what I do home work very much.
• I don’t understand what my mother command me go to mini market.
• I don’t understand what student hard because fuse.
• I don’t understand what I confuse about learn.
The errors found in those sentences happened because of the complex errors sources such as students’ interference of their mother tongue, the misconception in applying the target language rules, and the way the students take to get the message across to the reader. The students used their own language structure in forming their target language expression that they had no differences between the use of verb, infinitive, & gerund such as in the words or phrases “to help, I am to see, is go, is can, boy friend finding,” they didn’t find any rule in using the prepositions, the subordinators, the conjunctions in subordinate clause such as in the words or phrases “when far, when moment, when because, when if, because soul mate, what about, what when, what if, what because, which because, which if, ”. They also used their own structure trying to express their ideas such as in the phrases “happen crash. understand study, can’t a good value, give number agle mathematic, this broken heart, like angry, love for hurt, went with
grandmother to forever, when because broken heart, very much problem.” The students didn’t also know the function of subordinator which, when and that
such as in the phrases “which because my parents give me books, which my boyfriend finding my favourite books, which best friend bought my favourite books and others”. For the complex errors sources, according to Brown, these errors included into communication strategy error type.
Many of them are ignoring the function of “to be” in adjective, ignoring the verb in subordinate clause, confused between subordinate clause structure and question structure, confused between the function of what, when & why, not knowing the function of the subordinate clause, using Indonesian English structure and some didn’t complete their expression for the limited acquisition about the target language rules practice.
c. Arranging jumbled words into correct complex sentences.
The complex sentences, which are found in this item, are “It is enjoyable fishing because they provide shelters for us” (item 21), “It is satisfying because the fish are big and plentiful” (item 22), “Can you tell me where she will continue her study?” (item 23), “I can’t remember how much it costs” (item 24), “The man likes to collect thing which are made of clay” (item 25).
Table VIII Frequency of Error
Arranging Jumbled Words Into Correct Complex Sentences
No Category Item Sample
Frequency of Error
Percentage of Error 1 Complex sentence with
adverb of cause “because”
21 70 70 100%
2 Complex sentence with adverb of cause “because”
22 70 70 100%
3 Complex sentence with noun clause as an indirect object “where”
23 70 70 100%
4 Complex sentence with noun clause as an object “how”
24 70 66 94,28%
5 Complex sentence with adjective clause “which”
25 70 70 100%
In these items, the students are still confused to arrange the jumbled words into correct complex sentence. This fact was shown by the table above that 98,85% of the students made the errors in these items. There are 70 students (100%) who made error in arranging the complex sentence with adverb of cause “because” (item 21), 70 students (100%) who made error in arranging the complex sentence with adverb of cause “because” (item 22), 70 students (100%) who made error in arranging the complex sentence with noun clause as an indirect object “where” (item 23), 66 students (94,28%) who made error in arranging the complex sentence with noun clause as an object “how” (item 24), 70 students (100%) who made error in arranging the complex sentence with adjective clause “which” (item 25). Thus, there are only 1,15% who could arrange the jumbled words into correct complex sentences.
d. Determining the Clauses and Its Function Found in The Text
In this item, the students are asked to determine the subordinate clauses found in the text then tell the function of the clause. The text given is
A woman is sitting at home entertaining her parents who have come around to congratulate her on the birth of their first grandchild.
“So, when can we see the baby?”, asks the grandmother. “you’ll see her in a little while”, replies the mother.
Some time passes. The grandparents are quite anxious at this point.
“So, when can we see the baby?” asks the grandfather.
“you can see her when the baby starts crying.”, replies the mother.
The grandparents turn to look at each other, a little perplexes and ask, “Why do we have to wait until she starts crying?!”
The mother snaps back, ”Because I put her down somewhere this morning and I can’t remember where she is!”
The next table will describe the students’ wrong answers, so the writer can conclude how many students understand the clause and how many
students don’t understand by determining the sub clauses and their functions found in the text.
Table IX Frequency of Error
Determining the Clauses and Its Function Found in The Text
No Category Item Sample
Frequency of Error
Percentage of Error 1 Determining the sub
28 70 68 97,14%
2 Writing the sub clause 29 70 56 80%
3 Deciding the sub clause function
30 70 59 84,28%
Total 3 210 183 87,14%
In these items, students are still confused to determine the subordinate clauses and to decide the function of the subordinate clause. This fact was shown by the table above that 87,14% of the students couldn’t do this work. There are 68 students (97,14%) who couldn’t determine the subordinate clause, 56 students (80%) couldn’t write the subordinate clauses or at least one of the subordinate clauses, and 59 students (84,28%) couldn’t decide the function of the sub clause. So, there are only 12,86% who could decide the sub clause and its function.
6. Data interpretation.
After classifying the items into each skill area and explaining the frequency of error in each item, the writer tries to interpret the data. The following table (table X) describes the problem area along with the frequency of error, arranged from the highest to the lowest.
The Sequence of English Skill Area in Data Instrument Based on The Frequency of Error
of item Number of Error of Error
1 Arranging jumbled words into correct complex sentences
2 Determining the clauses and its function found in the text
3 Indirect speech 4 280 205 73,21%
4 Completing the sentence
with Subordinate clauses 3 210 147 69,99%
Total 15 1050 881 82,29%
In the table above, most of the students made errors in arranging jumbled words into correct complex sentences with frequency of error 98,85%. With those frequencies, the students should pay more intention to this part. It indicates that the students were still weak in arranging jumbled words into correct complex sentences particularly and in writing generally. The second level of error is determining the clauses and its function with the frequency 87,14%. The third level of error is forming the indirect speech which contain the subordinating conjunctions with the frequency 73,21%. The fourth level of error is completing the sentences with subordinate clauses with the frequency 69,99%.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION
Based on the analysis and the description of data in the previous chapter, it can be concluded that:
1. Many students have problems in constructing complex sentence because based on the data the writer got from her research that 98,85% of the students made errors in arranging jumbled words, 73,21% of them made errors in forming indirect speech which used complex sentence, and 69,99% of them made errors in completing the sentence with subordinate clauses. So, there are 80,68% of them who had problems in constructing complex sentences and there are only 19,32% of them who could construct complex sentences correctly.
2. Based on the data the writer got from her research that 87,14% of the students still couldn’t distinguish between noun, adjective, and adverb clauses. So, there are only 12,86% who could distinguish between noun, adjective and adverb clauses.
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