An Error Analysis On Students' Grammar : A Case Study at First Year of SMAN 6 Pandeglang Banten

AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ GRAMMAR
(A Case Study at First Year of SMAN 6 Pandeglang Banten)
A “Skripsi”
Presented to The Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For Degree of S.Pd
in English Language Education

By:
Eka Wahyu Setianingsih
NIM: 103 014 027 037

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING FACULTY
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2008

ENDORSEMENT BY THE EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

The “Skripsi” entitled: An Error Analysis on Students’ Grammar, written by Eka
Wahyu Setianingsih, student’s registration number 103 014 027 037 was
examined in the examination session of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers
Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta on 26th of March
2008. The “Skripsi” has been accepted and declared to have fullfilled ane of the
requirements for the degree of S.Pd. in English Language Education in the
department of English Education.
Jakarta, 26th of March 2008

Examination Committee

CHAIRMAN

: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

NIP : 150 041 070
SECRETARY

: Dra. Nida Husna, M.Pd
NIP : 150 326 910

EXAMINER.I

: Prof. Dr. Muldjanto Sunardi
NIP : 150 016 367

EXAMINER.II

: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd
NIP : 150 041 070

ACKNOWLEDGED BY :
Dean of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training Faculty

Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A
NIP : 150 231 256

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.

Background of The Study
Language as the tool of spoken and written communication over the

nations is responded by every country in the world. In Indonesia, English has
become the most widely studied foreign language and it becomes the international
language. In responding this phenomenon, Indonesian government in the
Competence Based Curriculum determines English as obligatory subject to learn
in elementary school, junior high school, senior high school and university. The
purpose is to develop science, technology and culture in every aspect.
English also has many purposes for the education in Indonesia.
Mata Pelajaran bahasa inggris memiliki tujuan sebagai berikut :
1.
Mengembangkan kemampuan berkomunikasi dalam bahasa
tersebut, dalam bahasa lisan dan tulis. Kemampuan
berkomunikasi meliputi mendengarkan (listening), berbicara
(speaking), membaca (reading), dan menulis (writing).
2. Menumbuhkan kesadaran tentang hakikat dan pentingnya
bahasa inggris sebagai salah satu bahasa asing untuk menjadi
alat utama belajar.
3. Mengembangkan pemahaman tentang saling keterkaitan antar
bahasa dan budaya serta memperluas cakrawala budaya.
Dengan demikian siswa memiliki wawasan lintas budaya dan
melibatkan diri dalam keragaman budaya. (According to the
Competency Based Curriculum the main purposes of Teaching
English to SMA, are :
1. Developing the communicative competence of spoken and
written English. It skills includes listening, speaking, reading,
and writing.
2. Constructing the awareness of the importance of English as a
foreign language and primary tool to study.
3. Developing the students’ comprehension about the relation
between culture and language. So that they have a broad cross-

cultural understanding).1
For SMA students, English covers language skills, sub-competency, and
positive attitude as explained by the Competency Based curriculum below :
Ruang lingkup mata pelajaran Bahasa Ingris meliputi:
1. Keterampilan berbahasa, yaitu mendengarkan, berbicara, membaca
dan menulis.
2. Sub-kompetensi yang meliputi kompetensi tindak bahasa, linguistik
(kebahasaan), sosiokultural, strategi, dan kompetensi wacana.
3. Pengembangan sikap yang positif terhadap bahasa inggris sebagai
alat komunikasi. (the English scopes, are :
1. Language skills including : listening, speaking, reading, and writing;
2. Sub-competency including : actional competence, linguistic
competence, socio-cultural competence, strategic competence, and
discourse competence.
3. Developing the positive attitude to English as a tool of
communication).2
Sub-competency refers to apply competency, understanding structure
(grammar), vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling in the text well.
English is different from Indonesian language. Every language has its own
rules and its own skills, and grammar has a great role on one’s acquisition in
English. Widson as quoted by Broughton et al says, “Grammar is a component
language enables us to make our message clear and precise”.3
Grammar is no longer the core of study of a language since the
communicative and functional approach has replaced it. However grammar is still
crucial thing to learn especially by learners of Senior High School even English
teacher. By having the knowledge of grammar learners are capable of putting
across the sense of how grammar interacts with the lexicon as a communicative
system.
In Senior High School, linguistic competence refers to clause/sentence,
morphology, vocabulary, phonology, spelling and punctuation. If every learner
learns these competences well, they will master enough and will not have any
1

DEPDIKBUD RI, Kurikulum 2004 Bahasa Inggris (SMA), (Depdikbud RI, Jakarta,
2004), p.310
2
Ibid
3
Geofrey Broughton et.al, Teaching English as Foreign Language, (London: Tj Press
Ltd, 1980), p.116

problems in communication. In fact these components especially sub-component
have not been achieved yet by the most SMA students including SMAN 6
Pandeglang.
Many students of SMAN 6 Pandeglang do the mistakes even errors in subcompetency especially in understanding structure (grammar), for example on
using concord :
e.g.

* Every student and teacher have a locker.
Every student and teacher has a locker.

e.g.

* Mathematics are also thought at school.
Mathematics is also thought at school.
In English, a verb agrees with its subject in person and number. If the

subject is the first person, the verb must be the first person (am); if the subject is
plural (they), the verb must be plural (are). The rules is simple enough in theory,
but in practice, occasionally, there are concord or agreement errors for a number
of reasons.4
One of the causes of concord errors is the verb which does not go straight
forward after the subject. It needs efforts to match the verb with its subject and
sometimes the result can be false. Other reason is because there are numbers of
words semantically plural but stand in the form of singular word. Those cases can
bring out complication in learning concord.
Based on the information above, the writer intends to make an analysis of
grammar on using grammar tests. In doing the research the writer chooses the
first year of SMAN 6 Pandeglang.

B.

Limitation and Formulation of the Study
Grammar covers a lot of language elements. Therefore the writer intends

to know the error in grammar from first year until third year of Junior high school
specifically in grammar subject. The research question are:
1. What kinds of error are commonly made by the students in grammar material?
4

Merriem-Werbster, Inc., Dictionary of English Usage: the Complete Guide to Problems
of Confused or Dispute Usage, (Massachusetts: Merriem-Werbster, Inc., 1994), p.51

C.

Objective of the Research
The objective of the study is to know the types of grammar errors made by

students, the writer hopes, she can able to decide whether his or her students need
remedial teaching for this material.

D.

Research Methodology
The research employs a descriptive method by which the writer elaborates

the errors and their causes made by the students.
Its data are obtained through a grammar test consisting at grammatical
areas which existing the syllabus. Then the data are analyzed qualitatively by
comparing the students’ responses with the standards of English grammar.

E.

Organization of the Study
This Thesis consists of three chapters. The first chapter is introduction.

Part A. is he background of the study, Part B. is limitation and formulation of the
problem, Part C. is objective of the research, Part D. is research methodology, Part
E. is organization of the thesis.
Second chapter is theoretical framework. It consists of three subchapters.
Part A, error, Part B, grammar, and Part C, grammar test.
Third chapter covers the research methodology and research finding.
Research methodology includes Time and Location of Research, the Technique of
Sample Taking, the Technique of Data collecting, the Instrument of Research.
Last chapter consists of conclusion and suggestion.

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A.

Error
1. Definition of Error
Learning the second language is a process which involves the
making of mistakes, even errors as in this new system of language a learner
will directly connect with such a new vocabulary, a new grammatical pattern
and a foreign pronunciation which differ from the learner’s native language.
According to Jeremy Harmer, errors are part of the learner inter language that
is the version of the language which a learner has at any one stage of
development and which is continually reshaped as he/she aims toward full
mastery.5
According to Brown, “An error is a noticeable deviation from the
adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the interlanguage competence of
the learner”.
Dullay defines error as “The flawed side of learner speech or
writing. They are those parts of conversation or composition that deviate from
some selected norm of mature language performance”6. Meanwhile, Douglas
Brown defines error as “a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a
native speaker, reflects the competence of the learner”.7
Error is usually compared with mistake, but there is distinction
between them. Stephen Pit Corder distinguishes error from mistake: a mistake
is random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc.; mistake can be
readily self- corrected, whereas an error is systematic deviation made by
learners who have not yet mastered the rule of L2. Error can not be selfcorrected because it is a product reflective of the learner’s current stage of L2

5

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (Pearson Education
Limited, 2001), p.34
6
Dullay et.al., Language Two, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), p.138
7
H Douglas Brown, Principle of Language and Teaching, Fourth Edition, (Addison
Wesley Longman.Inc, 2000), p.217

development or underlying competence. Errors are not something to be
prevented, but errors are sign that learners are actively engaged in hypothesis
testing which would be the result in the acquisition of target language rules.8

2. Causes of Error
Errors are caused by some factors. Pit Corded identifies three
major sources of error: transfer error, analogical error, and teaching-induced
error.9 Meanwhile, Hubbard et.al. mentions that causes of error are mother
tongue interference, overgeneralization, and error encouraged by teaching
material and method.10 For Brown, sources of error consist of inter lingual
transfer, intra lingual transfer, context of learning, and communication
strategies.11
The terminologies
“mother tongue interference”
analogical error,

“transfer error, inter lingual transfer”, and
have the same

meaning as

well as

intra lingual transfer, and overgeneralization. Teaching

induced error, errors encouraged by teaching material and method, and context
of learning also have the same meaning. However, Brown adds
communication strategies as the fourth sources of error.
As mentioned previously, Brown claims that there are four
sources of error in learning language.
a.

Inter lingual error

Inter lingual error means errors attributed to the native language (L1).
There are inter lingual errors when the learners first get language
habits (pattern,

system, or rules) which interfere or prevent the

learners from acquiring the pattern and rules of the second language
manifest some degree of different form and some degree of similarity
with the equivalent item in learning the first language.
8

Diane-Larsen Freeman and Michael H Long, An Introduction to Second Language
Acquisition Research, (New York: Longman, 1999), p.60-61
9
http://abisamra03.tripod.com/nada/languagecq-erroranalysis.html#theo
10
Peter Hubbard, Hywel Jones, Barbara Thontorn, Rod Wheeler, A Training Course for
TEFL (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), p.140-143
11
H Douglas Brown, op.cit, p.225-226

b.

Intra lingual error

Intra lingual errors are errors due to the misunderstanding of the
language being learned (L2), independent of the native language. The
errors proceeded by the learner which reflects not the structure of the
mother tongue, but generalization based on partial exposure to the
target language.12
The learner tries to derive the rules behind the data to which he or she
has been exposed, and may develop hypotheses that corresponds
neither to the mother tongue nor the target language.
c.

Context of learning

Context refers to the classroom situation that is built by both teacher
and material. This situation can urge the learners to make faulty
hypotheses about the language. The teacher’s explanation also pushes
the learners to make errors because sometimes the teacher provides
incorrect information by way of a misleading definition, word, or
grammatical generalization. However, according to Stephen Pit Corder
the idiosyncratic dialect applies well through social context. For
example, a Japanese immigrant who lived in Mexican-American has
produced a learner language that was an interesting blend of MexicanAmerican English and the Standard English colored by his Japanese
accent.
d.

Communication strategies

According to Brown, “learners obviously use production strategy in
order to enhance getting their message across. But at the same time
these techniques can themselves become a source of error”. For
example, an ESL learner said, “Let us work for the well done of our
country.” The sentence above had wrong approximation of the word
welfare.
In 1970, Richards also exposed four types and causes for intra lingual error:
a. Overgeneralization: it is associated with redundancy reduction. It
12

http://abisamra03.tripod.com/nada/languagecq-erroranalysis.html#theo

covers instances where the learner creates a deviant structure on the
basis of his experience of other structure in the target language.
b. Ignorance of rules: i.e. applying rules to context to which they do not
apply.
c. Incomplete application rule.
d. Semantic error such as building false concept/system. i.e. faulty
comprehension of distinction in the target language.13
Hubbard et al state the cause of error are:
a. Mother-tongue interference
Although young children appear to be to learn a foreign language
quite easily and effectively, but mostly older learners experience
considerable difficulty.
b. Overgeneralization
The mentalist theory claims that errors are inevitable because
they reflect various stages in the language development of the learner. It
claims that the learner processes new language data in his mind and
produces rules for its production, based on the evidence.
c. Errors encouraged by teaching material method
Having related mentalism to overgeneralization, we can relate
behaviorism to those errors which appear to be induced by the teaching
process itself. Those who support the behaviorist theory, at least in its
more extreme form, would deny that errors have any positive contribution
to make to the learning of any skill, such as language. To them, error is
evidence of failure, of ineffective teaching or lack of control. If material is
well chosen, grade, and presented with meticulous care, there should never
be any error. It is fairly easy to accept this in the early stages of language
learning when controls are applied in the shape of substitution tables,
conversion, exercises of a mechanical nature and guided sentence patterns,
but more difficult at later stages. However, it might salutary for us to bear
in mind the possibility of some off our students’ error being due to our
13

Ibid

own teaching.14
Other causes of errors are also expressed by Norrish.15
a. Carelessness
Carelessness is often closely related to lack motivation. Many
teacher will admit that is not always the students’ fault if he loses interest;
perhaps the material or the presentation do not suit him.
One way of reducing the number of ‘careless’ errors in written
work is to get students to check each other’s work. This will involve
students in active search for error and English can be used for a genuine
communication while discussing these errors in class.
b. First Language Interference
Skinner’s definitive statement of the behaviorist theory of
language learning held that if language is essentially a set of habits, then
when we try to learn new habits the old ones will interference the new
ones. In the classroom, the old habits must be drilled out and a new set of
responses must be learnt. The notion of mother tongue interference as a
main contributor to error in learner’s use of foreign languages is related
strongly to this particular view of how human beings learn language.
c. Translation
One of the most typical situations is when a learner has been
asked to communicate something, let us say in writing, but is aware that he
does not know the appropriate expression or structure. He may even be
unaware that an appropriate one exist. Naturally, ad he wishes to
communicate his ideas, he will fall back on the language system with
which he is familiar, namely that of his mother tongue.

3. Classification of Error
Error can be classified into some types. Dullay, in the book
14

Peter Hubbard et al., A Training Course for TEFL, 10th print., (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1993), p.131
15
John Norrish, Language Learner and Their Errors, (London: Macmillan Press Ltd.,
1983), p. 21-27

Language Two, classifies error into four types ; error based on linguistics
category, error based on surface strategy taxonomy, error based on
comparative taxonomy, and error based on communicative effect
taxonomy.16
a. Error based on linguistic category
This linguistic category is classified according to either or both of the
language component and the particular linguistic constituent the error
effect. Language components include phonology, syntax and
morphology, semantics and lexicon, and discourse. Constituents
include the elements that comprise each language components. For
instance, in syntax the errors can be in the main or subordinate clause,
of which constituent is affected, e.g. the noun phrase, the auxiliary, the
verb phrase, the preposition, the adverb, and the adjective.
b. Error based on surface strategy taxonomy
This classification highlights the way surface structures are altered.
This classification is sub classified into some parts, are: omission,
addition, misformation, and misordering.
1). Omission
Omission error is characterized by the absence of an item that must
appear in a well-formed utterance, e.g. “Mary president new
company.”
2). Addition
This error is contradictive to the previous one. The error is known
by the presence of an item, which must not appear in a well-formed
utterance. This error usually appears in the later stages of L2
acquisition, when the learner has already acquired some target
language rules. E.g. “The train is gonna broke it”.
3). Double-marking
“Learner who have acquired the tensed from both auxiliary and
16

Heidi Dullay, Marina Burt, Stephen Krashen, Language two, (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1982), p. 146-189

verb often place the marker on both, as in:
“We didn’t went there.”
4). Over-regularization
“This fall under the misinformation category are those in which a
regular marker is used in place of an irregular one, as in : runned for
ran or gooses for geese.”
5). Over-generalization
These errors, according to them, refers to as an ‘archi-form’.
The selection of one member of a class of forms to represent others in
the class is a common characteristic of all stages of second language
acquisition. We have called the form selected by the learner an ‘archiform’.
e.g. That dogs
6). Misordering
The incorrect placement of a morpheme or group of morpheme in
an utterance is the character of this error. E.g. “I don’t know what
is that”.

c. Error based on comparative taxonomy
The classification is made based on the comparisons between the
structure of L2 errors and certain other types of construction. To this
classification of error, there are four types of error.
1). Developmental error
Developmental error is error similar to those made by children
learning the target language as their first language. E.g. “Mary eat
pineapple”.

2). Inter lingual error
Inter lingual is an error similar to in structure to a semantically
equivalent phrase or sentence in the learner’s native language.
3). Ambiguous error

Error that reflects the learners’ native language structure is called
ambiguous error. This error could be classified equally as
developmental or inter lingual error. E.g. “I no go to school”.
4). Other error
Other error is error caused by the learners’ native language since
the learners used it on their second language form.
E.g. “She do hungry”.
d. Error based on communication effect taxonomy
Instead of focusing on aspect of the error themselves, the
communicative effect taxonomy concerns with error from the
perspective of their effect on the listener or reader . The focuses are on
distinguishing errors that seem to cause miscommunication from those
that don’t. Error based on communicative effect taxonomy is divided
into two parts.
1). Global error
Global error binders communication; it prevents the learner from
comprehending some aspects of the message. For instance, “We
amused that movie very much”.
2). Local error
Local error itself does not interfere with understanding of an
utterance, usually because there is only a minor violation of one
segment of a s sentence. “I angry” will be local error since the
meaning is apparent.17

b. Error Analysis
Error analysis is the process based on analysis of learners’ error in
their process of second language learning. Sharma also wrote in an article in
English Teaching Forum that, “error analysis is defined as a process based on
17

http://www.startlearningnow.com/second%20language%20acquisition.htm

analysis of learners’ error with one clear objective, evolving a suuitable and
effective teaching learning strategy and remedial measures necessary in
certain clearly marked out areas of the foreign language.”18
According to Crystal, “Error analysis in language teaching and
learning , the study of the unacceptable forms produced by someone learning
in a language, especially is meant to determine errors which are made by
learners which are considered as indicators learners’ problems in learning a
second language.”19
Before conducting error analysis procedure, there are some
advantages. According to Brown, error analysis stands for

two major

purposes they are: (a) provides data from which interference about the nature
of language learning process can be made, (b) indicates to teacher and
curriculum developers, which part of the target language students have most
difficulty producing correctly and which error types destract most from
learners ability to sommunicate effectively.20
Corder (1974) suggests the following steps in error analysis research:
(1) collection of a sample of learner language, (2) identification of errors, (3)
description of errors, (4) explanation of errors, and (5) evaluation of errors.21

c. Grammar
If we talks about languages, so we talks about its systems, rules
and all about its systematic forms. In English language there is grammar as rules
and systems underlying principle that describe the structure of language. Grammar
is the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes
18

S.K. Sharma, “Error Analysis: why and how?’, English Teaching Forum. April 1982,

Vol. xxx
19

Nuril Huda, Language Learning and Teaching: Issues and Trends, (Malang: IKIP
Malang Publisher, 1999), p. 6
20
H. Douglas. Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th Ed., (New
York: Longman, 2000), p. 215
21
Rod Ellis, The Study of Second Language Acquisition, (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1994), p. 48

also deals with semantics or morphology). Other expert says that grammar is the
way morphemes are joined together to make larger units-words, phrases, clauses,
and finally a whole sentence.
Grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of language.
The set of those rules is also called the grammar of language, and each language
has its own distinct grammar. Grammar is part of the general study of language
called linguistic.
Since the arousal of communicative language teaching in 1960’s,
grammar is no longer becoming the core of language study. This approach focuses
on oral proficiency in foreign language rather than mastery of structures it doesn’t
mean that grammar has become the second priority of language study, however
the students of junior and senior high school must have good understanding of
grammar because it is one of the linguistics aspect of the curriculum.
Studying grammar helps someone learn more the language. A
grammar should serve as a reference by helping correct deviation from standard
usage and by improving clarity and style.
Finally, the writer concludes that grammar is a study of the rules
governing the use of a language includes the term of syntax, morphology,
phonology, even semantic for forming admissible sentences and for producing
acceptable writing and speaking.

d.

Grammar Test
1. Definition of Grammar Test
To understand grammar test, someone has to know the meaning of
test. Test is examination or trial of something to find its quality , value,
composition, knowledge, etc. Other expert says that test is defined as a
systematic procedure for observing and describing one or more
characteristic of a person with the aid of either a numerical scale or
category system.
For some speakers and writers, “testing” is used more narrowly to

denote only those formal modes of assessment that are officially
scheduled, with clearly delimited time on task and strict limitations on
available guidance.
Grammar test are designed to measure student proficiency in
matters ranging from inflections (bottles-bottles, bake-baked) to syntax.
Syntax involves the relationship of words in a sentence, including matters
such a word order, use of negative, question forms, and connectives.22
Test of grammar and usage are intended to measure the
respondent’s ability to recognize grammatical forms and manipulate the
structures through objectives tests and subjective tests.23

2.

Kinds of Grammar Test
Grammar test on the high school and college levels have usually
concentrated on matters of style and diction appropriate for rather formal
written English. There are ten types of grammar test, here they are :

a. Multiple-choice items
The type of multiple-choice item favored by many constructors of
grammar tests is the incomplete statement type, with a choice of

four or

five options.
E.g. Tom ought not to ……… me your secret, but he did.
A. tell

B. having told

C. be telling

D. have told

b. Error-recognition items
Each sentence contains four words or phrases underlined, marked
A, B, C, and D. select the underlined word or

phrase

which

is

incorrect or unacceptable.
E.g. 1. I’m worried that you’ll be angry to me.
A
22
23

B

C

D

Harold S Madsen, Techniques in Testing, (Hongkong; Oxford University Press, 1983)
J.B. Heaton, Writing English Language Test, (New York: Longman, 1988)

c. Rearrangement items
Rearrangement items can take several forms, the first of which to
consider here will be the multiple-choice type.
E.g. 1. ‘Won’t I need a coat?’

Well, You know how ….
A. it

B. today C. warm D. is

d. Completion items
E.g. Put a, the, or some in each blank only where necessary. If You think
that no word should be placed in the blank, put a cross (x) there.
1. Can You see …… sun shining through the clouds?
2. I saw your uncle ….. day before yesterday.
3. What have you been doing since I saw you …. last summer?
e. Transformation items
The transformation items is extremely useful for testing ability to
produce structures in the target language and helps to provide a balance
when included in tests containing multiple-choice items.
E.g.

Rewrite each of the following sentences in another way,

beginning each new sentence with the words given. Make any changes that
are necessary but do not change the general meaning of sentence.
1. I haven’t written to you for a long time
it’s a long time ………………………………….
2. In sunny weather I often go for walk
When the weather ………………………………
f. Items involving the changing of words.
This type of item is useful for testing the student’s ability to use
correct tenses and verb forms.
1. Verb : tenses, etc
Researchers (1) to convince that a drug

(1) ………….

They (2) to test can improve the memory

(2) ………….

and that it (3) to be the forerunner

(3) ………….

of other drugs which eventually

(4) ………….

(4) to improve mental ability.
g. ‘Broken sentence’ items
This type is the item of tests the student’s ability to write full
sentences from a series of words and phrases, and thus does not allow the
test writer to concentrate exclusively on testing those particular
grammatical features which may have just been practiced
E.g.

in class.

Take / drugs and stimulants / keep awake / while revise

examination / often be very harmful. / It be far better / lead / balanced life /
and get enough sleep / every night. / There / be / limit / degree and span /
concentration / which you be capable / exert. / Brain /need rest / as much
body. / Indeed, / it be quality / than quantity work / that be important.
h. Pairing and matching items
This type of item usually consists of a short conversation e.g. a
stimulus in the form of a statement or question followed by a response often
in the form of a statement.
Column 1

Letter

Column 2

Going to see film tonight?

…B…

A. No, I didn’t.

How was the film?

…….

B. Yes, I will.

I can’t stand war film, can you? …….

C. Not really, I quite
like them.

So you went to the cinema

…….

D. So do I.

i. Combination items
Students are instructed to join each pair of sentences. Using the
word in brackets.
(a) You finish the paper. Then check your answers carefully. (AFTER)
(b) Some questions may be very difficult. They should be left until later.
(WHICH)
j. Addition items
Students are instructed to insert the word in capitals in the most
appropriate place in each sentence.

(a) YET

Have you answered all the questions?

(b) STILL

Some students had not mastered the correct techniques for

answering examination questions.24

3.

Characteristics of a good test
All good tests posses three qualities : validity, reliability, and practically.
1. Validity
The “validity” of a test concerns whether it is measuring what we
think and say it is measuring : for example, is a reading comprehension
test item testing reading comprehension ability or something else, such as
knowledge of grammar without reference to the reading text?25
In the selection of any test, two questions must always be
considered: (1) What precisely does the test measure? And (2) How well
does the test measure? If the test is found to be based upon a sound
analysis of the skills we wish to measure, and if there is sufficient
evidence that test scores correlate fairly highly with actual ability in the
skill area being tested, then we may feel reasonably safe in assuming that
the test is valid for our purposes.

2.

Reliability
By reliability is meant the stability of test scores. A test cannot

measure anything well unless it measures consistently. The “reliability” of
a test concerns the accuracy and trustworthiness of its results: if we could
erase the test from students’ memories and then repeat it, how similar
would the result be? Reliable test results will accurately reflect each
student’s understanding of whatever is being tested; items on which
students are guessing more or less randomly are therefore going to be low
in reliability.
24

Ibid., p. 34-50
Desmond Allison, Language Testing and Evaluation “An Introductory Course”,
(Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1999), p.85
25

Test reliability may be estimated in a number of ways. Obviously,
the simplest technique would be to retest the same individuals with the
same test. If the results of the two administrations were highly correlated,
we could assume that he test had temporal stability-one of the concepts of
reliability. A second method of computing reliability is with the use of
alternate or parallel forms-that is, with different versions of the same test
which are equivalent in length, difficulty, time limits, format, and all other
such aspects. A third method for estimating the reliability of a test consists
in giving a single administration of one form of the test and then, by
dividing the items into two halves (usually by separating odd-and evennumbered items), obtaining two scores for each individual.26
3.

Practicality
A third characteristic of a good test is its practicality or usability. A

test may be a ighly reliable and valid instrument but still be beyond our
means or facilities. Thus in the preparation of a new test or the adoption of
an existing one, we must keep in mind a number of very practical
consideration.
a. Economy
Testing can be expensive, we must take into account the cost per
copy, and whether or not the test books are reusable. That is why the
administrator should have be economist and well prepared for the testing.
b. Ease of administration and scoring
Other consideration of test usability involve the ease with
which the test can be administered. Are full, clear directions provided so
that the test administrator can perform his tasks quickly and efficiently?
Scoring procedures too, can have significant effect on the practicality of a
given instrument. Particularly when large number of examinees are
involved, we need to know whether the test must be scored subjectively or
objectively.
26

David P Harris, Testing English as a Second Language, (Georgetown: Georgetown
University Press), p.14-16

CAHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS

A.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. Place and Time
This research took place at SMAN 6 Pandeglang located at Jl. Pendidikan

No.2 Ciekek Karaton Pandeglang. The writer began the research on 4th June 2007
until 20th September 2007.

2. Method of the Study
The writer uses the descriptive qualitative method. Which focuses on
elaborating the grammatical errors made by students. Mainly, it concerns with
types of errors and errors’ resources.

4. Technique of Data Analysis
For the technique of data analysis, the writer uses descriptive analysis
technique (percentage). Its formula is as follow:

P = F x 100 %
N
P = Percentage
F = Frequency of wrong answer
N = Number of sample

5. The Instrument of The Study
To get the data, in this research,the writer do the observation on February,
by seeing a process learning and giving some test to the first year of SMAN 6
Pandeglang.
After the writer do the observation, she interviewed the English teacher by
asking some questions related to the research. (see appendix).

B.

RESEARCH FINDING
1.

Data Description
It has been stated that the study discussed the errors that made by

the first year students of SMAN 6 Pandeglang Banten. The writer uses the
types of errors based on surface strategy taxonomy (Dullay, Burt and
Kiparsky) to classify the students’ errors on grammar. From the data below, it
can be described that 40 students made 701 errors with the highest frequency
of error on Future Continuous Tense with 36 students (90 %) and Omission
with 72 %, the lowest frequency of errors is about Expressing Ability ‘can’
with 1 student (2,5 %) and Over-generalization with 0,3 %.

Table I
Total of Students’ Errors
No

Name

Total of Error

1

Student no. 1

10

2

Student no. 2

20

3

Student no. 3

12

4

Student no. 4

24

5

Student no. 5

14

6

Student no. 6

21

7

Student no. 7

11

8

Student no. 8

10

9

Student no. 9

23

10

Student no. 10

15

11

Student no. 11

17

12

Student no. 12

12

13

Student no. 13

27

14

Student no. 14

9

15

Student no. 15

16

16

Student no. 16

16

17

Student no. 17

19

18

Student no. 18

18

19

Student no. 19

17

20

Student no. 20

13

21

Student no. 21

15

22

Student no. 22

22

23

Student no. 23

8

24

Student no. 24

24

25

Student no. 25

16

26

Student no. 26

24

27

Student no. 27

20

28

Student no. 28

21

29

Student no. 29

19

30

Student no. 30

17

31

Student no. 31

18

32

Student no. 32

23

33

Student no. 33

27

34

Student no. 34

20

35

Student no. 35

17

36

Student no. 36

12

37

Student no. 37

23

38

Student no. 38

14

39

Student no. 39

24

40

Student no. 40

13

Total

2.

701

Data Analysis
The collected data are qualitatively analyzed through several types,

such as reconstructing the errors, classifying the error based on surface

strategy taxonomy including omission, addition, double-marking, Overregularization, , and misordering, and then analyzing errors’ sources. Here is
the description of students’ errors and their reconstruction (right answer). (see
appendix I)
Table II
Recapitulation of the Students’ Grammar Error
No

Item Number

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

47
39
1
49
5
23
11
36
45
43
50
6
46
40
15
29
32
26
31
38
30
7
25
13
22
27
28
33
24
41
17
19
42

Grammar Problem Area
Future Continuous Tense
Agreeing Expression
Agreement; concord
Past Continuous Tense
Possessive Pronoun
Would rather …than
Adjectives with -ing
Elliptical Sentences
Simple Present Perfect Tense
Past Continuous Tense
Simple Past Tense
Possessive Pronoun
Simple Future Tense
Present Continuous Tense
Expressing ability ‘can’
Superlative Adjectives
Using’ can” to ask permission
Simple Present ‘usually’
Past Continuous Tense
Possessive Pronoun
Perfect Perfect with ‘since’
Comparative Adjective
Present Passive
Adverbs of Manner
Simple Past Tense
Simple Present ‘never’
Comparative Adjective
Using ‘may’ to ask permission
Present Passive
Simple Present Tense
Positive Sentence
Both… and
Simple Past Tense

Percentage
36 (90%)
31 (77,5 %)
30 (75 %)
29 (72,5 %)
27 (67,5 %)
27 (67,5 %)
26 (65 %)
26 (65 %)
26 (65 %)
23 (57,5 %)
21 (52,5 %)
20 (50 %)
19 (47,5 %)
17 (42,5 %)
16 (40 %)
16 (40 %)
16 (40 %)
14 (35 %)
14 (35 %)
14 (35 %)
13 (32,5 %)
12 (30 %)
11 (27,5 %)
10 (25 %)
10 (25 %)
10 (25 %)
10 (25 %)
10 (25 %)
8 (20 %)
8 (20 %)
7 (17,5 %)
7 (17,5 %)
7 (17,5 %)

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

44
2
10
35
4
34
37
48
12
18
3

45

8

46
47

14
20

48

9

49

21

50

16

Simple Present Perfect Tense
Agreement; Concord
Modal ‘must’
Elliptical Sentences
Countable Noun
Conditional Type 1
Possessive Pronoun
Simple Past Tense
Adjective with -ed
Negative Sentence
Uncountable Noun
Adjective Clause for Describing
Place
Adverbs of Manner
Expressing ‘so do I’
Expressing
Purpose
‘To
infinitive’
Question Sentence using ‘are
going to’
Expressing ability ‘can’
Total

7 (17,5 %)
6 (15 %)
6 (15 %)
6 (15 %)
5 (12,5 %)
5 (12,5 %)
5 (12,5 %)
5 (12,5 %)
4 (10 %)
4 (10 %)
3 (7,5 %)
3 (7,5 %)
3 (7,5 %)
3 (7,5 %)
2 (5 %)
2 (5 %)
1 (2,5 %)
701 (100 %)

Table III
Recapitulation of the Students’ errors
Error Classifications
No

Name

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Student no. 1
Student no. 2
Student no. 3
Student no. 4
Student no. 5
Student no. 6
Student no. 7
Student no. 8
Student no. 9
Student no. 10
Student no. 11
Student no. 12
Student no. 13
Student no. 14
Student no. 15

O

A

DM

O-R

O-G

M

16
13
15
11
15
15
15
13
15
13
14
15
15
12
10

1
2
2
1
1
1
1
-

-

3
3
3
2
3
2
-

5
4
3
7
2
6
6
1
1
2
3
2
4
-

2
1
3
2
2
1
2
3
-

Total
of
Errors
24
17
24
23
17
27
27
14
15
16
17
24
19
20
10

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

3.

Student no. 16 12
Student no. 17 12
Student no. 18 14
Student no. 19 10
Student no. 20 15
Student no. 21 13
Student no. 22 10
Student no. 23 15
Student no. 24 10
Student no. 25 12
Student no. 26 10
Student no. 27 14
Student no. 28
9
Student no. 29 14
Student no. 30 13
Student no. 31 16
Student no. 32 13
Student no. 33
7
Student no. 34
6
Student no. 35 15
Student no. 36 15
Student no. 37
8
Student no. 38
9
Student no. 39 10
Student no. 40 14
Total
503
Percentage
72%

1
1
2
1
1
3
2
20
0,3%

-

2
1
2
2
1
3
2
2
4
5
5
2
3
2
2
1
3
5
2
3
2
5
2
1
2
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
2
2
1
2
56
91
11% 14%

1
1
1
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
31
0,6%

16
12
20
11
16
15
10
18
12
22
24
19
13
17
23
21
21
8
12
23
18
9
14
13
20
701
100%

Data Interpretation
After analyzing the students’ error on grammar, the writer found that

the highest frequency students’ error committed by the first year students of
SMAN 6 Pandeglang Banten is omission, followed by Over-generalization,
Over-regularization, misordering and addition.
a. Omission
Omission, is the highest frequency with 503 errors (72 %). Here is
the example:
Yesterday I join a cycling contest

Yesterday I joined a cycling

contest.
From the error, it is understood that such errors is caused by

the students’ first language, because they are not familiar with verb II
form. They usually use the same form of verb for any types of
sentence. In addition, this error is also caused by the students’
carelessness. They do not pay attention to the adverb of time
“yesterday”.

b. Over-Generalization
Over-generalization, contains 91 errors or 14 % of the total
errors made by the students. Here is the example:
Both Rossa and Lia is going to Library

Both Rossa and Lia

are going to Library
From the error, it is understood that such errors is caused by
the students’ first language

because they are not familiar with

concord with coordinated subject, they made mistake in agreeing the
subject with the verb “both Rossa and Lia… is”, the reconstruction
is “both Rossa and Lia

are”. Beside that, this error is also caused

by overgeneralization.

c. Over-regularization
Over-regularization errors contains 56 errors or 11 %. Here
is the example:
My father old and my grand father is more old than my father (wrong)
My father old and my grand father is older than my father (right)
From the error, it is understood that such error is caused by
teaching material method and students’ translation, because they do
not pay attention with the appropriate

word

in

the

comparative

sentence “My father old and my grand-father is older than my father”,
most of them made mistake with ” more older

than…”. In

addition, this error is also caused by the students’ translation that they
are confused with the same meaning in “older
(comparative adjective).

more older”

d. Misordering
Misordering

contains 31 errors or 0,6 %. Here is the

example:
What time you are going to be home? (wrong)
What time are you going to be home? (right)
From the error, it is understood that such errors is caused by
the students’ first language and carelessness, because they put the word
“are going to” in incorrect placement. In addition to this error,
students have made written misordering error based their habitual
speaking of their first language.

e. Addition
Addition contains 16 errors or 0,3 %.
Here is the example:
I usually walks to school on foot. Diane she has goes to library every
Monday and Tuesday. (wrong)
I usually walks to school on foot. Diane goes to library every Monday
and Tuesday. (right)
From the error, it is understood that such errors is caused by
students’carelessness, because some of students put the word Diane he
‘has goes’ ….. the right is Diane ‘goes’ …. Without adding the word
‘she has’ again (simple present tense).

f. Double-Marking
There are no errors in this area.

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A.

Conclusion
By accomplishing this research, it can be concluded that the highest

frequency of errors on students’ grammar is Future Continous Tense with 36 or
90%, and the lowest frequency of error is Expressing ability ‘can’ with 1 student
or 2,5%.
The writer also concluded the most typical errors on students’
grammar are in omission with 503 errors or 72%, and it caused by the students’
first language and carelesness. It is followed by errors on over-generalization;
there are 91 errors or 14 % which are caused by students’ first languageand
overgeneralization. Next is errors in over-regularization with 56 errors or 11%
are caused by teaching material method and studenys’ translation. Then, in
misordering is about 31 errors with 0,6% that caused by students’ carelessness
and their first language. There is errors in addition that caused by students’
carelesness with 16 errors or 0,3%. The last, there is nno errors on doublemarking with zero result or 0%.

B.

Suggestion
From the result of the research, the writer would like to offer some

suggestions for the teacher, are:
1.

The teacher have to know if the students have masteries the
Grammar Material in general, so the teacher should do the error
analysis on grammar material from first until third grade of junior
high school, it can be easily to know in what material that
students’ do the errors, and then the teacher should do the
remedial with other method.

2.

In teaching grammar, in teaching grammar, by giving simple

explanation means the teacher must be aware of its negative
impacts. The teacher needs to give some notes if there are some
exceptions of rues that seems to be opposite with each other. The
teacher also must be able to make the atmosphere of the class
more conducive as to make the teaching-learning process is more
alive, full of fun for the students. Therefore the students’ interest
to grammar material is increased and their comprehension
becomes better.
Finally, the conclusion and suggestion that the writer gives to this
research is that competency of First grade of SMAN 6 pandeglang on grammar is
still in adequate. Therefore the students must be encourage to improve their
comprehension in grammar material.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allison, Desmond. Language Testing and Evaluation “An Introductory Course”.
Singapore: Singapore University Press. 1999
Azar, Betty Schramfer. Understanding and Using English Grammar 2nd ed. New
Jersey:

Prentice Hall regents. 1989.

Brown, H. Douglas. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. 3rd ed. New
Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. 1994.
Depdiknas RI. Kurikulum 2004 Bahasa Inggris 2004: Sekolah Menengah Atas
(SMA). Jakarta: Depdiknas RI. 2004
Dulay, Heidi, et al. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press. 1982.
Ellis, Rod. The Study of Second Language Acquisition, Oxford: Oxford University
Press. 1994.
Freeman Diane-Larsen., and Michael H. Long. An Introduction to Second
Language Acquisition Research. New York: Longman. 1999.
Geofrey, Broughton, et al. Dictionary of English Language Teaching. London: Tj
Press Ltd. 1980.
Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York:
Longman Inc. 1983.
Heaton, J.B. Writing English Test. London: Longman. 1975
Hornby, A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 5th ed.
Oxford.: Oxford University Press. 1993.
Hubbard, Peter, Hywel Jones, Barbara Thontorn, Rod Wheeler. A Training
Course for TEFL. New York: Oxford University Press. 1983.
Merriem-Werbster Inc. Dictionary of English Language Usage: The Complete
Guide to Problems of Confused or Disputed Usage. Massachusetts:
Merriem-Werbster Inc. 1994.
Mukarto. English on Sky for Junior High School Students book 1, 2, and 3,
Curriculum 2004 Competency Based. Erlangga. 2004.
Norrish, John. Language Learners and Their Errors. London: Macmillan Press

Ltd. 1983.
Pyles Thomas and John Algeo. Writing Invention Form and Style. New York:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc. 1968.
http://abisamra03.tripod.com/nada/languagecq-erroranalysis.html#theo.
http://www.startlearningnow.com/second%20language%20acquisition.htm.
http://www.wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/web.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah the Beneficent and the Merciful. To the Almighty all
praise to Thee for showering the writer with knowledge and comprehension.
Peace may be upon to the Prophet Muhammad, the man who had brought us from
the darkness to the lightness.
First of all the writer would like to express her greatest appreciation to her
beloved parents, Uhat Subhat and Enjuh Djuhariah, for their irreplaceable
encouragement with all of their support, motivation, patience, compassion and
advice. I Love You!
The writer also would like to give her gratitude to Dr. Farkhan, M.Pd her
advisor in finishing this ‘skripsi’, for his wonderful guidance, dedication, and
support.
Her gratitudes also go to:
1. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah.
2. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd, the Chief of English Education Department.
3. Dra. Nida Husna, M.Pd, the Secretary of English Education Department.
4. All inspiring lecturers in English Education Department, who have shared and
given their ideas of life.
5. All staffs and officers of English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiyah,
State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah.
6. Drs. H. Neno Suseno, M.Pd, the Headmaster of SMAN 6 Pandeglang Banten.
7. All teachers and staffs of SMAN 6 Pandeglang.
8. All of her friends in English Education Department Class ‘C’, her best friends
Suci Handayani, Sri Duryati, Ertin, S.Pd (who have built many wonderful
moments), and for Imawan Azis -Debow- (God blessed You).
9. All persons who have given their help in finishing this ‘skripsi’ that writer
could not mention that are too numerous to name.

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