IDENTIFYING LEARNING STRATEGIES BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL LEARNERS IN READING COMPREHENSION
IDENTIFYING LEARNING STRATEGIES BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL LEARNERS IN READING COMPREHENSION
Theoretically, reading skill is considered as one of the difficult language skills to master. This is reasonable because reading skill has some elements such as determining main idea, finding specific information, reference, inference and vocabulary. Therefore, there are still many problems faced by learners in comprehending a text. The difficulties in identifying the main ideas, making an inference and finding specific information also become a huge trouble in their reading. In fact, learning strategies of reading give a good effect to the results of learners’ achievement in learning reading because learning strategies have some effective elements to help students in reading comprehension such as cognitive, metacognitive, and social strategies.
The research aimed to find out the differences of the learning strategies between successful and unsuccessful learners in English reading. This research was a quantitative study and was conducted to 68 learners in the first grade of SMA Al-Kautsar. In collecting data, the researcher gave a questionnaire (LLSQ) and reading tests. The data were analyzed by using Independent t-test.
The results showed that (1) most of the successful students used cognitive strategy (3.46), metacognitive (3.19) and social (3.20), (2) there was no significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using cognitive and social strategies meanwhile the metacognitive strategies had a significant difference. (3) the cognitive strategies had a high correlation with the inference aspect, the metacognitive had a high correlation with determining main idea aspect, and social strategies had high correlation with finding specific information aspect of reading comprehension. There was an implication for language learning strategies in reading skills because they include such activities as summarizing for each section from an expository passage, opening dictionary and note taking that could help students to overcome the problems in reading comprehension. Thus, the students need to be informed about learning strategies and how to use them appropriately in reading because choosing learning strategies was a student’s way in improving their skill in reading.
Submitted in a Partial Fulfillment of The Requirement for S-1 Degree
Language and Arts Education Department Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG
BANDAR LAMPUNG 2015
The writer’s nickname is Anggi. She was born on August 1st, 1994 in South Kotabumi, North Lampung. She is the first child of Drs. Hi. Kadarsyah and Hj. Huzaimah, S.H. She has siblings, that is, Justika D. Khandari and M. Ardan Khandari.
She started studying at TK Muslimin Kotabumi in 1998. Then she went on SDI Ibnurusyd Kotabumi and graduated in 2005. In the same year, she continued her study to SMP N 7 Kotabumi and graduated in 2008. After that, her study was continued to SMA Al-Kautsar Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2011. After finishing her study in senior high school, she was accepted as a student of Lampung University, at English Study Program of Teacher Training and Education Faculty in 2011.
In 2014, precisely in Juli to September she carried on Field Teaching Practice (PPL) at SMA N 1 Bengkunat, Pesisir Barat and KKN in Pekon Pardasuka, Ngaras Bengkunat, Pesisir Barat.
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficient and Merciful This script is proudly dedicated to:
My beloved parents who always pray for me, give me full of love, kindness, spirits, and never ending sincerity
My beloved younger sister and brother, Tika Khandari and Ardan Khandari
My dearest friends Putri, Rosa, Ika, Uti, Alif, Yuni, Fiya, Nurul, and Rima
My kind-hearted senior, Kak Desi Rahayu
“Intelligence without ambition is a bird without wings” (Salvador Dali, 1904-1989)
“I walk slowly, but I never walk backward” (Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865)
Praised be merely to Allah SWT the most gracious and the most merciful that enables the writer to finish her script entitled “Identifying Learning Strategies between Successful and Unsuccessful in Reading Comprehension”. This paper is submitted as a compulsory fulfillment of the requirement for S1 degree at the Language and Arts Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Lampung University.
Gratitude and honor are addressed to all persons who have helped and supported the writer in completing this research. It is necessary to be known that this research will never have come onto its existence without any supports, encouragements and assistances from several outstanding people and institutions. Therefore, the writer would like to acknowledge her respect and best gratitude to:
1. Prof. Ag. Bambang Setiyadi, M.A., Ph.D., as the first advisor, for his motivations and encouragement in encouraging the writer.
2. Dr. Ari Nurweni, M.A., as the second advisor, for her carefulness in correcting the writer’s grammar and giving evaluation, comments and also suggestion during the completion of this script.
3. Drs. Basturi Hasan, M.Pd., as the examiner, for his ideas, suggestions and critizes to make the writer’s research better.
who gave me permission and support for this research. I thank to all students of X.1 and X.5 for their participations as the subject of this research.
5. My beloved parents (Drs. Hi. Kadarsyah and Hj. Huzaimah, S.H.), younger sister and brother (Justika Dewi Khandari and M. Ardan Khandari), for their greatest love, kindness, spirits, prays and never ending sincerity.
6. My lovely cousins: dr. Khoirunnisa (itah Nisa) for helping, supporting, pushing, and reminding me in preparing proposal seminar (especially) and finishing this script and also Dwi Syafani Agustina, S.T. (atu Nana).
7. My lovely bestfriends that I have ever had, that is, Putri Zuraida, S.E., Rosa Dwita Romi, A.Md., Ika Wulan Permata, S.Ked., Putri Rizki Ananda,S.E., Alif Fauziah Sari, S.Pd.
8. My dearest friends in English Department, that is, Nyun Yuni, Mami Fiya, Nenek Nurul, Rima, kak Uwik, kak Dara, chinggu Ayu, Ncup Coppia, Nova, Nyoman, Ire, Eva, Erlin, Lia (all of my friends from B class) and also all friends in English department 2011 that cannot be mentioned one by one, thank you for supporting and praying each other.
9. My personal advisors, that is, Lia Annisa Maghdalena, S.Pd. thank you so much for helping me to correct my writing in order to get better appearance. And also thanks a million to Kak Desi Rahayu, for making time to motivate and support me during finishing this script and helping the preparation before examination day.
10. My KKN and PPL partners: Imawati, Yusuf, mami Gita Shivera, Utii, Icha, Diantini, Alpina, Diah Utami, El, and Caca Thank you for everything. It was fated to know you by those campus programs and I really love it.
Finally, the writer believes that this writing is still far from perfection. There are too many weaknesses in the research. Thus, comments, critics, and suggestion are always opened for better research. Somehow, the writer hopes this research would give a positive contribution to the educational improvement, the readers, and to those who want to accomplish further research.
Bandar Lampung, 29 September 2015 The writer,
1.1Background of The Problem ... 1
1.2Formulation of Research Problem ... 6
1.3Objectives of The Research ... 6
1.4Uses The Reasearch ... 7
1.5Scopes of The Research ... 7
1.6Definition of Terms ... 8
II. FRAME OF THEORIES 2.1Concept of Reading ... 10
2.2Concept of Reading Comprehension ... 12
2.3Macro and Micro Skills in Reading ... 14
2.3.1 Concept of Macro Skills in Reading ... 15
2.3.2 Categories of Macro Skills in Reading ... 16
2.4Concept of Reading Strategies ... 19
2.5The Components of Reading Comprehension ... 20
2.6Reading Strategies in Reading Comprehension ... 25
2.7Concept of Learning Strategies ... 29
2.8Categories of Learning Strategies ... 30
2.8.1 Cognitive Strategies ... 31
2.8.2 Metacognitive Strategies ... 33
2.8.3 Social Strategies ... 37
2.9 Good and Poor Language Learners ... 38
2.10Language Learning Strategies of Successful and Unsuccessful Learners ... 42
2.11Measurement of Learning Strategy and Reading Comprehension ... 45
2.12Theoritical Assumption ... 46
2.13Hypothesis ... 47
III. RESEARCH METHOD 3.1Research Design ... 49
3.2Population and Sample of The Research ... 50
3.3Variable ... 51
3.4Research procedure ... 51
3.5Instruments ... 53
3.5.1 Criteria of Good Test for Reading and Questionnaire ... 55
3.6Data Analysis ... 62
3.7Hypothesis Tesing ... 63
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1Result of the Research ... 65
4.1.1 Result of the Try-out Test ... 66
4.1.2 Result of Reading Test Reliability ... 67
4.1.3 Result of Reading Comprehension Test ... 68
4.1.4 Result of Questionnaire of Learning Strategies ... 69
4.1.5 Hypothesis Testing of the Reasearch ... 70
4.1.6 The Most Effective Learning Strategies in Learners’ Reading Ability ... 73
4.1.7 The Finding of the Correlation between Learning Strategies and Reading Comprehension Aspects ... 75
4.1.8 Types of Learning Strategies Mostly Used by the Learners in Reading ... 77
4.2Discussion of Findings ... 78
4.2.1 The Aspect of Macro Skill in Relation to Learning Strategies ... 78
4.2.2 Language Learning Strategies between Successful and Unsuccessful Learners ... 81
V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1Conclusions ... 89
5.2Suggestions ... 91 REFERENCES
LIST OF TABLES
1. Specification of Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire ... 46
2. Specification of Try-out Reading Test ... 56
3. Specification of Pre-Test and Post-test ... 59
4. Specification Table of LLSQ ... 59
5. Research Schedule in Conducting the Research ... 64
6. Frequency Distribution of Reading Score ... 68
7. Independent T-test ... 71
8. Group Statistic ... 73
9. Pearson Corellation Matrix (Cognitive) ... 75
10.Pearson Corellation Matrix (Metacognitive) ... 76
11.Pearson Corellation Matrix (Social) ... 76
LIST OF APPENDICES
1. Upper Group... 97
2. Lower Group ... 98
3. Level Difficulty and Discrimination Power of Try Out ... 99
4. The Learners Reading Score ... 100
5. Comparison of Students’ Gain in each Aspect of Reading ... 102
6. The Coefficient of Realiability in Reading Test ... 103
7. Students’ Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire ... 106
8. The Reliability of Questionnaire ... 109
9. Independet T-Test ... 111
10.T-table ... 112
11.Reasearch Schedule ... 113
12.Try out of Reading Comprehension test...114
13.Reading Comprehension Test...125
This chapter gives a brief description of the whole content of the research, including background, formulation of the problem, objectives of the research, uses of the research, scopes of the research, and definition of term.
1.1 Background of the Problem
Reading is one of the essential skills to be mastered by learners in learning English. Even though it is quite difficult since it has some crucial aspects, such as, determining main idea, finding specific information, reference, inference, and vocabulary. In fact, reading is also valuable for learners to improve their comprehension in a text and beneficial in developing prior knowledge. However, in practical learning reading, reading has been seen a hard nut to crack all along time.
Haycraft (1978: 8) states that there are two broad skills in mastering a language: receptive skill, i.e. reading (understanding the written language) and listening (understanding the spoken language); and productive skills, i.e. speaking and writing. As a receptive skill, the learners are not required to produce the
language. But they have to read, think, and do what the instruction of the reading text is. Moreover, the learners have to understand what the messages of the reading texts mean.
In general, the complexity in reading skill makes it constantly difficult to be mastered. In reading skill it is not only focused on determining the main idea, indentifying specific information, or inference but also focused on improving their vocabulary, insight, or imagination. In accordance with Nuttall (1982: 5-6), one may have difficulties to comprehend a passage because of some problems like unfamiliar code in which the text is expressed, the amount of previous knowledge that the reader brings to the text, the complexity of the concept expressed, and vocabulary size.
Basically, there are many English texts which have good content for learners but sometimes there is a misunderstanding between what the writer of book means and what the learners mean. Having a good ability in reading makes easier for learners to understand what the content of a book is. Besides, there are many learners who still do not know how to understand a text properly. Sometimes, the learners are getting confused and consuming lots of time when they try to translate the text from English into Indonesian. It may occur because they use inappropriate learning strategies.
Unfortunately, some learners are not aware in employing their learning strategies effectively in mastering reading yet. The success of learning reading depends on how the learners use their learning strategies appropriately. Having different learning strategies is something that may be knowledgeable and useful
for learning reading in Second Language. Therefore, it cannot be denied that learning strategies give a good result of learners’ achievement in learning English. On the other hand, improper strategies will lead into failure. It means that by having appropriate learning strategies, learners can be successful in reading comprehension.
Related to language learning, Rubin (1975: 37) states that even though everyone basically has the same chance to be successful in learning a new language – some students approach the language learning task in more successful ways than other. Therefore, some students will be more successful than the other in learning a new language whether it is second or foreign language.
As Rubin (1975: 41) states that, the different success in second or foreign language learning suggests a need to examine in detail what strategies successful language learners employ. The previous statement implies that the different success of language learning among learners may be caused by the difference in maximizing the use of learning strategies. In other words, learning strategies become important in learning reading as one of English skills to be mastered. Learners should realize which one of learning strategies supports the big part of success in reading achievement. On the other way, learners should also know the reason why they are unsuccessful in reading which may be caused by inappropriate learning strategies employed.
As a matter of fact, when the researcher tried to find the real situation by conducting the pre-observation in SMA Al-Kautsar Bandar Lampung, the researcher found that some of the learners had a difficulty in comprehending
reading texts. The learners still found difficulties in comprehending the text or answering the easy questions of the text. It could be seen from their reading score test that was given by teacher in middle-term test and also the pre-test during the research showed that their average score was less than the standard of teaching criteria (KKM). Further, every class had an obvious different result of the test. It seemed that the gap among the classes in every English score tests was quite significant. The gap was obvious if the researcher compared the score between the main class and the regular class in the school. In addition, the previous research done by Widiono (2007) found the some problems. Some the students’ problems in comprehending the text which he found in his research were students’ lack of vocabulary and grammar, students’ low interest in the reading the text, teachers’ disability in guiding and managing the class, students’ choice of strategies on facing some reading comprehension questions. Thus, the researcher assumed some factors that cause those problems were; low interest in the material the text, learning strategy and teaching technique. It was also supported by regular teachers at the first grade of SMA Al-Kautsar Bandar Lampung who teach the main class and the regular class. They said that some students’ problem in reading was mostly concerned on the students’ strategies in solving problems such determining the main idea of a reading text, vocabulary, and inference. This situation makes the learners’ reading comprehension was low.
In addition, the other previous studies (see, e.g. Kurnia 2013 and Andam, 2013) also indicated that senior high school students experienced many difficulties in their reading, such as they tend to be passive, difficult to categorize information, difficulty to identify reference and inference, and difficult to
differentiate the chareacteristic of a text. Vocabulary mastery as a problem also made students difficult to comprehend the text given. Without understanding the word or phrases in the text, they might not understand the purpose of the whole text. This part not only became the learners’ duty, but also the teachers’ problem. Moreover, the structure of the sentence also became an obstacle for the students in getting the aim of passage they are reading. Therefore, if students could use appropriate strategies, the problems might be eliminated.
In reading comprehension, the important things are how to find the main idea and to know the organization of the text. in reality, not all students can identify the main idea easily. Sometimes, they must read the whole passage to know the aim of each paragraph. It is because they do not know the right way. Beside, the structure of a text can also make them hard to comprehend it. Often, teachers do not explain it at the beginning before discussing the content of text.
Consequently, as a candidate of English teacher, the researcher must realize that there are some lists of successful students and unsuccessful students in every school. How to make the unsuccessful students have same capability with the successful ones is the question that has to be answered. Since everyone knows that in classroom, a teacher cannot give full attention to every single student. Hence, it becomes the greatest duty for the teacher to find out the appropriate ways to help the unsuccessful students to have better capability in comprehending the text.
In reference to the clarification above, this research tried to find out the learning strategy that was mostly used by successful and unsuccessful learners in
reading achievement. Therefore, the researcher proposed this research entitled Identifying Learning Strategies between Successful and Unsuccessful Learners in
1.2 Formulation of Research Problem
In accordance with the problem of background above, the following problems were formulated as follows:
1. In general, what types of learning strategies are mostly used by successful and unsuccessful learners in reading comprehension in terms of macro skills?
2 Specifically, which aspects of reading comprehension in terms of macro skills have the highest correlation with those language learning strategies?
1.3 Objective of the Research
Referring to the formulation of the research problem above, the objective of this research were:
1. To determine kind of learning strategies which are mostly used by successful and unsuccessful learners in reading comprehension in terms of macro skills.
2. To find out the aspects of reading comprehension in terms of macro skills that have the highest correlation with language learning strategies.
1.4 Uses of the Research The uses of this research were:
1. Theoretically, the result of this research was supposed to support the previous theories about types of learning strategies mostly used by successful and unsuccessful learners in learning reading.
2. Practically, the result of the research hopefully could be used as a reference in consideration for English teachers to support the learners on applying learning strategies optimally by their own way in learning reading.
1.5 Scopes of the Research
This research was conducted at SMA Al-Kautsar Bandar Lampung. The subject of this research was the first grade students in 2014/2015 academic year. The 2006 School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) of English, in the first semester indicates clearly that the students in this semester have already studied grammar, vocabulary and certain expressions for communication. So it meant that the students have had good enough basic in English reading skill.
Thus, this research identified language learners’ learning strategies that were mostly used by successful and unsuccessful learners in reading comprehension. As we knew that the learning strategies were divided into three categories (O’Malley et. al.: 1985): 1) metacognitive strategies, 2) cognitive strategies, and 3) social strategies. It was assumed that the success of learning reading depends on the learning strategies applied by the learners themselves.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Some definitions used in this research were needed in order to have perception crucial the ideas of the terms as follows:
1) Reading comprehension is important and difficult enough since it is a matter of identifying letters in order to recognize words to get the meaning from what is read, involving making connection, among words and ideas presented in the text and the readers’ own background knowledge about the text they read will have difficulties such as determining main idea, finding specific information, reference, inference, and vocabulary in comprehending a text. Moreover, reading comprehension is result of the interaction between the perception of the written text that represents language and the reader’s language skills, cognitive skill and the knowledge.
2) Learning strategy is sets of a way of technique to achieve a learning goal by learners in the process of gaining the knowledge.
3) Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning task and they involve more manipulation directly of the learning material itself. Using background knowledge, repetition, resourcing, translation, note taking, elaborations are among the most important in cognitive strategies.
4) Metacognitive strategies are actions which go beyond purely cognitive devices, and provide a way for learners to coordinate their own learning process. They also refer to knowledge above cognition or executive
control of self-management through such processes as planning, monitoring, and evaluating.
5) Social strategies are often called as a social mediation, the strategies under category are asking question, cooperating with other, and empathizing with other. This strategy indicates that people prefer to ask other people than to learn by themselves and also they tend to learn with their peers or to consult with the teacher they find some difficulties in facing problems.
6) Macro skills are a big scope that including of some principles in mastering reading (e.g. Scanning text to locate specific information, skimming text to obtain the gist, identifying stages of an argument, and identifying examples presented in support of an argument)
This is the end of this chapter. In this chapter, several things have been discussed consisting of the background of problem, research questions, objectives, uses of the research, scope, and the definition of terms.
II. FRAME OF THEORIES
This chapter discusses the concept covered in this research. The concepts, which come from experts’ and previous researchers’ theories, underlie the assumption formulated here, and are expected to conduct correctly to the finding of this research.
2.1 Concept of Reading Skills
Reading is one of important skill that must be understood by learners. By reading, the learners can improve their knowledge whenever and wherever they are. For example, reading newspaper, reading magazine, reading international journal and so on.
In addition, reading is an active process of guessing, deriving, and getting meaning of information stated in the printed material. Nuttal (1982) defines reading as the meaningful interpretation of written text. It means that reading is a result of the interaction between the perception of the written text that represents language and the reader’s language skills, cognitive skill and the knowledge. In this process the reader tries to recreate the meaning intended by the writer.
Furthermore, Goodman (1973b: 180) in Sutarsyah (2013: 6) defines that reading is not a process of combining individual letters into words, and string of words into sentences, from which meanings spring automatically. Moreover, Goodman (1971) views that reading is a “psycholinguistic guessing game” in which the reader reconstructs a message that has been encoded by a writer as a graphic display. He describes it as a cyclical process of sampling, predicting, testing, and confirming.
According to Heilman, Blair and Rupley (1981: 4) in Sari (2010) there are some basic aspects of reading:
a. Reading is interacting with language that has been coded into print.
b. The product of interacting with language which has been printed should be comprehension.
c. Reading ability is closely related to oral language ability.
d. Reading is an active and ongoing process that is affected directly by an individual interaction with his environment.
Moreover, reading is a complex cognitive activity that is crucial for adequate functioning and for obtaining information in current society and requires an integration of memory and meaning construction (Alfassi, 2000 in Zare & Othman, 2013). Reading has been defined as an active process in which readers shift between sources of information, elaborate meaning and strategies, monitor their comprehension, and use the social context to reflect their response (Walker, 2000 in Zare & Othman, 2013). Moreover, McWhorter (1989:212) in Sari
(2010:8) states that reading is a way of taking new ideas and identifying information to be learned. It means that when someone is reading a text, he may find new things that he has not known yet. And he may also find information that will help him in learning something. In this case, his knowledge will certainly be better than before.
From all the theories which have been mentioned above, it can be concluded that reading is an active process in which readers shift between sources of information stated in the printed material by relating readers’ background knowledge to the information or idea provided on a written text. This leads us to analyze notion of reading comprehension, clarified like the following.
2.2 Concept of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is a term that represent an active act of a process in understanding what the purpose of the text is, reading can be media between an author and reader to communicate indirectly through a written text and reading can support the readers to find out something new as their knowledge.
Further, Smith (1982: 6) defines that reading is something that makes sense to the reader, and always should. According to Smith, reading is seen as having four distinctive and fundamental characteristic and one of them is that reading should be based on comprehension. Understanding is the basic, not the consequence of reading. He states that comprehension in reading as a matter of “making sense” of text, of relating written language to what the readers know already and to what the readers want to know.
Comprehension can be regarded as a condition where no uncertainty exists. The learners comprehend when they have all questions answered because they have no doubt alternative interpretations or decisions in their mind. As one reads, the learners constantly asking questions; and as long as these questions are answered, and the learners uncertainty is reduced, then the learners comprehend.
In addition, Ricard (1999) in Afdaleni (2013) defines comprehension as the process by which the person understands the meaning of the written or spoken language. Related to reading, the readers can read sometimes their text well but they fail in bringing the meaning toward their text.
According to Goodman (1988) in Sutarsyah (2013) reading is a receptive process. It creates an interaction between a writer and a reader. It is uneasy thing since a writer and a reader cannot contact each other, they only communicate through the text. So the reader should try some hard effort to do this language skill.
However, reading comprehension is important because it is a matter of identifying letters in order to recognize words to get the meaning from what is read, involving making connection among words and ideas presented in the text and the readers’ own background knowledge about the text they read will have difficulties in comprehending the text (Smith, 1982: 166).
Relating to the clarifications above, it can be inferred that reading the words of a composition is one thing, but comprehension is the vital point for the reader in mastering reading. Reading the words has no benefit if the reader does not comprehend what is being read. If the learners can read the words or texts but
they do not understand what they read, they are not really reading. Thus, comprehension is fundamentally relating the new to the already known. Reading involves more that recognition, which is without comprehension, no reading takes place. In relation to this, Hughes (1989: 116) confirms that reading comprehension include the following.
2.3 Macro and Micro skills in Reading
Language teaching covers four macro-skills needed for communication – listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening and speaking are oral skills. Reading and writing are literacy skills. The four skills can also be grouped another way. Listening and reading are receptive skills since learners need to process and understand language being communicated to them in spoken or written form. Speaking and writing are known as productive skills since learners need to produce language to communicate their ideas in either speech or text.
In this research, the researcher focused on reading as receptive skills, that is, reading skill. Since reading has some aspects that must be understood by learners, they are divided into 2 skills namely, macro-skills and micro-skills. These skills are needed in involving aspects or principles which want to be tested in a test.
According to Hughes (1989:116), the following can be classified as macro-skills that is, scanning text to locate specific information; skimming text to obtain the gist; identifying stages of an argument; identifying example presented in support of argument. Meanwhile, Hughes classifies micro-skills such as
identifying referents of pronouns, etc. It is very important that students can follow the flow of ideas through the text. It is not enough just to understand the words students find in a text, they need to be able to identify words that connect ideas - and the ideas that these words connect. One way writers connect ideas is by their use of pronouns and pronoun-type words and then, using context to guess meaning of unfamiliar words. Guessing is the most common strategy. By using information, the learners assigned a meaning to the unfamiliar words or phrase. However the learners are encouraged to use this strategy in order to follow the author’s idea.
Since this study merely focuses on macro skills, so these reading skills will be elaborated in details in this research.
2.3.1 Concept of Macro Skills in Reading
In learning, there are four macro skills that we must deal with in order to communicate effectively. Macro skills refer to the primary, key, main, and largest skill set relative to a particular context. It is commonly referred to in English language.
Learning and consistently seeking to improve the macro skills are important for effective communication and to be successful in many different perspectives. Ideas, emotions, opinions and feelings need to be conveyed in different manners and in a variety of ways. To know when to use which macro skill to acquire, access, encounter, and evaluate information and ideas is a higher
order of thinking skill that can be learned over time with much practice and strategies
Reading is the third of the four-macro skills. Reading is a complex skill that is taught when the students still young as it's essential for learning and development and vocabulary. It is also an act or activity of rendering aloud written or printed material. Reading is also an ability to understand reading material in a form of a paragraph or a sentence. Usually, the learners use the skill reading for scanning information and understanding what the writers want to tell and evaluate what learners read and incorporate information from multiple sources. When the learners learned the different macro skill including reading it is very helpful in the school or workplace. And there are many advantages associated in reading like learning vocabulary in a context, seeing correct structure in English, and to it will improve your personal interest in reading. When learners read a text, they may usually encounter new word and things. It can help to improve learners’ vocabulary skill and apply it when they are communicating to other people.
2.3.2 Categories of Macro Skills in Reading
According to Hughes (1989:116), the following can be classified as macro-skills, they are:
Scanning text to locate specific information
Scanning means glancing rapidly through a text either to search for a specific piece of information (e.g. a name, a date) to get an initial
impression of whether the text is suitable for a given purpose (e.g. whether
a book on gardening deals with the cultivation of a particular vegetables)
(Nuttal, 1982:31). Scanning involves moving learner eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when the learners first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. When scanning, the learners or readers look for the author's use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, date, or the words, first, second, or next. Here are some examples:
(a) Look at the page and find out when someone died.
(b) (Using a page from an index) on what page is the topic of the text mentioned? c) (Using a page from a telephone directory) what is the telephone number J.B. Keith?
Skimming text to obtain the gist
According to Nuttal (1982:34), by skimming the readers are glancing rapidly through a text to determine its gist or main idea. Actually, there are many techniques that can be used when skimming. Some learners perhaps read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page. They might read the title, subtitles, and subheading of a text. Skimming is very useful when the learners are determining main idea of a text. When skimming a text, students can be asked to locate facts which are expressed in sentence; or they can be asked to say briefly what text is about, or given specific questions that can be answered by glancing quickly through the text. For example:
(b) Which text belongs to this picture or diagram? (One picture and several short texts are supplied)
Identifying stages of an argument
Identifying of argument stage is an activity of the kind that takes place in a critical thinking course where the teacher and the students analyze an argument taken from a text of discourse in everyday conversational argumentation, for example an argument found in a newspaper article or some similar media source. Furthermore, in general, the students are also sensitive to certain words and phrases that mark arguments, e.g., 'my
argument', 'my view', 'my opinion', 'what you should think'. The first step
in enhancing critical thinking ability, though, requires careful reflection on this awareness.
Identifying example presented in support of argument
An argument is defined as any giving of reasons, evidence, or support for the claim that something is true. When someone presents an argument for something, the evidence, reasons or support are directed toward establishing the truth of some conclusions. Thus, the conclusion of an argument is the point that the rest of the argument is supposed to show to be correct or true. Each reason, piece of evidence, and each bit of data used in an argument in support of the conclusion is called a premise. Some key indicator words of a premise might include the following words.
Also for the reason that
as a result of in addition
because of the fact that in view of
first, ..., second is supported by
For researchers found that
2.4 Concept of Reading Strategies
Reading strategies are a way of gaining invaluable insights into the nature of the reading comprehension (Stevenson, Schoonen & Glopper, 2003 as cited in Alsheikh & Mokhtari, 2011:151). Reading strategies are considered as one of the features of cognitive psychology which are essential for a successful comprehension (Zare, 2012; May, 2001; Walker, 2000 as cited in Zare & Othman, 2013:188). Moreover, reading strategies are defined as “techniques and methods readers use to make their reading successful” (Baker & Boonkit, 2004 as cited in Zare & Othman, 2013:188).
On the other hand, reading strategies have been defined by Cohen (1990) as mental processes that readers consciously select to use to complete reading tasks successfully. In accordance with the work of Zhou and Zhao (2014), Cohen also lists 10 subcategories of reading strategies: classification of purpose, organization of text, reading for meaning, focusing on major content, parsimonious use of a dictionary, judicious use of content, ongoing summaries, making prediction, seeking for markers of cohesion and strategies for managing strategies.
Wenden and Rubin (1987: 52-54) identify seven reading strategies that are used by good learners. The summary of these strategies is presented below:
1. Flow-charts and hierarchical summaries. When reading, a learner makes a summary by making a chart that can explain the structure of ideas in the text with its components.
2. Titles. Before reading, a learner is given the title of the text and thinks about the title as a means of building schemata.
3. Embedded headings. The role of embedded heading is used to build advance organizer which is helpful for a learner before he start reading. It can also improve a delayed recall.
4. Pre-reading questions. This strategy can focus a learner’s attention towards the topic of the text.
5. Story specific schema from general schema. In this strategy, a learner brainstorms a general problem solving schema for a short story and sets general questions derived from this schema.
6. Imagery. This ability to use image is needed in reading. A learner with high imagery is able to recall and recognize more items of information from a text than low imagery.
7. Perspective. A learner reads a story from a particular perspective which is important to that perspective. This can also build related schemata that can help him read a text.
In summary, reading strategies are the techniques and methods that learners can use to make their reading successful that learners consciously select to use to complete reading tasks successfully through a cognitive activity.
2.5 The Components of Reading Comprehension
In comprehending an English text, the learners need explicit strategies to use during the process of reading in order to support them with gaining, using, remembering information and making some questions from a text. Hence, in reading there are five components of reading comprehension which help the
learners comprehending an English text by making some questions about a text, they are:
1. Determining main idea
Main idea is the most important piece of information the author wants the readers to know about the concept of that paragraph. The main idea is also the most general statement the writer makes about the topic. Mc Whorter (1986: 32) states that the main idea is called the topic sentence. She adds that the topic sentence tells what the rest paragraph is about. Furthermore, helping the learners learn to identify the main idea is one of the most useful interventions a teacher can initiate (Stewart, 2007:111). She also stated learning to identify the main idea and then remember that idea will help the readers learn to link ideas, finally finding the connections between bits of information that have included in the text. So, the main idea is a chief point an author of making about a topic. It sums up the writer’s primary message and takes a great role in helping the learners to comprehend the content of the paragraph. In related on it, the following example can be used in learning topic about main idea. The material is taken from Source: http://www.belajarbahasainggris.us
“Look,” said the mousedeer. “That is the King’s belt. He asked me to stay here and watch it while he was away in the forest”. The tiger looked at the snake and said, “That’s a beautiful belt. I need a belt like that. Can I wear it?” he asked the mousedeer.
What is the main idea of the second paragraph? a. The lion wants to wear the belt
b. The Mousedeer play a trick to Tiger.
c. The Mousedeer keep King’s belt d. The Lion needs King’s belt
The answer is b. The Mousedeer play a trick to Tiger. The reason of this answer was
caused that thare was some statements than could implied in which mousedeer play a
trick to tiger by telling that the tiger’s belt was beautiful. In fact, mousedeer knew that it
2. Finding the specific information or part of text
Even though understanding the main idea is crucial, focusing in details is also important in learning. According to Stewart (2007:112), details add color and space to ideas and concept in many field of knowledge, and they haelp many of the learners remember information. Moreover, finding the specific information is only scanning or looking for the relevant part(s) and ignoring the irrelevant. It is very useful when the readers or learners know exactly what they are looking for in a text since they have a very specific goal in mind and supporting the main idea. Mc Whother (1986: 36) cites that supporting detail or specific information develops the topic sentence by giving definition, examples, facts, an incidents, comparison, analogy, cause and effect statistic and question. In related on it, the following example can be used in learning of finding the specific information. The material is taken from http://www.grupinggrisbelajar.blogspot.com
One day while a mouse deer was walking in the forest, he saw a big, black snake sleeping under the tree. When he saw the snake, the mousedeer was frightened. When he wanted to run away from the snake, he suddenly fell on top of a tiger which was sleeping not far from the snake. The tiger woke up and took hold of the mousedeer. He told the mousedeer
that he was going to eat him for lunch. “Please don’t eat me now,” said the mousedeer. “I have something important to do”
Where was the tiger sleeping? a. In the middle of the forest. b. Next to the mousedeer’s house.
c. Near the black snake, sleeping under the tree. d. Far away from the place where the mousedeer fell.
The answer is c. It was sleeping near the black snack, sleeping under the tree because it
was obviously stated in the paragraph, that is, “... black snake sleeping under the tree and a tiger which was sleeping not far from the snake...”
3. Finding reference
In accordance with Latulippe (1986: 20) in Sari (2010), references are words or phrases used either before or after the references in the reading material.
It means that, such words are used, they are signal to the readers find the meaning elsewhere in the text. By mastering this ability, the readers will keep staying on what they are reading. The following question can be used in learning topic about reference. The material is taken from http:www.recountext.blogspot.com:
After getting the ticket, they went straight into the hall. It was almost full. They enjoyed the music while waiting for the show to start. The main show started at 17.15. in that film, Charles Bronson was the leading man and Jill Irelans was his partner.
It was almost full. (p.3) The bold word refers to ... a. music
b. ticket c. hall d. the movie
The answer is c. The bold word refers to hall since the word it was explaining the condition of a thing, that is, the hall.
4. Finding inference
According to Nuttall (1982: 11), inference is a way of guessing and predicting about something unknown based on available facts and information. Inference is the intentional use of one thing to indicate something else in which one provides the information necessary to interpret the other. Finding inference means interpreting and determining one linguistic expression to another. The following question can be used in learning topic about inference meaning. The material is taken from http://www.belajarbahasainggris.us:
Some days ago, a movie was showing at the XXI theatre. It was “Cold Sweat”. On Saturday afternoon, Rully took her sister to see it. They left home at 16.50 and got there 10 minutes later. They lived not far from it.
It can be inferred from the text that Ruly did all of the activities, except ... a. took her sister to see a movie
b. bought tickets from a broker
c. could hardly breathe when Charles was almost killed d. her sister went to have dinner
The answer is b. bought tickets from a broker since the paragraph above was one of pieces of a whole text, so you might see Appendix 12 to read whole of the text. Then, it seemed that there was no statement that Ruly bought tickets movie from a broker.
5. Understanding vocabulary
Vocabulary is the stock of word used by the people or even person. Vocabulary is essential for everyone who wants to speak or to produce utterance for reading. To deal with most of the reading skills, it is necessary to assume that the reader’s vocabulary is adequate (Nuttall, 1982:65). But, too much attention to vocabulary can have a harmful effect on the learners’ reading habit. If he keeps stopping to look up new words in the text, it may actually make him a less effective reader. The following question can be used in learning topic about vocabulary. The material is taken from://www.belajarbahasainggris.us:
Rully and her sister liked the movie very much. Charles and his partner played brilliantly
and the story is quite thrilling. They had to face dangerous enemies. Rully could hardly breathe when Charles was almost killed. Her sister closed her eyes when he was tortured by some bandits.
“... was torturedby some bandits.” (p.4) The bold word above means ...
a. hurt b. killed c. murdered d. suffered
The answer is suffered because among the choices, that is, hurt, killed, murdered and suffered the word that has closed meaning in the content is suffered.
Hence, it can be said that reading comprehension is the learners’ ability in comprehending the content of the text. It is the learners’ ability in gaining meaning from the content of the text. By using their ability, the learners can gather any new information and knowledge from the text. It can be done by relating their background knowledge to the writer’s ideas and information drawn in the written texts. The teacher can increase their learners reading comprehension
by using more appropriate teaching technique in reading to their learners in the class. In addition, the researcher was covered main idea, specific information, references, inferences, and vocabulary on the reading test.
2.6 Reading Strategies in Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension strategies are the basic concern and are seen as comprehension processes that enable learners to construct meaning from the text most effectively. In other words, reading strategies show how the learners tackle a reading task, how they interpret their reading and what they do when they do not comprehend. In accordance with Brantmeier (2002: 1) summarizes that the strategies may involve skimming, scanning, guessing, recognizing cognates and word families, reading for meaning, predicting, activating general knowledge, making inferences, following references, and separating main ideas from supporting ideas.
To find the five components of reading comprehension (main idea, specific information or part of the text, reference, inference, and vocabulary), there are some reading strategies that might help the learners to comprehend an English text. They are:
1. Skimming and Scanning
According to Nuttal (1982:34), by skimming the readers are glancing rapidly through a text to determine its gist or main idea. Meanwhile, scanning means glancing rapidly through a text either to search for a specific piece of information. Actually, skimming and
scanning are not a strategy in reading comprehension but they are a skill involving flexibility of technique (Nuttal, 1982:31).
Actually, there are many techniques that can be used when skimming. Some learners perhaps read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page. They might read the title, subtitles, and subheading of a text. Skimming is very useful when the learners are determining main idea of a text. On the other hand, scanning involves moving learner eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when the learners first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. When scanning, the learners or readers look for the author's use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, date, or the words, first, second, or next.
Guessing from context refers to the ability to infer the meaning of an expression using contextual clues. By using contextual clues, the learners assigned a meaning to the unknown words or phrase. However the learners are encouraged to use this strategy in order to follow the author’s idea. Instead of guessing wildly, readers will predict or hypothesize because anticipation which they bring to a text (Smith, 1979 in Sutarsyah, 2013). For example, look at this sentence:
According to the sentence above, the learners can guess the meaning of
yapping by thinking about his knowledge of dogs and sleeping. How can
dogs wake his up? They can jump on you or make a noise. Because this is the neighbour’s dog, not his or hers, it must make a noise. So, the learners can guess that yapping is some kind of noise, probably like barking. In most situations, this is enough information for learners to continue reading. It doesn’t matter if the learners know exactly what kind of noise it is.
Making predictions is a strategy in which readers use information from a text (including titles, headings, pictures, and diagrams) and their own personal experiences to anticipate what they are about to read (or what comes next). According to Nuttall (1982:11), the reader’s sense and experience helps him or her to predict what the writer is likely to say next. Besides, she states that the strategy is so useful to make the learners aware of it so that they can use it to tackle difficult text. For example, watching a film and stopping it part way through. In this case, students are asked to make predictions on what will happen next. Students should be able to explain why they made the prediction. For example, "I think John is going to fall off his bike because he is carrying a box while he is riding and his bike is wobbling." This way can help students to follow the logic of the story to make their predictions rather than just make guesses.
4. Interpreting Reference
To cope with reference, the learners must be able to recognize that it is the reference word that is causing the problem; since words like it and this are so common, the first step is to make the learners aware of the potential difficulties by drawing attention to them.
5. Inference from Context
To infer meaning from context, powerful aid to comprehension can be given to the learners. Inferring meaning is a way the learners all have to some degree in L1 (Nuttall, 1982:70). According to Nuttall (1982), there are some ways to infer meaning from the text. She suggests that one of way of beginning will be with sentences containing nonsense words. It is easy to show the learners that some kind of understanding is possible even in such cases. So, the learners will soon realize that they can get a good deal of information from the sentence even though the learners do not really understand it. Besides, Nuttall suggests the second step might be to get learners to suggest what range of words could be used to complete unfulfilled sentence. In this way, the learners will begin to recognize that the possibilities are not limitless.
6. Activating Background Knowledge
In accordance with Cerrell (1983) in Sutarsyah (2013) asserts that the ability to understand texts is based not only on the reader’s linguistic knowledge, but also on his general knowledge of the world and the extent to which that knowledge is activated during the mental process of reading.
To activate learners’ background knowledge, a teacher may ask the learners before giving a text to be read by the learners. The questions should relevant with what a text will be given.
7. Opening Dictionary
When finding difficulty in reading, some learners stop for a moment to find out the meaning of unknown words. Sutarsyah (2013:211) states that in using this strategy, the learners basically use a dictionary when reading. They stop reading when they find difficulty and then open a dictionary to get the meaning of the difficulty words.
2.7 Concept of Learning Strategies
Learning strategies are specific actions taken by a learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situation (Oxford, 1990: 8). Besides, Chamot (2004: 1) defines learning strategies as the thoughts and actions that individual use to accomplish learning. It means that a learning strategy is a way which is used by learner in order to acquire, accomplish and gather information effectively during teaching-learning process.
Wenden and Rubin (1987:19) cite that learning strategies include any set of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learners to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval and use of information. Furthermore, learning strategies also constitute the steps or actions consciously selected by learners either to improve the learning of the second language, the use of it or both (Cohen, 1998:3). They
include strategies for identifying the material that needs to be learned; distinguishing from other material if needed, grouping it for easier learning; repeatedly engaging oneself in contact with the material; and formally committing to memory when it does not seem to be acquired naturally.
In summary, learning strategies are a set of operations, plans or steps used by learners to get and improve their aim in acquiring, accomplishing and gathering information during teaching-learning process.
2.8 Categories of Learning Strategies
Two basic categories of strategies can be distinguished in language learning: learning strategies and communication strategies. In accordance with Brown (1980:83) in Suparman (2010:51), a learning strategy is a method of perceiving and storing particular items for later recall. Besides, learning strategies are strategies which contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and affects directly (Rubin, 1987). By contrast, a communication strategy is a method of achieving communication, of encoding or expressing meaning in a language.
The classification of language learning strategies has been reviewed by Wenden (as cited in Setiyadi, 2011, pp. 18-19). She classifies language learning strategies into two broad categories. The first category, cognitive strategies, involves selecting information from incoming data, comprehending and storing the information, and retrieving the information. The second category, which is
called self-management strategies or metacognitive strategies, involves planning, monitoring and evaluating.
In addition, language learning strategies have also been proposed by O’Malley et al. (1985) in Setiyadi (2011), who consider psychologically based issues in their classifications. In O’Malley et al.’s study (1985) the classification consists of three categories, namely: metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and social strategies (as cited in Setiyadi, 2011, p. 15-16). Another study that uses psychological based consideration similar to O’Malley et al.’s study is Oxford and Nyikos’s (1990a:15-47). In their study, language learning strategies are categorized into 1) direct strategies and 2) indirect strategies. The direct strategies are subdivided into 1) memory strategies, 2) cognitive strategies, and 3) compensation strategies. The indirect strategies are subdivided into metacognitive strategies, affective strategies, and social strategies.
Even though the above classifications can facilitate this research, a more detailed and systematic strategy taxonomy is still needed. The researcher considers using O’Malley et al.’s language learning strategies classification, namely: metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and social strategies in this research since their classification seems more detailed and systematic.
2.8.1 Cognitive Learning Strategies
Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning task and they involve more manipulation directly of the learning material itself. Repetition, resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking, deduction, recombination, imagery,
auditory representation, key word, contextualization, elaboration, transfer, inferencing are among the most important in cognitive strategies (O’Malley’s, 1985, as cited in Hismanoglu, 2000).
Meanwhile, Rubin (1981) in Wenden and Rubin (1987:23-25), cognitive strategies refer to the steps or operations used in learning or problem-solving that require direct analysis. Rubin identifies six general strategies which may contribute directly to language learning:
1. Clarification or verification refers to those strategies which learners use to verify or clarify their misunderstanding of the new language.
2. Guessing or inductive inferencing refers to strategies which use previously obtained linguistic or conceptual knowledge to derive explicit hypotheses about the linguistic form, semantic meaning or speaker’s intention. The learners can use what they know about their own or a second language to infer meaning. Furthermore, they may use their first language as a basis for understanding and/or producing the second language but they must also recognize the limits of using this knowledge as a source of inferencing.
3. Deductive reasoning is a problem-solving strategy in which the learner looks for and uses general rules in approaching the foreign or second language. The difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that in inductive reasoning the learner is looking for a specific meaning or specific rule whereas in deductive reasoning the learner is looking for and using more general rules. The process is used to find organization and patterns that make sense to the learner in order to obtain and store
information about a language in an organized and retrievable (to the specific learner) fashion.
4. Practice refers to strategies which contribute to the storage and retrieval of language while focusing on accuracy of usage. Practice involves strategies such as repetition, rehearsal, experimentation, application of rules, imitation, and attention to detail.
5. Memorization also refers to strategies which focus on the stroge and retrieval of language. However, in the case of memorization, attention is paid to the stroge and retrieval process. The goal of these strategies is organization.
6. Monitoring refers to strategies in which the learner notices errors, observes how a message is received and interpreted by the addresses, and then decides what to do about it. The monitoring process appears to be a combination of cognitive and metacognitive strategies.
2.8.2 Metacognitive Strategies
In accordance with Oxford (1990), there are two major kinds of learning strategies: “Direct and indirect strategies. These two strategies are subdivided into total six groups (memory, cognitive, and comprehension under the direct strategies meanwhile metacognitive, affective, and social under the indirect strategies). Metacognitive means beyond, beside or with the cognitive. Therefore, metacognitive strategies are actions which go beyond purely cognitive devices, and provide a way for learners to coordinate their own learning process.”
Direct strategies require some kinds of direct mental activity. These include the way to remember effectively, activate cognitive process, and compensate for missing knowledge. Oxford describes the strategies as “a
performer” in stage play, working with the language itself in a variety of specific
task and situation. Meanwhile, indirect startegies are means by which learners inderectly manage or control their own learning process. The strategies involve learners effort to organize and evaluate their own learning, to manage their emotions, and to learn from others. Indirect strategies can be linked to “the director” of the play which serves a host of functions.
It can be seen that metacognitive strategies are part of inderect learning strategies which enable learners to create and to be responsible for their own language learning. In addition, metacognitive learning strategies refer to knowledge above cognition or executive control of self-management through such processes as planning, monitoring, and evaluating (Wenden & Rubin, 1990). Moreover, they are used to oversee regulate or self-directed language learning. Learners with metacognitive strategies can make plan for their studies. Learners without metacognitive approaches are essentially learners without directions and abilities to review their accomplishment, progress, and future learning direction and abilities to review their accomplishment, progress, and future learning direction (Wenden & Rubin, 1987: 25).
Further, Oxford (1990) believes that metacognitive learning strategies affect learners’ achievement in learning especially in reading skill. As she states that other metacognitve learning strategies such as paying attention, over viewing with already unknown material, organizing, setting goals and objectives,
considering the purpose, and planning for language task, help learners to arrange and plan their reading comprehension in efficient and effective way.
Considering with Oxford statement, it can be said that there is an implication between metacognitive learning strategies and learners’ achievement in reading comprehension. Moreover, based on Oxford, Wenden and Rubin, it is assumed that metacognitive strategies give possibilities for the learners to manage their own learning process through planning, monitoring, and evaluating. Moreover, the goal of this strategy teaches learners how to become purposeful, effective, and independent learners.
In addition, O’Malley and Chamot (1990) define metacognitive learning strategies as higher order executive skills that may entail planning for, monitoring, or evaluating of the success of a learning activity. Here some strategies classified under metacognitive according to O’Malley and Chamot:
- Advance organizers: planning the learning activity in advance. In this case, the students review the materials before they go into class, so that they have enough preparation in advance activity.
- Selective attention: deciding to pay attention to specific parts of the language input or the situation that will help the learners. For example, the students will focus on determining signal words when there is a question about reference. As a result, they have to give their attention toward which part they want to find out.
- Advance preparation: planning for and rehearsing linguistic components necessary to carry out an upcoming language task . In this strategy,
linguistic components are needed such 1) grammatical, 2) sociolinguistic, 3) discourse, and 4) strategic components. Grammatical component refers to the readers’ grammar knowledge which has an impact on getting meaning. Sociolinguistic is the readers’ ability to use language appropriately in various social contexts. Discourse component refers to the knowledge of acceptable patterns in written and spoken language which help interpret the texts. Strategic component refers to the readers’ ability to use a variety of language strategies while reading.
- Self-management: trying to arrange the appropriate conditions for learning and understanding necessary conditions for reading and managing their own motivation for tasks as well as adjusting reading rate. For example, the students sit in the front of the class so they can see the teacher easily. - Self-monitoring: checking one’s performance as one speaks. Here, the
students sometimes cut short a word because they realize they are unable to select appropriate word.
- Delayed production: deliberately postponing speaking that one may learn by listening. For example, the students talk when they have to, but they keep it short and hope they will be understood.
- Self-evaluation: checking how well one’s doing against one’s own standards. Here, the students can identify their achievement objectively. In this case, students evaluate what they have done on their tasks according to the standard rule. They at last can recognize how well their achievement is.
All the strategies explained above are very important for learners to gain their attention and energy on focusing to certain language ask, activities skills, or materials in their language learning process. Learners who apply these strategies have chances to organize and plan their learning especially in reading comprehension in order to get the best. Therefore, it is really necessary for learners to have knowledge about metacognitive strategies and of course to also apply these strategies in their comprehending English texts, so they can optimize and achieve their learning goals in reading.
2.8.3 Social Strategies
Social strategies are often called as a social mediation, the strategies under this category are asking question, cooperating with other, and empathizing with others (Setiyadi, 2012). Social strategies are those activities learners engage in which afford them opportunities to be exposed to and practice their knowledge (Wenden & Rubin, 1987).
Wong-Fillmore (1976) in Wenden and Rubin (1987) identifies two social strategies: join a group and act as if you understand what is going on, even if you do not, and count on your friends for help. These strategies contribute only indirectly to learning since they do not lead directly to the obtaining, storing, retrieving, and using of language.
Wenden and Rubin (1987) also makes a list other activities which may contribute indirectly to learning, all of them under the rubric: “creates opportunity for practice”. The list includes: creates situation with natives in order to verify or
test or practice; initiates conversation with student or teacher or native speaker; answer to self; questions to other students; spends extra time in language lab; listens to television or radio, attends movies or parties or uses advertisement, reads extra books often first in native language, then in target language; and identifies learning preferences and selects learning situations accordingly.
In summary, in using social strategies the learners prefer to ask other people than to learn by themselves. It indicates that the learners tend to learn with their peers or to consult with the teacher when they find some difficulties in comprehending reading text. In addition, they usually have a discussion and create an opportunity to share idea for practicing with their peers (cooperation), help the other friends when they get confused about the text, and sometimes giving praise to other. So, it can be predicted the students may have equal reading achievement.
So, in relation to reading skill, social strategies can give a big effect since these strategies contribute to develop equal opportunity for the learners practicing their reading skill indirectly by creating group discussion and sharing their opinion of a text. It can then be assumed that their reading achievement will also be relatively similar.
2.9 Good and Poor Language Learners
A good or poor language learner means a learner’s who is successful and unsuccessful in using some efforts in order to improve her or his language skill. In accordance with Fedderholdt (1998), successful language learners make use of different types of learning strategies. The language learner, who is able to use a
wide variety of language learning strategies appropriately, is better equipped to improve her language skills. In this point, we can see that good learners will know what they should do to improve their language skill than the poor ones.
Furthermore, Rubin (1987) suggests that good L2 learners are willing and accurate guessers; have a strong drive to communicate; are often uninhibited; are willing to take mistakes; focus on form by looking for and analyzing the patterns, take advantage of all practice opportunities, monitor their speech as well as that of others, and pay attention to meaning. While, according to Omaggio (1978) in Setiyadi (2011: 59) introduce language learning strategies that successful language learners employ. The learning strategies that successful language learners employ are as seen below.
1. Successful language learners have insight into their own language learning styles and preferences as well as the nature of the task itself.
In this case, the successful learners adopt personal style or positive learning strategy that fits their needs and preferences. They can adapt to various methodologies and materials and know how to find, sort, and analyze the linguistic data.
2. Successful language learners take an active approach to the learning task.
This actually means that the learners select learning objectives for themselves and deliberately involve themselves in the second language. They are sensitive to connotative and sociocultural meaning because they contribute to amount of implicit information people provide when communicating about a topic and
are socialised to act, communicate and „be’ in ways that are culturally appropriate to the groups in which the students participate as members, and through which identities are formed.
3. Good language learners are good guessers.
The learners use clues effectively and make legitimate inferences. For example, the success of reading comprehension strategies that involves guessing including using contextual clues to determine meaning and reading „around’ unknown words.
4. Good language learners generally have a tolerant and outgoing approach to the target language.
The learners are able to put themselves on another person’s place, identifying to some extent with the native speakers.
Moreover, Rubin in Wenden and Rubin (1987:15) assume that successful learners will differ to some extent in the particular sets on cognitive processes and behaviors which they use to enable them to be successful. Related to Rubin’s previous assumption, O’Malley in (1987:133) suggests that less competent learners should be able to improve their skills in a second language through training on strategies evident among more successful language learners. With successful training, less competent learners should be able to apply strategies to similar language task.
In addition, Hismanoglu (2000) states that the unsuccessful learners employed cognitive strategies less frequently and less effectively than successful
comprehension. It was that the learners need to be informed about the language learning strategies in reading comprehension and in using appropriate language learning strategies in reading comprehension. That was because the learning strategies were considered to be one of the ways in improving the learners’ reading comprehension achievement.
According to the conclusions above, the researcher would like to give some suggestions the first year students of SMA Al-Kautsar Bandarlampung, teachers and the further researchers as follows:
For the successful learners who use cognitive strategies, the researcher suggests that they have to apply them constantly in comprehending English texts in order to get a better result as time goes by. Moreover, it sounds good if they can simultaneously use both metacognitive and social strategies as frequent as in using cognitive strategies. It is expected that the learners can integrate them in a time until the learners can master reading comprehension.
For the unsuccessful learners, the researcher recommends how the successful ones manage their reading strategy in reading. They can observe what the successful learners do in the comprehending the text. From this point on, the successful learners used cognitive strategies frequently than the less successful ones. So, the researcher suggests the unsuccessful language learners to apply cognitive strategies in order to improve their skill in comprehending the text.
Moreover, the sudents need to give more attention to some reading comprehension aspects such difficult aspect as determining main idea, inference, and vocabulary. They are emphasized because they are the aspects that get low points.
In order to help the successful language learners to be more successful learners, the teacher can motivate them to evaluate their weakness in reading comprehension. After that the teacher may suggest the learners to overcome their problem by practicing or elaborating the strategies in learning. So, it would be better if the learners try to employ and elaborate those kinds of strategies to make them to be more successful learners.
3. Further researchers
The researcher suggests the further researchers as follows:
a) This research was limited by the use of two classes and short-time period. Therefore, further researchers concerning with learning strategies should try to investigate with randomized subjects and it should be conducted in a longer- time period to get more reliable on the result of the research.
b) It is also suggested to further researchers to use more instruments to measure the frequency and the correlation of learning strategies toward learners’ reading comprehension, such as observation, protocol analysis, and learners’ diary.
c) The researcher recommends further researchers of learning strategies in reading to conduct deep investigation on the process of learning strategies by adding more
than two variables, like motivation, linguistic components, and non-linguistic factors.
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