The Difference Between Successful and Unsuccessful Learners in The Use of Learning Strategies in Listening Skill
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL LEARNERS IN THE USE OF LEARNING STRATEGIES IN LISTENING
MUHAMMAD REZA FEBRIAN
This present study aimed to investigate whether (1) there is any significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different learning strategies in English listening skill, (2) learning strategy that is most
effective in students’ listening ability, and (3) learning strategies most frequently used by the students in listening at the second year students of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung. There are three classifications of learning strategies used in this present study namely metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and social strategies.
This is a quantitative study. The independent variable is learning strategies and the dependent variable is learners’ listening skill. The samples of the study were the
learners at the second grade of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung. For the instruments, the researcher used Language Listening Strategy Questionnaire and objective listening test. The data were obtained from both test. Independent t-test
was used to analyze the data of learners’ listening skill and learning strategies.. The hypothesis was computed by SPSS 19 at the significant level of 0.05.
The result showed that (1) there is significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using cognitive and social learning strategies in English listening skill. Yet, this study found that there is no significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using metacognitive in English listening skill (2) The most effective learning strategies can be used by the students in listening ability is metacognitive strategies (3) Social strategy is the type of language learning strategies mostly used by the students in English listening ability. On the metacognitive, it was resulted that t value is 2,254 and its two tailed significance showed p>0.05 (p=0.065). Moreover, on the cognitive table resultedthat t value is 6,215 and its two tailed significance showed p<0.05 (p=0.02). On the social, t value is 3,545 and its two tailed significance showed p<0.05 (p=0.02). The highest mean of students’ listening score is achieved in metacognitive learning strategies, both in successful (83,8) and unsuccessful learners (73,67). The present study showed that there are 8 students (22.2%) who use metacognitive strategy, 7 students (19,4%) use cognitive strategy, and 21 students (58,4%) use social strategy.
Keywords : successful learners, unsuccessful learners, learning strategies, listening skill.
In the name of Allah SWT, the most Merciful God, the writer praises his thankfulness for the blessing so that the writer was able to finish this work. This research entitled “The Difference Between Successful and Unsuccessful Learners in the Use of Different Learning Strategies in English Listening Skill”. This research is submitted as a compulsory fulfillment of the requirements for S-1 Degree of English Education Study Program in Language and Art Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty at Lampung University.
Gratitude and honor are addressed to all people who have helped and supported the writer to complete this research. Since, it is necessary to be known that this research will never have come into its existence without any supports, encouragements, and assistances by several outstanding people and institutions. Therefore, the writer would like to acknowledge his respect and sincere gratitude to:
1. Prof. Ag. BambangSetiyadi, M.A., Ph.D. as the first advisor, for whose guidance, advice, and assistance were invaluably useful.
2. Drs. RamlanGintingSuka as the second advisor for his assistance, ideas, guidance and carefulness.
vii added a lot to the entire research project.
4. Dr. Ari Nurweni, M.A. as the Chief of English Education Study Program and all lecturers of English Education Study Program who have contributed their guidance during the completion process until accomplishing this research.
5. Mam Susan as the English teacher of SMAN 14Bandar Lampungwho has given the full support for this research.
6. The writer’s beloved parents, Muhammad Gufron,S.Pd. and Dra. Hanifah, M.Pd who have always been in writer’s mind and heart.
7. The writer’s brother, Muhammad Kevin Naufal, who has supported the writer.
8. The writer’s special one at this moment, KetrinViollitaS.Pd., who always encourages, motivates and inspires the writer to finish the study soon. 9. The writers’“Universe Best Comrades” – Pelangi Community- who are
Finally, similar to other novice research, the writer believes that his writing is still far from perfection. There may be drawbacks and weaknesses in the research. Thus, comments, critiques, and suggestions are always welcomed for the purpose of better research. Somehow, the writer hopes this research would give a positive contribution to the educational development, the reader, and to those who want to accomplish further research.
Bandar Lampung, December 2014
Never stop dreaming even if you keep falling.
Because unconsciously you will be standing far
from where you were at the first time.
The writer’s name is Muhammad Reza Febrian. He was born on February 9th 1992 in Pekalongan. He is the first child of Muhammad Gufron, S.Pd. and Dra. Hanifah, M.Pd.
He began his formal educational institution for the first time at TK Ismariain 1996 and graduated in 1997. He continued his study at SD Al Kautsar Bandar Lampungand graduated in 2003. Then he continued to study at SMPN 2 Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2006. After that he pursued his study at SMAN 2 Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2009. At the same year, in 2009he was registered as a student of English Education Study Program in Language and Art Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Lampung University.
From July02nd to September 10th 2011, he carried out Teaching Practice Program (PPL) at SD N 2 Sidomulyo in South Lampung.
I dedicate this humble work to:
My dearest parents
Muhammad Gufron, S.Pd. and Dra.Hanifah, M.P
My Brother M. KevinNauval
My FianceeKetrinViollita, S.Pd.
LIST OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ……….. i
APPROVAL ……….. ii
CURRICULUM VITAE ……… iii
MOTTO ………. v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………. vi
LIST OF CONTENTS ……… ix
LIST OF TABLES AND APPENDICES ……….. xi
I. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the Problem ... 1
1.2. Formulation of the Problems ... 4
1.3. Objective of the Research ... 5
1.4. Significance of the Research ... 6
1.5. Scope of the Research ... 7
1.6. Definition of Terms ... 8
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Concept of Learning Strategies ... 10
2.2. Concept of Listening ... 13
2.3. Concept of Listening Comprehension ... 16
2.4 Characteristics of Successful and Unsuccessful Learners ………….. 20
2.5. Categories of Learning Strategies ………. 21
2.5.1Rubin’s Classification of Learning Strategies ... 22
2.5.2 Naiman’s Classification of Learning Strategies ... 23
2.5.3Fillmore’s Classification of Learning Strategies ……… 24
2.5.4O’ Malley’s Classification of Learning Strategies ………. . 24
2.5.5 Oxford’s Classification of Learning Strategies ……… .. 25
2.6. Learning Strategies in Listening ... 28
2.7. The Frequency of Using Learning Strategies………... 31
2.8. Review of the Related Research ... 32
2.9. Theoritical Assumption ………... 33
3.2. Population and Sample ... 37
3.3. Data Collecting Technique ... 38
3.4. Research Instrument ………... ... 39
3.5.Criteria of Good Test ... 40
3.6. Validity of the Instrument ... 41
3.6.1. The Validity of the Questionnaire ... 41
3.6.2. The Validity of the Listening Test ... 42
3.7. The Reliability of the Instruments ... 43
3.8. Level of Difficulty... 45
3.9. Discrimination Power... 46
3.10 Treatment of the Data... 47
3.11 Research Procedures ………. . 48
3.12. Data Analysis ... 50
3.13 Hypothesis Testing ... 51
IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Result of the Research ... 52
4.2. Result of the Try Out Test ………. .. 53
4.3. Result of the Listening Test Reliability ... 54
4.4. Normality Test ... 56
4.5. Hypothesis Testing of the Research ... 58
4.6. The Most Effective Learning Strategies in Students’ Listening Ability ... 60
4.7. Type of Learning Strategies Most Frequently Used by the Students in Listening ... 62
V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1. Conclusions ... 64
5.2. Suggestions ... 66
REFERENCES ... 67
APPENDICES ... 69
LIST OF TABLES
1. Specification Table of Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire….. 42
2. Specification of Listening Test ... 42
3. The Result of First Test and Second Test of Listening Test………. 55
4. The Result of Descriptive Statistic Frequencies Analysis for Learning Strategies and Listening Ability Data ... 56
5. The Comparison Between Skweness Value and Std. Error of Skweness and the Comparison between Kurtosis Value and St. Error Kurtosis Value ... 57
6. The comparison of means between successful and unsuccessful learners 60 7. The Frequency of Learning Strategies Questionnaire ... 63
LIST OF APPENDICES AppendicesPage 1. Research Schedule ... 70
2. Try-out Test ... 71
3. Try-out Test Answer Key ... 81
4. Listening Test ... 82
5. Listening Test Answer Key ... 90
6. Listening Test Result ... 91
7. Listening Questionnaire ... 96
8. Listening Questionnaire Result ……… ... 102
9. The Reliability of Listening Try Out Test ... 106
10.Level of Difficulty & Discrimination Power ... 109
11.Normality Test ... 110
12.Hypothesis Testing ... 112
This chapter discuss about introduction of the research that is used in this study such as; background of the problem, formulation of the problems, objective of the research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and definition of terms.
1.1. Background of the Problem
English teaching has been conducted in every school in Indonesia. It starts from elementary school to university level as a compulsory subject. In order to come to the objectives of English learning effectively, various learning strategies are needed by the students. Since different learners may use different learning strategies, they need to be aware of choosing appropriate and effective strategies in order to be able to successfully learn English and to easily face several tasks given. The success or failure in English learning is affected by the learning strategies used by students. As Rubin (1975:41) states:
The different success of second or foreign language suggests a need to examine in detail what strategies successful language learners employ. An indication is given of what these strategies might consist of and a list of several widely recognized good learner strategies are given. Teachers can improve their performance by paying more attention to learner strategies already seen as productive.
The statement stated above means that language learning strategies used are crucial aspect for learners in English learning because the success of learning a foreign language may depends on what and how learning strategy used by
learners. The learners can develop their language skills in a better way if they have a capability in using a wide variety in language strategies. The more frequent students use a greater variety and number of learning strategies, the more proficient they would be. Thus, it is essential to know the strategies students have in language learning.
Specifically, language learning strategies play important roles in one of receptive skills i.e listening skill. According to Griffee (1986), listening can be considered as the first step in learning a language. Besides that, McIntosh (1979:65) stated that listening is one of the most important and fundamental of the four skills in language learning because listening gives the students information from which to complete the learners’ knowledge in using English. The strategies employed by the students in comprehending the message in listening will determine how the students achieve the objectives. It is assumed that the students who use good strategies will be able to answer the listening test items and to comprehend the received message well. In other words, using an appropriate learning strategy might result in the success of study particularly in listening. Moreover, it can be assumed that in some cases using appropriate learning strategy has correlation towards students’ listening achievement. Even so, many students of all ages seem relatively uninformed about effective learning strategies (Barnett, 2001; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Prawat, 1989; Schommer, 1994a).
As indicated by Cohen (2000), many researchers in the field of second and foreign language (L2) listening agree on the idea that listeners do not often utilize these strategies to handle listening tasks in an effective way. It can be assumed that the
learners may be not aware of what and how the strategies they have to use in facing several tasks, especially in listening skill.
Based on the researcher pre- observation, it was found that students’ has a very limited knowledge of learning strategy. Most of them had no idea of what learning strategy is and how can it be applied trough out their studies even though they are using it unconsciously. This assumption is in line with theory of Chamot et al that learning strategy is some classified habits of people’s natural behavior in learning.
This present study focuses on learning strategies used by successful and unsuccessful learners. Successful learners then can be defined as the learners who have good preparation before the class is started, a great curiosity on what is being learned, and they also achieve above average- grades. Meanwhile unsuccessful learners are often carelessly prepared, are forced to attend the class, and they earn low average grades. Concerning the fact above, the researcher would like to evidence and to classify the students learning strategies used in by the second grade of SMAN 14 Bandar Lampung and analyze the difference of listening skills among successful and unsuccessful learners in using language learning strategies, and the use of their different learning strategies will characterize their achievement.
The writer chooses senior high school students because they have more capability in understanding how they learn so the research will be more reliable. Furthermore, by identifying learners’ strategies and analyze the difference of listening skills among successful and unsuccessful users in using language learning strategies, it may give information of learners’ learning strategies in
language learning, especially in listening process. This research will also give the information of which learning strategies is the most effective in listening learning process. The teacher then will be able to make a positive effort to prevent or
reduce the students’ problem which is related to the learning strategies traits especially in mastering listening subject.
Therefore, this research attempts to investigate whether there is any significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different learning strategies in English listening comprehension ability at the second year students of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung.
1.2. Formulation of the Problems
Based on the identification of the probem above, the researcher formulates the problem as follow
1. Is there any significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different learning strategies in English listening comprehension ability?
2. Which learning strategy is the most effective in students’ listening ability? 3. What type of language learning strategies do the learners use most frequently
1.3. Objective of the Research
The objectives of this research are:
1.3.1 To find out whether there is any significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different learning strategies in English listening comprehension ability.
1.3.2 To find out which learning strategy that is most effective in students’ listening ability.
1.3.3 To explore learning strategies most frequently used by the students in listening at the second year students of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung.
1.4. Significance of the Research
The significances of this research are:
Theoretically, this present research can be used to:
1. Verify and contribute the previous studies and theories related to theories in this research
2. Be used as a reference for further research
Practically, this present research can be used to:
1. Encourage English teachers and learners in applying learning strategies in their learning process, especially in listening.
2. Persuade learners to use appropriate and effective strategies in listening comprehension.
3. Build learners’ habit of applying appropriate learning strategies in completing their language tasks.
1.5. Scope of the Research
This research is quantitative in nature. The independent variable is learning strategies. There are three major learning strategies that were investigated namely cognitive, metacognitive, and social strategies. Meanwhile, the dependent variable is learners’ listening ability. The focus of this research covers the identification of learning strategies used by the students and their achievement in listening ability. This research also intends to answer which strategies mostly used by the students in their listening and which is the most effective. This research was conducted at the second grade students of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung which consists of 36 students in academic year 2013/2014. The researcher determined the sample by using simple random sampling and chose one class by using lottery as the sample. The measurement of learners’ learning strategies is based on the questionnaire proposed by Setiyadi called Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (LLSQ). The students’ listening comprehension was measured by narrative text of listening test.
1.6. Definition of Terms
Based on the description above, the researcher provides several definitions of terms that can across often during the research. The term below will guide the reader in reading and understanding the thesis.
Language Learning Strategy is a term that refers to particular thoughts and behaviors used in the purpose of attaining learning objectives independently.
It deals with the all activities that take place in the brain in order to acquire a foreign language.
It refers to the study of the ways in which people monitor and control their own cognitive strategy.
It concerned with the nature and form of social interaction and how people come to influence one another’s behavior.
Listening is an active skill requiring listeners to deal with a variety of complicated tasks, such as discriminating between sounds and interpreting stress and intonation.
Listening Skill is the ability to grasp general idea and to comprehend information from a spoken passage we hear.
Successful learners is a group of students which categorized by their high achievement in listening ability (upper group from the median score).
Un-successful learners is a group of students which categorized by their low achievement in listening ability (lower group from the median score).
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter discusses about the literature review used in this study such as: concept of learning strategies, concept of metacognitive learning strategies, concept of listening, concept of listening comprehension, the correlation between metacognitive learning strategies and students’ listening comprehension, theoritical assumptions and hypothesis.
2.1. Concept of Learning Strategies
English is a compulsory subject that must be taught since it is a global language that have to be mastered by the students as a means of communication. However, some of the students have difficulties in English both oral and written. There were
many approaches introduced to motivate students in learning English. However, those approaches are not enough for mastering English if the students do not have the effective strategies that can boost up their ability in learning English. Students should have the effective strategies that can make them learn the language more effectively.
In real definition, “strategy” is often used in military which means preparation and management of troops in order to reach victory in war. Meanwhile, in teaching learning process, strategy can be defined as learner’s actions to reach the
learning goal. The use of language learning strategies significantly predicts success on learning English. Setiyadi (2011:45) says that teachers should introduce learning strategies to their students and provide opportunity for their students to implement the strategies which have been proved to be more effective than other strategies. Learning is the conscious process used by the learners to achieve the objectives, while learning strategy is the steps taken by language learners to enhance any aspect of their language.
The researcher assumes that students’ learning strategies can be one of the best approach in getting new information and knowledge in order to achieve the learning objectives. O’ Malley and Chamot (1990: 1) in Brown (2005: 5) defines learning strategies as the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information. Supporting O’ Malley and Chamot’s definition, Bialystok’s early definition (1978: 71) points out about learning strategies in the concept of second language. Learning strategies is optimal means for exploiting available information to improve competence in a second language, while Oxford (2004) defines that learning strategies are specific behaviors or thought processes that students use to enhance their own L2 learning. These concepts imply that learning strategies can be used by the students to exploit more knowledge in language acquisition and to have better result in students’ achievement.
By having appropriate language learning strategies, the researcher assumes that the students will be easier to get new information and to acquire the language. Besides, language learning strategies are also able to lead the students learning language independently. These statements are in line with Wenden (1987) who
states that language learning strategies refers to language learning behaviors that learners actually engage in to learn and regulate the learning of second or foreign language. The research also pointed out that learner who uses learning strategies becomes more effective learner. Therefore the use of appropriate language learning strategies often results in improving proficiency or achievement overall or specific skills area (Thompson and Rubin in Oxford 1990). .
Several researchers might have different classification of learning strategies due to a lot of learning strategies categorization proposed. Yet, they basically have the same point of view in classifying learning strategies. According to O’Malley, et al. (1985: 582-584) in Hismanoglu (2000), typical strategies are divided into three categories, i.e. metacognitive, cognitive, and social strategy. Metacognitive strategies is a term to express executive function, strategies which require
planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place,
monitoring of one’s production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. Cognitive strategies are strategies which refer to the steps or operations used in learning or problem- solving that requires direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis of learning materials. Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and they involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself, for instance repetition, resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking etc. The last is social strategies which are related to social-mediating activity and transacting with others. Cooperation and question for clarification are the main social strategies.
Based on the explanations and classifications of learning strategies above, it can be inferred that it is worth noting that the students have to be independent learners since they do not always need the teacher around to guide them. In order to reach that, the students are to have suitable strategies in their learning so that they can learn easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, and more effective in order to reach greater self-confidence, involvement, and proficiency. Besides, the researcher also concludes learning strategy as a term that refers to particular thoughts and attitudes used in the purpose of achieving learning goals independently. The thoughts and attitudes can be categorized into metacognitive, e.g. managing the learning objectives; cognitive, like summarizing; and social, such as sharing ideas and thoughts to peers.
2.2. Concept of Listening
Listening is an action requiring participation on the part of listener in gaining and comprehend the whole message. According to Margaret (1988:19) listening is an active process in which the listener plays a very active part in constructing the overall message that is actually exchanged between the listener and speaker. The idea above indicates that the listeners are usually playing an active role because they should have ability to digest the message of the speaker. Underwood (1985:1) stated that listening is the activity of paying attention to and trying to get meaning from something we hear. He also states that the essence of listening is the listener; the listener should be encouraged to engage in active process of listening for meaning.
Moreover, Nation (1985:17) adds that listening is not only the way of learning language that can give the learner information from which to build up the knowledge necessary for using the language but also the way to get information or to understand the sense of communication which will be sent in oral. The importance of listening can be seen from Oliver’s statement (1962:227) who says that some studies indicate that we spent about 9 percent of our communication time writing, 16 percent reading, 30 percent speaking, and 45 percent listening. Referring to the statement above, it can be concluded that listening has the largest proportion in communication than other skills.
According to Brown (2007: 308) there are two skills required in listening process, they are; macro and micro skills. Macro skills would be directly related to candidates needs or to course objective, and might include: (1) listening for specific information, (2) obtaining gist of what is being said, (3) following directions. Micro skills might include: (1) interpretation of intonation patterns
(recognition of sarcasm, etc), (2) recognition of function of structures (such as interrogative as request, for example, Could you pass the salt?).
As mentioned on the paragraph above, there are some types of macro skill in listening. Listening for specific information means that the students try to find clear information from the source. For example, the students try to get information about weather from the weather forecast in the television. Then, listening of gist refers to understanding what the speaker said in a general way. For example, the students try to find the main topic of what the speaker had said. Listening by following directions means that the students should listen spoken direction from the source. For example, the students listen to the native speaker then they should
do the activity based on the direction from the native speaker. Moreover, there are also some types of micro skill in listening. Interpretation of intonation patterns means that the students try to understand the meaning of the speaker said based on the intonation whether it is normal conversation or it is a sarcasm. Then, recognition of function structures means that the students have to identify what the speaker said based on the function of structures. In this case, the writer choose to put more focus on macro skill since it is not really difficult to understand and it also more appropriate for the level of senior high school students.
Concerning the explanation above, it reveals that listening in main skills is not easy since the listener should seriously pay attention, interpret, and be able to understand what the speaker said in order to comprehend the message. Listening effectively to others can be the most fundamental and powerful communication tool of all. When someone is willing to focus without talking then begin truly listening to others, all of their interactions become easier, and communication problem can be eliminated.
Based on the several previous paragraphs, it can be stated that listening is an active skill requiring listeners to deal with a variety of complicated tasks, such as discriminating between sounds and interpreting stress and intonation. To face this listening process, the students should have appropriate strategies in order to get better result in their comprehending and listening performance.
2.3. Concept of Listening Comprehension
Listening, being an invisible mental process, is difficult to describe, for listeners must discriminate between sounds, understand vocabulary and grammatical structures, and interpret stress and intention within the immediate utterance. Listening was commonly viewed as a receptive language skill in which listeners passively assimilated the messages they got from oral input, but in fact it involves a more complex process. In the last two decades, listening has been found to play an important role in language acquisition and has thus been described as an ―interactive, interpretive process in which listeners engage in a dynamic construction of meaning (Murphy, 1991, p. 56).
Listening involves linguistic knowledge, background knowledge, and meaning construction. Rost (2011, p. 2) defines listening, in its broadest sense, as a process of receiving what the speaker actually says (receptive orientation); constructing and representing meaning (constructive orientation); negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding (collaborative orientation); and, creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy (transformative orientation).
Oral texts exist in real time and need to be processed quickly; when an oral text is over, only a mental representation remains. As a result of this, listening is the least explicit of the four language skills and the most difficult skill to learn. Listening involves physiological and cognitive processes at different levels (Field, 2002; Lynch, 2002; Rost, 2011). Several theories have been advanced to account for listening processes, with two being particularly influential on research.
Anderson (1983, 1995) proposed a cognitive framework presenting listening as a three-stage process of Perceptual Processing, Parsing, and Utilization. In the perceptual processing phase, attention is focused entirely on the text, and phonemes are segmented from the speech stream (1995, p. 137). Therefore, such listening strategies as ―selective attention (attending to specific language aspects while listening) and ―directed attention (maintaining attention while listening) are crucial in this stage (Vandergrift, 2003a). In the parsing stage, meaning representations are formed from words and phrases by matching them with linguistic information stored in the listener‘s long-term memory to construct meaning mental representations. ―Grouping (classifying information in a listening tasks) and ―inferencing (using text information or context to guess the meanings of unfamiliar language items) strategies are dominant in the parsing stage. And finally in the utilization phase, information collected from the previous two stages is linked with the schema — the previous knowledge of the listener. As a factor related to the present study, schema is further reviewed later in this chapter. Listeners use their prior knowledge to aid comprehension and recall. At this stage, ―elaboration (using prior knowledge or context to fill in missing information) strategy is a crucial strategy (Vandergrift, 2003a).
This model has the advantage in that it provides recognizable stages in the process of listening, and thus facilitates research into each of the stages (as in O'Malley, Chamot, & Kupper, 1989). Nevertheless, as argued by Graham & Macaro (2008, p. 748), ―it is perfectly possible for listeners to start by utilizing fragments of parsed text and then draw incorrect inferences. In light of the parallel processing capacity offered by working memory (McClelland & Rumelhart, 1986), a more
convincing, recursive model was suggested in which listeners operate within more than one of the listening stages — an interactive top-down and bottom-up processing model of listening. Listeners use ―bottom- upprocesses when they use linguistic knowledge of sounds and word forms and build up to more complex lexical items and grammatical relationships to interpret the input. Listeners use bottom-up processes when they construct meaning by accretion, gradually combining increasingly larger units of meaning from the phoneme-level up to discourse- level features. Listeners also use ―top-down processes when they employ familiarity with the listening context and prior knowledge (topic, genre, culture, and other schema knowledge in long-term memory) to build a conceptual framework for comprehension. Listeners use content words and contextual clues to form hypotheses in an exploratory manner.
Listening comprehension is not just top-down or just bottom-up processing, but an interactive and interpretive process in which listeners use both linguistic knowledge and prior knowledge to understand messages. In other words, the listener comes to a listening task with two sets of resources: his/her own linguistic and schematic knowledge (Rumelhart, 1980) and the information contained in the actual listening text. Within an interactive model, a listener might begin by activating his/her schemata as a result of knowing the topic of the text, or of understanding a few words of the text, and thus perceive, parse and match the incoming speech stream with the elaborations that he/she previously activated (Graham & Macaro, 2008). Also, while these processes interact in some form of parallel distributed processing, the degree to which listeners may use one process
more than the other will depend on their knowledge of the language, familiarity with the topic or the purpose for listening. Research (e.g., McClelland & Rumelhart, 1986; O'Malley, Chamot, & Kupper, 1989) on these cognitive processes suggests that L2 listeners need to learn how to use both processes to their advantage, depending on their purpose for listening. For example, listening for gist involves primarily top-down processing, whereas listening for specific information, as in a weather broadcast, involves primarily bottom-up processing to comprehend all the details. The above research has also shown that successful and less successful listener process input quite differently.
Peterson (2001) states that less successful listeners tend to rely primarily on either top-down or bottom-up processing and spend a great amount of conscious effort on perceptual activity (e.g., identifying boundaries, recognizing meaningful sound units) so little is left over for high- level operations (e.g., relating new information to information stored in long-term memory). In contrast, higher-proficiency listeners use both top-down and bottom-up processes to understand oral input, which is also known as the use of metacognitive listening strategies.
2.4 Characteristics of Successful and Unsuccessful Learners
Every learner has particular characteristics on how they process their learning and achieve their goals. In the same line, the things usually done by the learners play important role on how they can successfully or unsuccessfully get their best achievement in the academic field. Below are the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful learners.
Characteristics Successful Unsuccessful
Preparation SSs are prepared. Their
assignments are complete, accurate, and carefully written. They complete their assigned readings, and their attention to details.
The work of USs is often carelessly-prepared, incomplete, inaccurate, inconsistent, late, or not submitted at all. Their obvious lack of preparation..
Curiosity SSs show interest in their classes
and their subject matter. They look up what they don't understand, ask questions, and make thoughtful comments in their classes.
USs appear enroll in their classes because they are required to do so, not because they are interested in acquiring the knowledge and skills their classes are designed to provide.
Comprehension SSs are able to connect their
past learning experiences with the present, and use these experiences to help them understand new material. They are willing to learn how to think critically (i.e., to comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information) , and they understand how these skills can benefit them in school and in their future careers.
When USs study, they
concentrate more on memorizing than comprehending. Their idea of studying is to memorize terms and definitions in the hope that their teacher will ask them to merely regurgitate information on the test. When they are asked to comprehend, apply, analyze,
synthesize, or evaluate
information, they are often unable or unwilling to do so.
R E S U L T S
SSs earn above-average grades. They learn from the feedback they receive from their teachers, their performance increases steadily once they understand what is expected of them.
USs earn lower-than-average grades. They have a vague idea of what is going on, but clearly have not mastered the material in their classes. The least successful students appear to be the truly clueless, who rely on common sense—rather than on material from the textbook or lectures.
2.5 Categories of Learning Strategies
Different researchers might use different taxonomy of language learning strategies, since there are many classifications of language learning strategies proposed. Oxford (1990:8) states that learning strategy is specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective and more transferrable to new situations. It means that to know the learners’ successful in target learning, it can be observed by their strategies because by using strategies their teaching learning activity become easier, faster and more enjoyable. Besides, students can use the strategies in any situations. Many researchers classify the learning strategy into four categorizations, namely cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, social strategies, and affective strategies (Naiman, dkk., 1978; O'Malley dan Chamot, 1990; ) 1990; Oxford, 1990). Cognitive strategies relate to the learners’ thinking in processing English materials. Metacognitive strategies relate to the learner’s way in facing and processing the english materials. Social strategies relate to how the learners and their friends work together to reach the learning goal. And affective strategies relate to the attitude and the feeling in facing the teaching learning English process.
2.5.1 Rubin’s Classification of Learning Strategies
First classification of learning strategy was proposed by Rubin. Rubin (1975:45-8) classifies language learning strategies into seven categories of good (successful) language learners’ use in learning language skill, they are:
1. The good language learner is a willing and accurate guesser.
2. The good learner has a strong drive to communicate, or to learn from a communication.
3. The good learner is often not inhibited; he is willing to appear foolish if reasonable communication results.
4. The good language learner is constantly looking for patterns in the language.
5. The good language learner practices.
6. The good language learner monitors his own and the speech of others.
2.5.2 Naiman’s Classification of learning strategies
The second classification of learning strategy was proposed by Naiman et al. Similar to Rubin‟s study, the study of Naiman et al. (1978) also focused on the
strategies of successful language learners used in learning a second language categorized into five common strategies. The strategies are:
1. The active task approach,
2. The realization of language as a system,
3. The realization of language as a means of communication and interaction
4. Management of affective demands,
5. Monitoring of L2 performance.
Based on the description above, it can be inferred that the good learners have their own strategies in mastering the skill that they want to achieve. Green and Oxford (1995) define strategies as a specific actions or techniques that students use to improve their progress in developing L2 skills. By using proper strategies, students know what they are doing and what they are supposed to do in the process of learning.
2.5.3 Fillmore’s Classification of Learning Strategies
The third classification of learning strategy was proposed by Fillmore. Fillmore (1979) classifies language learning strategies under two categories, the first category was called social strategy and the second was called cognitive strategy. In general, different studies have uncovered different findings. It can be argued that the different studies of language learning strategies have revealed what language learners do to acquire a foreign language (Setiyadi, 2011:19).
2.5.4 O’ Malley’s Classification of Learning Strategies
O'Malley et al. (1985:582-584) divide language learning strategies into three main subcategories namely metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and social strategies.
Metacognitive is a term to express executive function, strategies which require planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one's production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. Among the main metacognitive strategies, it is possible to include advance organizers, directed attention, selective attention, management, functional planning, monitoring, delayed production, self-evaluation.
Besides metacognitive strategies, there is other strategy called cognitive strategies. Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and they involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself. Repetition, resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking, deduction, recombination, imagery,
auditory representation, key word, contextualization, elaboration, transfer, inferencing are among the most important cognitive strategies.
The last strategies proposed by O’Malley is socioaffective strategies. As to the socio-affective strategies, it can be stated that they are related with social-mediating activity and transacting with others. Cooperation and question for clarification are the main socio-affective strategies (Brown 1987:93-94)
2.5.5 Oxford.’s Classification of Learning Strategies
Besides those experts in classifying language learning strategies, the next classification of learning strategies was discovered by Oxford.
Firstly, Oxford (1990) divides the learning strategy into two categorizations, namely direct and indirect strategy. Then the categorizations are classified again in details, direct strategy is divided to memory strategies, cognitive strategy, and compensation strategy; while indirect strategy is divide to metacognitive strategy, social strategy, and affective strategy. Therefore, there are 6 broad learning strategy categories by Oxford, namely memory strategy, cognitive strategy, compensation strategy, metacognitive strategy, social strategy, and affective strategy.
Figure 1. Oxford’s LLS Taxonomy (1990a) a. Memory Strategy
Memory strategy is used by the learners by using their experience and knowledge that they had before, such as grouping, imagery, rhyming, and structured reviewing. This strategy use memory most, for example the learners repeat the lesson that they had at school before, including the sound that they heard before or the movement thet they ever seen before.
b. Cognitive Strategy
Cognitive strategy is the whole learners‟ actions in teaching learning process
relate to the use of learners‟ tthinking capacity. This strategy can be formed as activities such as reasoning, analyzing, summarizing (all reflective of deep processing) as well as general practicing.
c. Compensation Strategy
Compensation strategy is used by the learners who have a very high skill. This strategy is usually used to compensate for limited knowledge, such as guessing meanings for the context in reading and listening and using synonyms and gestures to convey meaning when the precise expression is not known.
d. Metacognitive Strategy
Metacognitive strategy is learners‟ actions that relate to the ways of they face and
process the teaching learning materials, such as paying
attention,consciouslysearching for practice opportunities, planning for language tasks, self-evaluating one‟s progress, and monitoring error.
e. Affective Strategy
Affective of emotional,motivation-related strategy is the strategy which relate to the attitude and the feeling in facing the teaching learning english process, such as anxiety reduction, self-encouragement, and self-reward.
f. Social Strategy
Social strategy is the strategy which relates to how the learners and their friends work together to reach the learning goal, such as asking questions, cooperating with natives peakers of the language, and becoming culturally aware.
Based on the taxonomies above, all the learning strategies classifications cover more or less the same classification. Thus, the researcher will use the O’ Malley et al’s (1985) study since the researcher has found on Setiyadi‟s book (2011:26). In the book, it is stated that there are three main categories of language learning strategies which are used in Indonesia. The three categories are cognitive, metacognitive and social strategy. The classification supports O’ Malley et al’s
study. Therefore, the researcher assumes that it is better to analyze the three main categories in students’listening ability for Indonesia students especially the
sample on this research. Those classifications are considered as the effective learning strategies in listening.
2.6. Learning Strategies in Listening
There are many strategies that students can use to promote their language skills. In listening skill, it was found that there are several learning strategies which can be used by the students. Considering the focused strategy in this study, the research will analyze the cognitive, metacognitive and social strategy as the students’
strategies in practicing listening in order to increase their listening achievement.
O’ Malley introduced categories that involved self awareness. In O’ Malley et al’s study (1985) the classification consists of three categories, namely: metacognitive strategy, cognitive strategy, and social strategy.
1. Metacognitive Strategy
In practicing listening skill, sometimes students relate their prior knowledge to what they will hear. In order to monitor before they want to listen something, they need metacognitive strategy. Oxford (1990a) states that metacognitive strategies include: centering learning, arranging and planning learning, and evaluating learning.
In Zakin’s study (2007) of metacognitive strategies, students are taught to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of their own thinking processes and how to target their common pitfalls. They would learn how to internalize such
comments as, “OK, here is where Iusually make the mistake of…” “What is the question I need to ask myself here?” and, “I know I often confuse….with ….., so I need to go slow now.” Once students feel comfortable with general questioning techniques as well as those that address their specific difficulties, they would engage in partner and small group sharing, scaffolding their peers in self-questioning techniques tailored to individual needs. Ongoing metacognitive training assisted by inner speech would enable students to internalize the self-guiding, self-monitoring, and self-correcting skills required for complex problem solving.
O’Malley and Chamot’s study (1985) as cited in Setiyadi (2011:15-16) say that this strategy relates to the awareness of learning, it requires planning for learning, thinking about the learning place, monitoring of one’s production of comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. Metacognitive strategies allow learners to control their own learning through organizing, planning and evaluation and are employed for managing the learning process overall.
2. Cognitive Strategy
A cognitive strategy is all activities that take place in the brain in order to acquire a foreign language. In O’ Malley and Chamot’s study (1990) it clarified that cognitive strategy include: rehearsal, organization, inferencing, summarizing, deducing, imagery, transfer and elaboration. Cognitive strategy refers to all the mental process, except processes that involve self-monitoring and self evaluating, in order to learn another language (Setiyadi, 2011:16).
The word cognitive means thought. So, “cognitive styles” refers to thought patterns. Studies of cognitive styles suggest that people fall into open-minded and
closed-minded categories. Cognitive strategies enable the learner to understand and produce new language.
- Practicing (for example, using formulas and patterns).
- Receiving and sending messages (for example, focusing on the main idea of a message and outlining).
- Analyzing and reasoning (for example, analyzing expressions). - Creating structure for input and output (for example, taking notes).
3. Social Strategy
In social strategy, students have to work with other language learners to obtain feedback and information (cooperation). Besides, they are questioning for clarification and self talk. Stratton and Hays (1988) states social strategy is the nature of social interaction, how people come to influence one another’s behavior. Social strategy is the way that students use towards their learning process that take place in groups. Social strategy includes asking questions, cooperating with others, and empathizing with others. Social strategies will help learners work with and interact with other people. Asking questions (for example, asking for clarification or verification of a confusing point), talking with a native-speaking conversation partner, and) help the learner work with, cooperating with others (for example, asking for help in doing a language task) and empathizing with others (for example, developing cultural understanding and exploring cultural and social norms).
Social strategy includes joining a group and acts as if you understand what is going on, give the impression with a few well chosen words that you speak the language, and count on your friends for help (Fillmore, 1979).
2.7 The Frequency of Using Learning Strategies
In this study, students’ frequency of using learning strategies relates to amount as of how frequent they use learning strategies will be shown by the total score of the questionnaire. Students’ frequency of using learning strategies will become one of the concerns of this research, because there is an assumption said that when students use a great number of learning strategies, more proficient they will be. In this study, students’frequency of using learning strategies will be measured by questionnaire. The questionnaire is developed by using Likert-Scale, in which it provides the students with these following optional answers:
1 = Never or almost never true of me. 2 = Usually not true of me.
3 = Somewhat true of me. 4 = Usually true of me.
5 = Always and almost always true of me.
The questionnaire is used to identify students’ strategies in learning speaking. There are five chosen where 1 means never or almost never true of me; 2 means usually not true of me; 3 somewhat true of me; 4 means usually true of me and 5 means always or almost true of me.
Students’ listening ability and learning strategies should be correlated because using appropriate language learning strategies often results in improved proficiency or achievement overall or in specific skill areas (Oxford et al., 1993;
Thompson & Rubin, 1993). Besides that, the successful language learners tend to select strategies that work well together in a highly orchestrated way, tailored to the requirements of the language task (Chamot & Kupper, 1989). These learners can easily explain the strategies they use and why they employ them (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990).
Another study states that in speaking ability, cognitive (e.g., translating, analyzing) and metacognitive (e.g., planning, organizing) strategies are often used together, supporting each other (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990).
2.8 Review of the Related Research
Language Proficiency and Language Learning Strategies Use
Many studies showed the relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency, and Juan Zhao (2004) found the result that there was a positive correlation was found between the use of language learning strategies and the English proficiency, which were indicated by students’ grades and self-efficacy. The students were medium users of overall strategies, Compensation Strategy was the most frequently used, and Memory Strategy category was the least used. Another prove was shown in Candradewi’s study. Based on Candradewi’s study (2008), there was difference among students who were in the level of high, medium and low mark in speaking got different score when they used the learning strategies.
2.9 Theoritical Assumption
Referring to several literatures that have been discussed above, the researcher assumes that students learning strategies in listening have a great contribution on the ability of the students in comprehending the information heard in listening process. As the first step of acquiring language, students have to be able to get the message or the idea of the text heard. The researcher assumes that students’ learning strategies can be one of the best approach in getting new information and knowledge in achieving the learning objectives. Thus, students have to use their strategies in listening. There are many strategies that students can use for increasing their ability in listening. Even so, many students of all ages seem relatively uninformed about effective learning strategies (Barnett, 2001; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Prawat, 1989; Schommer, 1994a).
As O’ Malley et all’s (1985) who categorized learning strategies into three classification, namely: metacognitive strategy, cognitive strategy, and social strategy, the researcher will use the O’ Malley et al’s (1985) study since the researcher has found on Setiyadi‟s book (2011:26). In the book, it is stated that
there are three main categories of language learning strategies which are used in Indonesia. The three categories are cognitive, metacognitive and social strategy. The classification supports O’ Malley et al’s study, thus, the researcher will classify the student’s in three categories above by using the questionnaire proposed by Setiyadi called Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (LLSQ).
Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a
deep, vivid impression (Wikipedia). The researcher wants to find out which is the most effective learning strategy in listening. In order to know that, after classifying the students into the three different strategies the researcher analyze their listening achievement. Furthermore separate them in two groups, successful and unsuccessful learners.
From those frame theories above, the researcher came to the assumption that there will be a significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in the three group of learning strategies after comparing the means of their listening achievement. But, the most effective learning strategy will be the one with no significant difference. Because from the frame theory above, the researcher also came into assumption that the most effective learning strategy will be the most easy to apply in the learning process, no matter how vary the level of the learners are. Learning strategy which has the most insignificance difference will tell us clearly that the listening achievements between two groups (High and Low) are both giving a satisfying result, with insignificance difference.
Based on the frame of theory and the main theoretical assumption mentioned above, the researcher would like to formulate the hypothesis that the difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in three different learning strategies of English listening comprehension ability may vary, with the one which has the most insignificant difference as the most effective learning strategy in listening skill.
III. RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter illustrates how the research was implemented; what design of the research is, who the population and the sample are, and how the data were collected. It also covers the validity and realibility of the instrument, scoring system, research procedures, data analysis, and hypothesis testing.
This research is quantitative by design. The writer used ex post facto design. In this research, the researcher used Independent t-test study, which is one of the kinds of ex-post facto design. The t- test is probably the most widely used statistical test for the comparison of two means. The t-test is used to compare means between two different groups and is taken in a different situation.(Setiyadi,169: 2011)
The design of this research could be decribed as follows:
X1 : Metacognitive Strategies’ achievement X2 : Cognitive Strategies’ achievement X3 : Social Strategies’ achievement Y1 : Successful learners
Y2 : Unsuccessful learners
Meanwhile, in the data collecting, the researcher gave a listening test first in order to see the students’ listening comprehension ability. Having done the listening test, the students were distributed the questionnaire in order to know the learning strategies employed by the language learners in listening comprehension and for grouping them. Then, the researcher grouped the learners again into successful and unsuccessful learners from their listening achievement and compared the mean among all variables.
3.2Population and Sample 3.2.1 Population
The population of this research is the second grade of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung in academic year 2013/2014. There are six classes of the second grade in that school. The number of the students of each class is about 36 students.
The sample was taken through probability sampling by using simple random sampling, where every individual in population has a chance to be chosen as sample. For this research, the researcher chose one class by using these procedures :
- The researcher collected the data based on the students’ list.
- The researcher wrote down the six names of the classes in the rolled papers and put it into a bottle.
- The bottle was shaken and poured until one rolled paper came out.
3.3 Data Collecting Technique
To collect the data, the researcher uses the following techniques:
1. Administering the listening test
Listening test is one of objective tests that is used to measure students’ listening comprehension. Listening comprehension test consists of 40 items, with four options each (A, B, C,and D)
2. Administering the questionnaire
The questionnaire is a list of statements and questions that are to be answered by the students to measure students’ use of learning strategies in listening comprehension.
In this present study, the researcher used two kinds of research instruments. They are language questionnaire and listening test. Research instrument is necessary and play important role in a research. Research instrumentis the generic term that
researchers use for a measurement device . Below is the discussion about the
questionnaire and listening test used in this present study.
3.4.1 The Questionnaire
The first instrument used in this research is the questionnaire. Since this study concerns on the students’learning strategies in listening, the researcher used Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (LLSQ) in Listening proposed by Setiyadi to assess L2 sudents ‘ learning strategies in listening. The questionnaire consists of
20 items where each of them refers to cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, and social strategies. Items 1-11aremetacognitive strategies, 12-18are cognitive strategies, and 19-20 are social strategies. The Likert Scale was used by the researcher in this research where each item has five alternative answers started from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
Below is the list of statements dealing with the alternative scored: 1 = never or almost never true of me;
2 = usually not true of me; 3 = somewhat true of me; 4 = usually true of me;
5 = always or almost true of me.
No. Questions 1 2 3 4 5
1. I try to guess what somebody is saying by using grammatical rules. 2. I learn English by watching English TV programs.
3. I learn English by listening to English songs or other listening scripts.
4. I try to understand what somebody is saying by translating into Indonesian.
5. I draw an image or picture of the word in order to remember the word.
6. I connect the pronunciation of the word with the Indonesian word which has a similar sound.
7. I concentrate on the grammar rather than on a communication. 8. I try to understand the idea by referring to previous experiences I
9. I try to guess by using a word(s) that is familiar to me. 10. In Listening, I take notes to remember ideas.
11. I try to understand every individual word to understand the passage. 12. I listen to what I say to practice my listening skill.
13. Before practicing my listening skill, I prepare a topic, pronunciation or grammatical rules which give me the greatest trouble.
14. I try to remember a sentence(s) spoken face-to-face on cassettes and analyze them by myself.
15. After a listening practice, I check and recheck my understanding. 16. I correct the mistake that I produce orally.
17. I try to be aware of which sounds give the greatest trouble. In this way I can pay special attention to them while I listen and practice. 18. If I cannot understand what somebody is saying, I ask him/her to
slow down or say it again.
19. Listening to what somebody is saying improves my listening skill. 20. In a group discussion, my listening skill is improved.
Adapted from Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (LLSQ) proposed by Setiyadi 3.4.2. Listening Test
The second instrument is listening test. It is a series of questions that was given to the students in order to measure the students’ listening ability in understanding the text they would hear.
3.5 Criteria of Good Test
In this research, to prove whether the test has good quality, it must be tried out first. A listening test will be said have a good quality if it has good validity, reliability, level of difficulty and discrimination power. The students’ strategies questionnaire could also be called as a good test if it has good validity and reliability.
3.6Validity of the Instrument
Validityis the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform. It is rare, if nearly impossible, that an instrument be 100% valid, so validity is generally measured in degrees. As a process, validation involves collecting and analyzing data to assess the accuracy of an instrument. There are numerous statistical tests and measures to assess the validity of quantitative instruments. The discussion below focuses on content and construct validity of the two instruments; the questionnaire and the listening test.
3.6.1 The Validity of the Questionnaire
The validity of questionnaire is also measured to find if the components are proportionally suitable and related to the relevant theories of students’ learning strategies. According to Hatch and Farhady (1978) there are least two validity should be fulfilled; content and construct validity. Since the questionnaire was adopted from LLSQ constructed by Setiyadi, the researcher considered that the construct validity of the questionnaire has been standardized. Therefore the researcher measured the content validity only. The following table described the aspects of learning strategies used by the L2 students based in listening developed by Setiyadi.
Table 1. Specification Table of Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire
Aspects of Questionnaire Number of items
Metacognitive strategies 1-11
Cognitive strategies 12-17
Social strategies 18-20
It can be seen from the table above that all the aspects oflearning strategies inlistening relate to the theories of learning strategies classification (metacognitive, cognitive, and social strategies). The construct and content validity of this questionnaire was proved since the researcher had asked three raters to analyze each indicator.
3.6.2 The Validity of the Listening Test
Validity is a matter of relevance; it means that the test measures what is claimed to measure. To measure whether the test has a good validity, it can be analyzed from its content validity and construct validity. Content validity is concerned whether the test is sufficiently representative for the rest of test or not. While construct validity focuses on the relationship between indicators within the test.
Table 2 : Specification of Listening Test
No. Macro aspects of listening Item Percentage 1 Determing main idea 5 12.5 % 2 Finding specific information 15 37.5%
3 Inference 10 25 %
4 Vocabulary 10 25%
Since the writer put focus on macro skills, the item test would be the macro aspects of listening which consists of determining main idea, finding specific information, inference, and vocabulary. Those macro skills aspect were classified by Brown (2007).
3.7 The Reliability of the Instruments
Reliability can be called as a consistency. A good instrument is an instrument which consistently measures what it is intended to measure. In other words, a good instrument should have a good reliability. It is not possible to calculate reliability; however, there are four general estimators can be used in the research.
a.Inter-Rater/Observer Reliability: The degree to which different raters/observers give consistent answers or estimates.
b.Test-Retest Reliability: The consistency of a measure evaluated over time.
c.Parallel-Forms Reliability: The reliability of two tests constructed the same way, from the same content.
d.Internal Consistency Reliability: The consistency of results across items, often measured with Cronbach’s Alpha.
The discussion below focuses on the measurement of questionnaire reliability by using Cronbach’s Alpha.
3.7.1 The Reliability of the Questionnaire
The researcher collected the data by using the quantitative one. First of all, the result of questionnaire was scored based on Likert Scale. The score ranges from 1-5. To make sure that the data gathers from the questionnaire is reliable, the researcher used reliability analysis based on Cronbach Alpha Coefficient of SPSS for window. Cronbach Alpha Coefficient is the most common used to measure the consistency among indicators in the questionnaire which was counted based on the correlation between each items. The Alpha ranges from 0. to 1. The higher alpha, the more reliable the items of the questionnaire (Setiyadi,2006).
George and Mallery (2009) in ‘SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Study Guide and Reference, 17.0’ have a suggestion in evaluating the Alpha Cronbach coefficient:
> 0.9 = very high reliability > 0.8 = high reliability > 0.7 = medium reliability > 0.6 = low reliability > 0.5 = very low reliability
3.7.2. The Reliability of Listening Test
Reliability of the test can be defined as the extent to which a test produces consistent result when it is administrated under similar conditions (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:243). In this research, the researcher used test retest method by using Pearson Product Moment Formula of SPSS 19 to measure the reliability of the test. The researcher distributed the same listening tests two times i.e. on May 3rd and 5th 014.
3.8 Level of Difficulty
Level of difficulty is related to how easy or difficult the item is from point of view of the students who take the test. To know the level of difficulty, the researcher used the following formula:
LD = N
LD: Level of difficulty
R: The number of students who answer correctly
N: The total number of students following the test
The criteria are:
<0.30 = difficult
0.30-0.70 = average
3.9 Discrimination Power
The discrimination power refers to the extent to which the item differentiates between high and low level students on the test. A good item according to the criteria is one which good students will do well and bad students will fail. To know the discrimination power of the test, the formula that was used:
DP = N
DP: Discrimination power
U: The proportion of upper group students L: The proportion of lower group students N: Total number of the students
The criteria are: 0.00 – 0.20 = poor 0.21 – 0.40 = satisfied 0.41 – 0.70 = good 0.71 – 1.00 = excellent
(Negative) = bad items (should be omitted)
3.10 Treatment of the Data
There are three underlying assumptions that need to be fulfilled if we are going to analyze the data by using Independent Group T-test, we need to consider these followings.
1. The data is interval or ratio.
2. The data is taken from random sample in a population. 3. The data is distributed normally.
Therefore, the writer used the following procedures to treat the data:
1. Normality Test
The normality test was used to measure whether the data from students score were normally distributed or not. The writer used SPSS 19 to analyze the data. The hypothesis for the normality test are as follow:
H0 : the data is not distributed normally
H1 : the data is distributed normally
The criteria for the hypothesis is H1 is accepted if sign > α, with the level of
In doing the research, the researcher used procedures as follows: 1. Determining the subject of the research
In determining the sample, the researcher uses simple probability sampling, by using dice.This technique will be used because there is no priority class or in other words those six classes have the same chance to be chosen as the research subject. The researcher choosesone class out of six classes of grade XIstudents of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung as the research subject. The class consists about 36students.
2. Determining the try out class of the research
Similar to the subject of the research explained before, the researcher will use simple random probability sampling in choosing one class for being the try out class. It is important to try out the instrument first in order to find out its content and construct validity, reliability, discrimination power, and level of difficulty.
3. Preparing the Instruments
In this research, the listening test is about narrative text as stated on the curriculum (KTSP). The questionnaire used is LLSQ proposed by Setiyadi.
4. Conducting Try Out
Try out is conducted to measure the reliability of instruments. The aim of try out is to know the quality of the test used as the instrument of the research, and determine which item should be revised. This research uses the result of the try out of listening test to measure the level of difficulty and discrimination power, and to find out the validity and reliability.
5. Administering the Listening Test
The Listening test was administered to measure the students’ ability in listening comprehension. The listening test is in the form of the recorded text and then the students are required to answer the 40 questions provided in the paper related to the text they heard. Each item has 4 options of answer (A, B, C, D). The listening test will be heard two times in 90 minutes.
6. Administering the Questionnaire
The Questionnaire –in this case LLSQ items-was administered to measure the learning strategies used by the students in listening. The items of the questionnaire are in the form of limited statements which have range 1 to 5, explaining from never to always.
51 In analyzing the data, the researcher used t- test study. It is used to compare the mean between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different learning strategies in English listening comprehension ability. The result of the students’ achievement in listening comprehension was analyzed by using Independent Group T-test of SPSS for windows version in 19.0.
3.13. Hypothesis Testing
To conclude a possible difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different strategies in English listening ability, the researcher used the criterion of the hypothesis acceptance. To determine whether the first hypothesis is accepted or rejected, the following criteria for acceptance:
H0= t value< t table
H1 = t value >t table
H0 : There is no significant difference between successful and unsuccessful
learners in using different strategies in English listening ability. We can accept this hypothesis if t valueis lower than ttable.
H1 : There is a significant difference between successful and unsuccessful
learners in using different strategies in English listening ability. We can accept this hypothesis if t value was higher than t table.
V.CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
This chapter describes the conclusion of the result of the research and also the suggestions from the researcher to the other researchers and English teachers who want to conduct the research relates to language learning strategies and students’ listening comprehension.
1. The present research leads the researcher to come to the final conclusion that there is significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using cognitive and social learning strategies in English listening comprehension ability. Yet, this study found that there is no significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using metacognitive in English listening skill.
2. The most effective learning strategies can be used by the students in listening ability is metacognitive strategies. the listening achievements between two groups (High and Low) are both giving a satisfying result, with insignificance difference It can be seen from the highest mean of
students’ listening score is achieved in metacognitive learning strategies,
3. Social strategy is the type of language learning strategies mostly used by the students in English listening ability. It can be evidenced by the mean result of three learning strategies namely metacognitive, cognitive, and social strategies. The present study showed that there are 8 students (22.2%) who use metacognitive strategy, 7 students (19,4%) use cognitive strategy, and 21 students (58,4%) use social strategy. Thus, it can be concluded that the type of language learning strategies most frequently used by the students is social strategy.
Ultimately, the researcher emphasizes that by finding out the relation between students’ learning strategies and listening ability can help the teachers and students to be aware of language learning strategies they use. The finding on this study has implication for students, teachers, and educators in the context of language classroom. The teachers can help students to choose the best and appropriate strategy they can use in accomplishing English listening task.
The limited study of this research such as the use of small sample sizes and the limited time in conducting the test lead the researcher to give suggestion on the further research related on language learning strategies in English listening. The further research should try to investigate randomizes subjects with bigger sample sizes and there should be a longer duration for conducting the research. Meanwhile, for the students, the researcher hopes that they will be able to be more aware in using the best and appropriate strategies in order to attain their learning goal.
At the end, the researcher strongly expects that this study can give a great contribution as a reference for further studies related on language learning strategies, especially in listening skill.
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