THE MASTERY OF MICROTEACHING CLASS STUDENTS IN FORMULATING LEARNING OBJECTIVES IN LESSON PLANS A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

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THE MASTERY OF MICROTEACHING CLASS STUDENTS

  IN FORMULATING LEARNING OBJECTIVES IN LESSON PLANS A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

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  In His time, God has made all things beautiful In His time, In His own time

  Ecclesiastes 3: 11

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ABSTRACT

Mutiara, Leonie Irina. 2011. The Mastery of Microteaching Class Students in

Formulating Learning Objectives in Lesson Plans . Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma

University.

  This research aimed to figure out how well Microteaching class students

formulated learning objectives in lesson plans as well as to find out what

problems might occur in their formulation. There were two research questions

presented in this study: (1) How is the students’ mastery in formulating learning

objectives? (2) What problems might occur in students’ learning objective

formulation?

  To answer the research questions, the researcher conducted document

analysis. The documents analyzed were students’ lesson plans which were used

for their teaching practice in Microteaching class in 2010/2011 academic year.

Then, the learning objectives which were found in those lesson plans were

categorized based on some requirements of good learning objectives and were

judged how well they were. Furthermore, the researcher would also discuss

problems that might occur in the learning objectives.

  From the analysis, the researcher concluded that students’ mastery in

formulating learning objective was various depending on the requirements.

Participants’ mastery was good (76.25%) in audience element and insufficient

(61.25%) in behaviour element. However, participants did not master learning

objective formulation dealing with condition (7.50%) and degree element

(27.50%). In another side, their mastery was very good (93.75%) in formulating

learning objectives which were derived from the Basic Competence, very good

(86.25%) in formulating learning objectives which were relevant with the

activities, very good (96.25%) in formulating learning objectives which were

relevant with the materials, and good (78.75%) in formulating learning objectives

which were relevant with the assessments. Then, the researcher also found some

problems in the learning objectives. The formulation was not clear, complete, and

well-ordered. Other problems were also caused by the irrelevancy between the PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

ABSTRAK

Mutiara, Leonie Irina. 2011. The Mastery of Microteaching Class Students in

Formulating Learning Objectives in Lesson Plans . Yogyakarta: Universitas

Sanata Dharma.

  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa baik mahasiswa kelas

Pengajaran Mikro merumuskan objektif pembelajaran dalam RPP mereka dan

untuk menemukan masalah yang mungkin terjadi dalam rumusan tersebut. Ada

dua pertanyaan dalam penelitian ini: (1) Seberapa baik penguasaan mahasiswa

dalam merumuskan objektif pembelajaran? (2) Masalah apa yang mungkin terjadi

dalam rumusan objektif pembelajaran mahasiswa?

  Untuk mejawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut, peneliti mengadakan

analisis dokumen. Dokumen yang dianalisis adalah RPP mahasiswa yang

digunakan untuk praktek mengajar mereka di kelas Pengajaran Mikro tahun ajaran

2010/2011. Lalu, rumusan objektif pembelajaran yang ditemukan dalam RPP

tersebut dikategorikan berdasarkan beberapa syarat objektif pembelajaran yang

baik dan dinilai seberapa baik objektif pembelajaran tersebut. Selanjutnya,

peneliti juga mendiskusikan masalah-masalah yang mungkin ditemukan dalam

objektif pembelajaran tersebut.

  Dari hasil analisis, peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa penguasaan mahasiswa

dalam merumuskan objektif pembelajaran berbeda-beda, tergantung syaratnya.

Penguasaan peserta bagus (76.25%) dalam elemen audience dan tidak cukup

(61.25%) dalam elemen behaviour. Tetapi, peserta tidak menguasai objektif

pembelajaran yang berhubungan dengan elemen condition (7.50%) dan degree

(27.50%). Di sisi lain, penguasaan mereka sangat bagus (93.75%) dalam

merumuskan objektif pembelajaran yang diturunkan dari Kompetensi Dasar,

sangat bagus dalam merumuskan objektif pembelajaran yang relevan dengan

aktifitas (86.25%) dan materi (96.25%), dan bagus (78.75%) dalam merumuskan

objektif pembelajaran yang relevan dengan penilaiannya. Lalu peneliti juga

menemukan beberapa masalah dengan objektif pembelajaran. Rumusannya tidak

jelas, komplit, dan urut. Masalah lainnya juga disebabkan oleh ketidakrelevanan

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to the Almighty

God for always guiding and blessing me. He always gives everything I need. I

believe a bright future is prepared for me. Without Him, I will be nothing.

  My sincere appreciation goes to my sponsor, Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd.,

M.Pd., for guiding, giving suggestions, and supporting me during my finishing

this thesis. I would like also to express my gratefulness to Microteaching

lecturers, Ag. Hardi Prasetyo, S.Pd., M.A., Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd.,

Carla Sih Prabandari, S.Pd., M.Hum., Made Frida Yulia, S.Pd., M.Pd., Christina

Kristiyani, S.Pd., M.Pd., and V. Triprihatmini, S.Pd., M.Hum., M.A., for giving

permission to access the data I needed. Moreover, I thank Microteaching class

students of 2010/2011 academic year for their willingness to help me copy their

lesson plans.

  Sincere love and gratitude is also expressed to my parents, Bapak Drs.

Wardani Sugiyanto, M.Pd. and Ibu Dra. Listyawati Sri Rahayuningsih, for their

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Ernesa Novita, Widya Warasita, Lusia Ping, and Kudus Martha Uli for being my

friends and work partner in Nuswantara English Course.

  At last, my deepest appreciation also goes for many other names whose

names cannot be mentioned one by one. I thank them for helping and supporting

me in finishing my thesis. May God bless us.

  Leonie Irina Mutiara

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………………………. i

  

APPROVAL PAGES ……………………………………………………............. ii

DEDICATION PAGE …………………………………………………………... iv

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ………………………………….. v

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………….. vi

ABSTRAK …………………………………………………………………….… vii

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ……………………... viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………………….. ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………….. xi

LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………..… xiii

LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………….... xiv

LIST OF APPENDICES ……………………………………………………….. xv

CHAPTER I.

  INTRODUCTION

  A. Research Background ……………………………….. 1

  B. Problem Formulation ………………………………... 3

  C. Problem Limitation ………………………………..… 3

  D. Research Objectives …………………………………. 3

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  6. Organizing the Course ………………………..… 19

  7. Developing Materials …………………………... 20

  8. Adapting a Textbook …………………………… 22

  9. Designing an Assessment Plan ………………..... 23

B. Theoretical Framework …………………………….. 24

  CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. Research Methods ………………………………….. 26 B. Research Participants ………………………………. 26 C. Research Instruments ………………………………. 27 D. Data Gathering Technique …………………………. 29 E. Data Analysis Technique …………………………... 29 F. Research Procedure ………………………………… 33 CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Microteaching Students’ Mastery ………………….. 34 B. Problems that Might Occur in Students’ Learning Objective Formulation ……… 41

  CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions ……………………………………...…. 50

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LIST OF TABLES

Table

  Page

2.1: Factors to Consider in Defining the Context ……...……………...……...…. 8

2.2: Categories of Cognitive Domain …………….………………...………..…. 16

3.1: Domain and Level of Difficulty ……………………………………..…….. 30

3.2: Audience, Behaviour, Condition, Degree, and Order ……………….....….. 30

3.3: Basic Competence …………...………………………………………..…… 31

3.4: Activities …………...…………………………………………………….... 31

3.5: Material ...……………………………………………………………..….... 32

3.6: Assessment ……...……………………………...……………………..…… 32

4.1: Number of Learning Objectives ……………………………………..…….. 35

4.2: Domain and Level Distribution of Learning Objectives ……………..….… 35

4.3: Formulation of Learning Objectives …………………………………..…... 37

4.4: Set of Learning Objectives …………………………………………...….… 39

4.5: Ordered Set of Learning Objectives ………………………………….….... 39

4.6: Relevancy with Basic Competence, Activities, Materials, and Assessment………………………………………………….. 40

4.7: The Classifications of Problems ……………………………......…………. 41

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF FIGURES Figure

  Page 2.1: A Framework of Course Development Processes ………………….............. 7 2.2: Goals, Topics, General Purposes, Objectives ………...………………...…. 16 2.3: Five Aspects of Organizing a Course …………………………………...… 20

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix

  Page

  1. Surat Permohonan Ijin Penelitian …………………………………...…….. 55

2. The Category of Learning Objectives ……………………………………… 62

   

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of six major sections. They are research background,

  

problem formulation, problem limitation, research objectives, research benefits,

and definitions of terms.

A. Research Background

  English Language Education is a study program under Teachers Training

and Education Faculty in Sanata Dharma University. This study program, English

Language Education Study Program (ELESP), which is known as Program Studi

Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (PBI), aims to prepare future English teachers who

have four competences; professional, pedagogic, personal, and social (Panduan

Akademik Program Studi PBI , 2007). The students are expected not only to use

the language itself, but also to teach the language to others. They are trained and

educated to be English teachers. They have to acquire the language and learn how

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English. Some of the courses are Approaches, Methods, and Techniques (AMT),

Language Teaching Media (LTM), Instructional Design (ID), and Curriculum and

Material Development (CMD).

  However, theories will not be enough for good English teachers. They

need to apply what they have learnt. Thus, in the sixth semester, the study

program offers a course called Microteaching. It is a class for students to practice

teaching and apply what they have learned in the prior semesters.

  In that class, Microteaching students have to develop lesson plans for their

teaching practice. They are expected to be able to apply the theories that they have

learnt, especially on how to develop lesson plans well. In a lesson plan, a teacher

should state one or more learning objectives, which are derived from general

purposes (Kemp, 1977). In School-based Curriculum, they are called Basic

Competence. Learning objectives, in this research referring to learning objectives

themselves and learning indicators stated in lesson plans, are learning outcomes or

something that students are able to demonstrate at the end of instruction to show

that the learning expectation is reached (Gronlund, 1991: 3). They are to measure

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  Since learning objective is important to measure learning achievement, it

must be formulated well. However, some mistakes are still found. Thus, the study

of Microteaching students’ mastery on the formulation of learning objectives is

conducted to know how well they master the theories to formulate good learning

objectives, which is expressed through their learning objectives formulation and

its relevancy with the general purpose, activities, materials, and assessment.

B. Problem Formulation

  The formulation of the problems can be stated as follows:

  1. How is the students’ mastery in formulating learning objectives?

  2. What problems might occur in students’ learning objective formulation?

C. Problem Limitation

  In this study, the writer analyzes the learning objectives formulated by

Microteaching class students, which are represented by 18 students. The data are

taken from their lesson plans. Any mistake in grammar, spelling, and punctuation

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2. To find out problems that may occur in students’ learning objective formulation.

  E. Research Benefits This research is expected to give benefits to both students and lecturers.

  

For the students, the research shows them how well their mastery in formulating

learning objectives so that they know which part should be improved. It also lets

them know some common problems that may occur in their learning objectives. It

is expected that by learning from their problems, students will be more careful in

formulating objectives and make some improvements on it later.

  Also, by knowing which part of students’ difficulties in formulating

learning objectives, lecturers would find it easier to teach them based on their

needs and weaknesses.

  F. Definitions of Terms It is important to define some terms used in this study to avoid

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general purpose, activities, materials, and assessments stated in their lesson plans

that they make for teaching practice in Microteaching class. Thus, students master

learning objectives if they can show the relevancy between their learning

objectives and the general purpose, activities, materials, and assessments in their

lesson plans.

2. Learning Objectives The next term which is important to define is ‘learning objectives’.

  

Gronlund (1991: 3) states that learning objectives, usually called as instructional

objectives, are intended learning outcomes or something that students are able to

demonstrate at the end of instruction to show that the learning expectation is

reached. In this research, learning objectives refer to learning objectives

themselves and learning indicators, which are considered as learning expectation

or learning outcome stated in lesson plan for Microteaching class students’

teaching purpose.

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classroom teaching situation through Program Pengalaman Lapangan (PPL),

which is either in Junior, Senior, or Vocational High School.

   

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, the writer discusses all theories proposed by some experts dealing with lesson plans, which in a bigger scope lesson plans construct a course. There are two major parts called theoretical description and theoretical framework. Those become the basis to answer the research problem formulation. A. Theoretical Description This research is about Microteaching class students’ mastery in

  

formulating learning objectives in lesson plans. Hornby (2005: 944) states that

someone masters something if he has great knowledge about it or understanding

of it. There are nine main parts to discuss in this part. They are parts of the stage

of course development processes proposed by Graves (2000) as seen in figure 2.1.

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  There is no sequence or hierarchy in the processes. Teachers may start the process anywhere in the framework as long as it is reasonable. It depends on teachers’ beliefs and understanding, articulated or not, and the reality of the context and teachers’ knowledge about their students. However, articulating beliefs and defining the context are put on the bottom as the foundation for other processes.

1. Defining the Context

  Before sketching a course design, teachers need to define the context of the learners. Designing a course requires them to define all possible information about the context as much as they can to make decisions about the course itself (Graves, 2000: 13). Furthermore, Graves proposes various aspects of context that needs to be defined. They are people, time, physical setting, teaching resources, and nature of the course and institution.

  

People Physical Setting Time

students location of school: how many hours how many, age, gender, convenience, total over what culture(s), other language(s), setting span of time

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  Those aspects mentioned above are used by teachers as resources and

constraints to consider their decisions. It can be seen as part of pre-course needs

assessment. More information about the context enables teachers to decide and

plan an effective course easier. Furthermore, Richards (2001: 90) talks about the

diversity of the contexts for language programs. The success of a program is often

determined by the particular variables found in every specific situation.

  A teacher wants to design a course, for example. Before he decides the

content, objectives, and so on, he needs to know how long the course will be, who

the students are, what is their backgrounds knowledge, what the purpose is, where

it is conducted, etc. Those are the context that helps and support the teacher in

designing a course.

  During the observation of the context, Graves (2000: 21) says that

challenges may be found. Furthermore, Graves states that more challenges are

found when teachers have more information about the context. The challenges

may include teacher’s lack of experience, too small class, different level of each

learner, and so on. This is called problematizing. Problematizing concerns with

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(Graves 2000: 26). As cited by Graves (2000), Stern proposes four concepts in

articulating teachers’ beliefs. They are view of language, view of the social

context of the language, view of learning and learners, and view of teaching.

a. Beliefs about Language

  Teachers’ views of a language lead them to a way how they teach or how

the language should be learned and what they teach (Graves 2000: 28). According

to Hutchinson and Waters (1987), there are six main stages of development of

language descriptions. i. Classical or Traditional Grammar Classical or traditional grammar view believes that all languages are

descended from Greek and Latin. Thus, the grammar of the languages should be

based on the grammars of those two languages. ii. Structural Linguistics According to this stage, language is about fundamental propositions

(statement, interrogative, negative, imperative, etc) and notions (time, number,

gender, etc) which are carried by the syntagmatic structures. It means that

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the rules enabling people to produce the surface structures from the deep level of

meaning. iv. Language Variation and Register Analysis Language varies depending on the context. So the kind of language

dealing with a specific context, such as an area of knowledge (medical English,

business English, scientific English) can be identified through the language used

itself then. v. Functional/Notional Grammar This view of language sees language as a mean of communication which

conveys social function and people’s attention. Function deals with social

behaviour and speaker’s/writer’s intention, like advising, warning, describing, etc.

vi. Discourse/Rhetorical Analysis The meaning of a language is concluded from the context of the sentences.

  Different context causes different meaning in the same sentence.

b. Beliefs about the Social Context of Language

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  ii. Sociocultural Issues Language use is associated with understanding of each language user’s

dimensions of culture. They include social values, attitudes, norms, customs, and

“products” (e.g. literature, art). iii. Sociopolitical Issues Those issues are concerned with how language used affects one’s relation

with other community or social group. Language teaching deals with teach

learners how to participate in the community and get access to social systems.

c. Beliefs about Learning and Learners

  Hutchinson and Waters (1987) divide theories of learning into five main stages of development. i. Behaviourism Language learning is seen as changing behaviour. It is a mechanical

process of habit formation in which the basic exercise technique is pattern

practice, particularly drills.

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  iii. Cognitive Code It is often called as constructivism learning. Learners construct their own

knowledge from their experience together with other people through making sense

of data. Teachers’ role is as facilitator to provide learners experience. iv. The Affective Factor Language learning will be well-done if learners have motivation since it

is an emotional experience. They must ‘want to think about something’ that they

will learn. v. Learning and Acquisition According to Krashen (1981) as cited by Graves (2000), learning and

acquisition are two different things. Learning is a conscious process, whereas

acquisition is an unconscious one.

d. Beliefs about Teaching

  Teaching can be viewed in some different things. It can be as knowledge

transmission from teachers to learners, knowledge and skills and methods of

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3. Conceptualizing Content

  Conceptualizing content is about making choices. It is a process involving

thinking about what teachers want their students to learn, deciding what to

include, and organizing the content in a such way that the various elements on it

are related each other. The result of the conceptualizing content is in a form of

syllabus.

  According to Hutchinson and Waters (1987), syllabus can be defined in several different ways. They are: a. Evaluation Syllabus

  Evaluation Syllabus states what learners should know by the end of the

course in order to be successful. Thus, a syllabus designer should understand first

what his view of language actually is.

  b. Organisational Syllabus This syllabus tells about the order of what should be learnt. The nature of language and of learning is stated implicitly here.

  c. Materials Syllabus

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  e. Classroom Syllabus Sometimes what is planned goes differently with what really happens in a

lesson. What is meant by classroom syllabus is what actually happens in the real

class during the lesson.

  f. Learner Syllabus Learner syllabus may be different in each learner. This syllabus takes

place in each learner’s mind during the lesson. It is about knowledge developing

in learners’ brain and enabling them to comprehend and store the later knowledge.

4. Formulating Goals and Objectives

  Goals are statements of the main purpose and intended outcomes of a

course. According to Kemp (1977), goals can be created from three sources,

which are society, students, and subject areas. Goals related to society involve

philosophical and ethical considerations. Goals related to students deal with

students’ skill or behaviour concerning their preparation to face the working

world. Goals related to subject areas have relation with competencies that enable

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  and observed. Those are called objectives. Thus, objectives must be related to goals, topics, and general purposes.

  Figure 2.2: Goals, Topics, General Purposes, Objectives

According to Kemp (1977), objectives indicate what teachers’ want to

teach and whether the objectives are accomplished or not. There are three categories of objectives:

a. Cognitive Domain

  

Cognitive domain includes some objectives dealing with knowledge or

information, thinking, recognizing, predicting, etc. The stage is from simple knowledge to higher levels of mental activity. They are remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create (Anderson et al. (Eds), 2001). The details are

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  Categories Cognitive Processes Alternative Names Comparing Contrasting, mapping, matching Explaining Constructing models Apply Executing Carrying out Implementing Using Analyze Differentiating Discriminating, distinguishing, focusing, selecting Organizing Finding coherence, intergrating, outlining, parsing, structuring

  Attributing Deconstructing

Evaluate Checking Coordinating, detecting,

monitoring, testing

Critiquing Judging

  Create Generating Hypothesizing Planning Designing Producing Constructing

  Table 2.2: Categories of Cognitive Domain

b. Psychomotor Domain

  It is about skills dealing with physical activities. Usually, this domain is easy to observe. The taxonomy includes gross bodily movements, finely coordinated movements, nonverbal communication, and speech behaviour. However, it is not a sequential taxonomy.

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complex. Furthermore, Kemp states that a learning objective can involve one or

more domains.

  Furthermore, a good formulation of learning objective should include four

elements which are known as ABCD. A stands for audience, which indicates who

will do the behaviour. B stands for behaviour, defining what audience should be

able to do. C stands for condition, telling under what condition the audience

should be able to do the behaviour. D stands for degree, indicating standard of

how well the audience should be able to do the behaviour (“Developing Course

Objectives,” May 20, 2011).

5. Assessing Needs

  Needs assessment is a process in which teachers collecting information

about learners’ needs and preferences, interpreting the information, and deciding

how the course will be in order to meet the needs. Assessing needs can be done

before the start of a course to help teachers design the course (pre-course needs

assessment), during the beginning stage of a course (initial needs assessment), or

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  i. Necessities Necessities, or target proficiency, are something that learners need to master in order to act effectively in the target situation. ii. Lacks All that learners cannot do are called lacks. They are the gap between the target proficiency and the existing proficiency. iii. Wants Target needs are only seen without learners’ perspective, whereas wants are needs from the learners’ perspective.

b. Learning needs

  Having known all the target needs, including the necessities, lacks, and

wants, a course needs a tool to reach the target needs. It is needed a way how to

start from the beginning until the target needs are achieved. This is called learning

needs. In other words, learning needs are all that are needed to achieve the target

needs.

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Figure 2.3: Five Aspects of Organizing a Course

Organizing a course is done depending on some factors. The factors are

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enabling them to achieve the goals. There are some considerations in developing

materials proposed by Graves (2000). Activities should relate with learners’

experience or current situation and be relevant to them and focus on their needs

outside class. Activities should also increase learners’ confidence and involve

learners in solving, discovering, and analyzing problem. Besides, activities are

expected to develop learners’ specific skills and strategies and learners’ specific

language and skills for their authentic communication need. They can be

integration of speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

  Activities should help learners understand how a text is produced. They

may involve cross cultural understanding, so learners can improve their social

awareness. They should be as authentic as possible (texts or realia, if it is

possible) and have variation of roles and groupings. They are also expected to

have various types and purposes and include various materials.

  However, the way how teachers develop materials differs each other. It is

based on their own beliefs, understandings, and experience. It also depends on

their goals and objectives, the way the content is conceptualized, the way the

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8. Adapting a Textbook

  Adapting a book needs context and type of learners, teachers’ experience,

beliefs and understanding, and type of textbook used before as considerations.

  

What is considered as an advantage may be considered as disadvantage by others.

  A textbook is like a stimulus or instrument for teaching and learning. It

can be adapted by changing, supplementing, eliminating, or re-sequencing the

material in it.

  a. Adapting the Activity Level It involves changing, supplementing, or eliminating activities. According

to Simone, as cited in Graves (2000), activities, in some ways, sometimes needs to

personalize so that they will be relevant to the students.

  b. Adapting the Unit Level It involves adapting textbook at the unit level. The sequence depends on

many things, for example teacher’s beliefs and understanding about how learners

learn, their views of what language learners need to know, views of how the four

language skills interact , and views how activities support one another.

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9. Designing an Assessment Plan

  Assessment, or evaluation, is aimed to see improvement of a course

(formative evaluation), to get a deeper understanding about the teaching learning

process (illuminative evaluation), and to find out the effectiveness and efficiency

of a program (summative evaluation) (Richards, 2001). It is in line with what

Graves (2000) says about the roles of assessment, which are to assess needs,

assess learners’ learning, and evaluate the course itself.

  According to Brown (2004), there are various kinds of language assessment.

  a. Informal and Formal Assessment Informal assessment refers to incidental, unplanned feedback to the

students; including comments and responses followed by coaching, whereas

formal assessment refers to systematic, planned, specifically designed exercise or

procedure to measure students’ achievement.

  b. Formative and Summative Assessment Formative assessments are those which evaluate students’ progress in the

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B. Theoretical Framework

  Learning objectives, in this research referring to learning objectives

themselves and learning indicators stated in lesson plans, are intended learning

outcomes or something that students are able to demonstrate at the end of

instruction to show that the learning expectation is reached (Gronlund, 1991: 3).

  

There are three categories of learning objectives; cognitive domain, psychomotor

domain, and affective domain.

  Learning objectives have important roles in designing a course. Before

teachers select learning activities, they need to formulate the learning objectives to

define what to be taught (Kemp, 1977: 23-24). Thus, all activities during a course

should refer to those objectives. Besides, teachers also need to know the strengths

and weaknesses of certain materials in order to match the students’ characteristics,

needs, and the objectives formulated. Furthermore, Kemp states that learning

objectives also let students know what goals they must accomplish, what ideas

and skills will be covered in the next instruction, and what types of behaviour

students should perform during evaluation. Thus, seeing the importance of

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