The Use of Reference Pronominal The Use of Reference demonstrative The Use of Reference Comparative The Use of Conjunction

42

a. The Use of Reference Pronominal

There are only two kinds of pronominals in the text, i.e. it and she. It in sentence 9 has no clear reference. While she in sentence 11 presupposes my close friend a friend of the writer’s. And she in sentence 26 refers to the phrase my mother mentioned in the previous sentence. All of those pronominals are classified into anaphoric references.

b. The Use of Reference demonstrative

The demonstratives found in the text are that, this and the. That in the first sentence of the text has an ambiguous reference. It is not clear which item the demonstrative presupposes. Maybe the writer wants to use the word that as the presupposing item for the theme of the writing. To prevent ambiguity, the writer should have preceded the first sentence with a sentence containing a word or a phrase representing the theme of the writing so that the presupposed item will be existent. While this in sentence 5 refers to the word scientific lesson in sentence 4. Concerning the words the, some of them are self defining homophoric, while some others are anaphoric and cataphoric references. Those which are categorized as self- defining ones are found in sentence 2, 9, 14, 15, and 17. Anaphoric reference can be seen from the use of the word the in sentence 20. The word the in the first clause of sentence 7 presupposes the word choices mentioned in the preceding sentence anaphoric reference, while the in the phrase the program shows a cataphoric reference. It is due to the fact that the phrase is presupposed by the clause which comes after it. 43

c. The Use of Reference Comparative

Some references found in the text which are considered to be comparatives are the same in sentence 19, same in sentence 26, and same in sentence 27. All of them are anaphoric references.

d. The Use of Conjunction

The conjunctives found in the text are in the end of the semester, then, after discussing for long time, because, but, and then. They are respectively considered to be temporal conclusive, temporal sequential, temporal sequential, causal simple, adversative-containing ‘and’, and temporal sequential. In another point of view, the above conjunctives are respectively considered to be external enhancing, external enhancing, external enhancing, external causal, external extending, and external enhancing.

e. The Use of Lexical Cohesion

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