The Use of Reference Pronominal The Use of Reference demonstrative

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a. The Use of Reference Pronominal

I found five types of pronominal, those are him, her, she, their and it. The general categories of those pronominals are respectively singular-masculine, singular-feminine, singular-feminine, plural, and singular-neuter. The word him in sentence 5 refers to the word my father mentioned in the preceding sentence. The word her and she in sentence 7 presuppose the same person, i.e. the writer’s friend, which is mentioned in sentence 6. But the function of them is different. The word her functions as deictic-possesive, while the word she functions as head-determinative. And pronominal her in sentence 16 refers back to the word my little sister mentioned in sentence 15. The word their, which is a deictic- possessive presupposes the organ players. Because the referent item is found in the same clause, not in separate clause i.e. in the earlier point, so this pronoun is considered to have provided an esphoric reference. With regard to pronominal it in sentence 10, 12, 13, 14, 17, each one shows different identity of referent. It in sentence 10 and 17 refers to the writer’s job. These two pronominals have the same referent and create a cohesive chain through anaphoric reference. An esphoric reference occurs in sentence 13. It is because the referent of pronominal it is provided within the same clause, i.e. in the following point the referent is the phrase an easy job. While it in sentence 12 and 14 refer to the immediate context of situation. So, these pronominals provide cohesive chain through exophoric reference. Thus, all the above pronouns have provided cohesive chains except those which have exophoric reference pronoun it in 40 sentence 12 and 14. Exophoric reference does not contribute internal properties of text, but it contributes contextual properties of text.

b. The Use of Reference demonstrative

There are two types of demonstrative, i.e. the and this and the categories of them are respectively definite article and demonstrative-near. The word the in sentence 6, 10, 12 refers to specific identity. The in the first clause of sentence 6 refers to the writer’s profession mentioned in the preceding sentence sentence 5, so I consider it’s referent item to be retrieved anaphorically. But the in the second clause is self-defining, so the reference is homophoric. The word the in this case does not contribute the creation of cohesion. The in sentence 10 and 12 is also self-defining. Concerning this in sentence 9 and 17, it anaphorically interprets the writer’s profession mentioned in the preceding sentence.

c. The Use of Conjunction


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