IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT ON WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT IN GRENADA 317

IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT ON WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT IN GRENADA 317

cisterns, while water for agriculture and livestock issues, in particular taste, as well as the costs in comes mainly from the withdrawal of groundwater

pumping this water to the surface mean that this and surface water stored in ponds. A 2001 water

source of water is used only on a limited basis. supply study for Carriacou concluded that island-

Another concern regarding the increased use of wide community rainwater collection systems groundwater is salt-water intrusion. A 2001 study, totaling 15 ha with provision for a total of 22,000 m 3 however, that was conducted to review the potential of storage is sufficient to meet to the island’s water

impact of sea-level rise as a result of global climate needs.

change found that this impact was minor when Although there are estimates of the mean compared with the threat posed by over pumping yield from the watersheds used for water supply,

of the aquifers. Again, as with surface water data, consistent, accurate data or a comprehensive as-

there is currently no consistent data collection sessment of surface water resources is not available.

program in place that would allow assessment of Additionally, there is very little long-term, consistent

the quality, quantity, water balance, subsurface stream-flow data, especially for low and high flow

flows or outflows of potential groundwater supplies. periods.

2.4 Water Production

2.2 Surface Waters

NAWASA operates 23 surface water sources mostly Arising out of its volcanic past, there are three crater

located in upper catchment areas to supply the lakes –Grand Etang Lake (8 ha), Lake Antoine (17 ha)

water needs for the island of Grenada. A 2006 review and Levera Pond (23 ha)– the most important for

estimated that the rainy season yield of these sources providing water to the south of the island being

was 54,600 m 3 /day which dropped to a maximum Grand Etang lake, which is located in the center of

of 31,800 m 3 /day in the dry season. Again, it is noted the island. The natural dry season outflow of the

that current reports do not provide consistent data Grand Etang lake has been measured as exceeding

which makes it very difficult to evaluate what is the 2,270 m 3 /day.

true yield of each water source which, in turn, makes Given the increasing demand for water it difficult to design appropriate intake works, water particularly in the urban south of Grenada as treatment facilities, and pipeline transmission

a result of construction and investment in the capacities. tourism sector, the provision of adequate water

A 2006 water deficit mapping exercise indicated supply has become very important particularly in

that during the statistically driest month of March, the dry season when there is maximum usage and

the total raw water yields from the 23 catchments at the same time reduced stream flow. As a result,

utilized by NAWASA were extremely low in cases the Grand Etang Lake is used as a source in the dry

where the mean monthly rainfall was close to or season as well as bore holes located in the south

below the evapotranspiration losses. This fact is and south east of Grenada. There is also a full time

very significant since during the month of March borehole facility in Carriacou.

the estimated daily national demand exceeds water from surface sources. While utilizing raw water

2.3 Groundwater

storage, mainly water that has been storage in the Grand Etang Lake, helps somewhat to compensate

Exploitable groundwater resources in Grenada lie for this shortfall, this situation highlights the water in three valleys located in the south of the island:

scarcity situation that prevails during the dry

Woodland (448 m 3 /day), Chemin Valley (1,648 m 3 /

season months.

The same study mentioned above extended the total of 3,013 m 3 /day. Presently, only about 5-10% of

day) and Baillie’s Bacolet (917 m 3 /day) giving a grand

water deficit analysis to generate spatial variation current water demand is met from groundwater

in the number of cases where evapotranspiration supplies, primarily during the dry season to help

exceeds rainfall input and found that the northern supplement surface water supplies. Although more

and southernmost coastal areas of the island of groundwater could be exploited, water quality Grenada have the longest water deficit periods. This


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