532 URBAN WATER CHALLENGES IN THE AMERICAS

532 URBAN WATER CHALLENGES IN THE AMERICAS

the south (the most populated area) and have low

productivity, with flows of between 0.5 and 5 m 3 /

hour. One of the main granular aquifers is the Guaraní Aquifer, covering a significant area of the country (approximately 33%, basically in the North). However, most of it is found under basalt rocks at great depths and the water is extremely hot, with temperatures of up to 45 °C, making it difficult to use as drinking water. There are other aquifers with good yields, such as the Raigón Aquifer, occupying only 1.3% of the country. In short, groundwater as a source of supply has many quantitative constraints in several parts of the country.

3.4 Water quality

Surface Water Quality. In recent years, surface water in Uruguay, especially that used to supply potable water, has shown a significant increase in its nutrient levels. Phosphorous has been the most commonly reported nutrient, with levels in many sections of different river beds that exceed the level for being classified as eutrophic. This process is related to significant changes seen in recent years in the production matrix in agriculture and livestock farming. This has promoted the development of blooms of algae, cyanobacteria and aquatic plants under certain environmental conditions. This phenomenon has also been seen in the Uruguay and Plata Rivers, jurisdiction of which is shared with Argentina. Since this phenomenon affects water quality, the government has taken measures, such as formulating the Plan for the Protection of the Santa Lucía River Basin (see Box 10). It has increased its monitoring programs and set up Regional Water Resources Councils and Basin Committees whose members include representatives of civil society, as well as demanding that agriculturalists propose land use plans for certain activities.

The State Sanitation Company has also included surface water quality as a part of its strategic planning and has already approved action plans for 2014. Moreover, in terms of potable water production, several actions have been undertaken to improve the quality of potable water, such as improving hydrobiological monitoring and determining cyanotoxins with the introduction of warning protocols (including a preliminary protocol at the production level), introducing the use of activated

carbon at existing drinking water production plants and incorporating these units into the construction of new plants.

Groundwater Quality. In general terms, groundwater quality is not a problem when used as a drinking water source, except in isolated cases. These isolated cases are derived from the hydrological characteristics of certain aquifers, salinization caused by over-exploitation, human contamination caused by agricultural activities or inadequate wastewater systems (e.g. a lack of sanitation networks). It is necessary to advance groundwater management, however, and knowledge of many of the aquifers is still limited (some, like the Raigón and Guaraní aquifers have been studied in depth). For example, there are very few vulnerability studies and little has been done to develop the perimeter of protection of the wells (which in any case have not yet been legally established). Another aspect to be considered is ensuring compliance with the laws.

3.5 Drinking water and communicable diseases

Among the diseases caused by lack of availability of drinking water, which must be reported by law in Uruguay, there are three major ones of worldwide importance. There have been no cases of typhoid fever or cholera reported in Uruguay (nor have there been cases of the cholera epidemic that ravaged Latin America in the 1990s). Hepatitis A has an incidence of 0.65/100,000 inhabitants, although it is important to point out that since 2008, there has been free, compulsory vaccination against Hepatitis

A. In 2012, the infant mortality rate in Uruguay was 9.3/1000 live births (the post-neonatal mortality rate was 3.7/1000 live births). In the cases of deaths of infants under the age of one, 0.7% were caused by diarrhea and gastroenteritis. High drinking water coverage is an environmental condition that should

be taken into account when considering these data (see: www.msp.gub.uy; www.higiene.edu.uy).

3.6 Challenges in drinking water provision

Below are some of the challenges related to drinking water provision at the urban level in Uruguay:

• Guarantee universal access to safe drinking

water inside the home, since the lack of safe drinking water inside the home is regarded as


Dokumen yang terkait

Analisis Komparasi Internet Financial Local Government Reporting Pada Website Resmi Kabupaten dan Kota di Jawa Timur The Comparison Analysis of Internet Financial Local Government Reporting on Official Website of Regency and City in East Java

19 801 7

ANTARA IDEALISME DAN KENYATAAN: KEBIJAKAN PENDIDIKAN TIONGHOA PERANAKAN DI SURABAYA PADA MASA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG TAHUN 1942-1945 Between Idealism and Reality: Education Policy of Chinese in Surabaya in the Japanese Era at 1942-1945)

1 24 9

Implementasi Prinsip-Prinsip Good Corporate Governance pada PT. Mitra Tani Dua Tujuh (The Implementation of the Principles of Good Coporate Governance in Mitra Tani Dua Tujuh_

0 44 8

Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year

7 147 3

Improving the VIII-B Students' listening comprehension ability through note taking and partial dictation techniques at SMPN 3 Jember in the 2006/2007 Academic Year -

0 42 87

An Analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes movie

26 142 96

The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching Past Tense to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan

4 92 138

The correlation between listening skill and pronunciation accuracy : a case study in the firt year of smk vocation higt school pupita bangsa ciputat school year 2005-2006

9 123 37

Existentialism of Jack in David Fincher’s Fight Club Film

5 71 55

Phase response analysis during in vivo l 001

2 30 2

Dokumen baru

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

91 2524 16

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

34 651 43

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

32 557 23

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

15 356 24

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

23 482 23

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

40 816 14

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

37 724 50

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

11 452 17

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

18 657 30

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

28 804 23