The improving of students’ comparative degree score using role playing in communicative approach
THE IMPROVING OF STUDENTS’ COMPARATIVE DEGREE
SCORE USING ROLE PLAYING IN COMMUNICATIVE
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training In a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the degree of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education
By : Ahmad Dasuki NIM: 103014026936
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
The examination committee of the Faculty of Tarbiya and teachers’ training certifies that the ‘skripsi’ entitled “THE IMPROVING OF STUDENTS’ COMPARATIVE DEGREE SCORE USING ROLE PLAY TECHNIQUE IN COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH” written by Ahmad Dasuki, student’s registration number:
103014026936 was examined by the committee in June 9th 2010 on Wednesday, and was declared to have passed and, therefore, fulfilled one of the requirements for the academic title of ‘S. Pd’ (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education Department.
Jakarta, June 20th 2010 Examination Committee
CHAIRMAN : Drs. Syauki, M. Pd. ( ) NIP: 150 246 289
SECRETARY : Neneng Sunengsih, S. Pd. ( ) NIP: 150 293 236
EXAMINERS : 1. DR.H Atiq Susilo,MA ( ) NIP:
2. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M. Pd ( ) NIP:
Dean of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training Faculty
Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA. NIP 150 231 356
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIn the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
All praises be to Allah Lord of the Universe. The Almighty God for His blessing, guidance, love, help who has bestowed upon the writer in completing this ‘skripsi’. Peace and blessing be upon the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. and his family, his companions, and his followers.
This ‘skripsi’ is presented to English Education Department of faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta as a partial fulfillment of requirements for the Degree of Strata I (SI), entitled
THE IMPROVING OF STUDENTS’ COMPARATIVE DEGREE
SCORE USING ROLE PLAYING IN COMMUNICATIVE
APPROACH( A Pre-Experimental Study at the Sixth Year of SDN Duri kosambi 07 Pagi )
In this occasion, the writer would like to express his thanks and great appreciation to his beloved father H. Saiman (Alm) , his mother Hj. Tasniyah ( Alm), My all sisters who always give motivation and support in various endeavors and moral encouragement to finish his study.
The writer would also like to give his great appreciation, honor and gratitude to DR.Didik Santoso Mpd. as his advisor, for his time, guidance, kindness, contributions and patience in correcting and helping him in finishing this ‘skripsi’.
His gratitude also goes to:
1. All lecturers of English Education Department who has taught the writer during his study.
2. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A. the Dean of Faculty Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training.
3. Drs. Syauki, M. Pd. the Head of English Department of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training.
4. Neneng Sunengsih, S. Pd, the Secretary of English Department of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training.
5. The staff and officers of the libraries of UIN, British Council, Atmajaya, AMCOR who have given permission to the writer to use their books.
6. Drs. Samsudin AE. as the Principal of SDN Duri Kosambi 07 Pagi and all of teachers who had been cooperation during the writer conducting research in the school.
7. All his friends in academic year 2003 at class A, B and C that he can not mention one by one who always help and give support him during his study. May Allah guide and give them all happiness through out their lives. Amin.
Finally, the writer realizes that this ‘skripsi’ is far from being prefect. Therefore, the writer would like to accept any constructive criticism and suggestion to make this ‘skripsi’ better.
Jakarta, April 23rd 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………..……… i
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……….……… iii
LIST OF TABLES ………..……… v
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study …………..………… 1
B. The Limitation of Problem ……… 6
C. The Formulation of Problem …………..………….. 6
D. The Method of Study ………... 6
E. The Organization of Writing ….………... 7
CHAPTER II : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Comparative Degree ……… 8
1. Definition of Comparative Degree ...….. 7
2. The Pattern of Comparative Degree …… 9
B. Communicative Approach ……… 15
1. Principles ……… 15
2. Designs ……… 22
3. Procedure ……… 24
4. Strength and Weakness ……….. 26
C. Application of Communicative Approach in Teaching Comparative Degree ………..………… 26
2. Stimulating students through Communicative
Approach ……… 27
3. Technique of presentation ……….. 27
D. Hypothesis of the Study ………. 32
CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS A. Research Methodology ……….. 33
1. Purpose of Study ………. 33
2. Place and time of study ………... 33
3. Population and sample of study ………….. 33
4. Instrument of Study ……… 34
5. Procedure of Collecting Data …………... 35
6. Technique of Analyzing Data .……… 36
B. Research Findings ………...……….. 37
1. Description of Data ………. 37
2. Interpretation of Data ………... 43
3. Test of Hypothesis ………. 44
CHAPTER IV : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 1. Conclusion ……….. 46
2. Suggestion ……….. 46
BIBLIOGRAPHY ………. 48
LIST OF TABLES
1. Table 3.1 : The Spefification of the question ………. 35 2. Table 3.2 : The Result of the Pre-Test ………. 37 3. Table 3.3 : The Result of the Post-Test ……….. 38 4. Table 3.4 : The Comparison between the Pre-Test and Post-Test ……….. 40
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of Study
By the end of the twentieth century English was already well on it’s way to becoming a genuine lingua franca, that is a language used widely communication between people who do not share the same first ( or even second ) language. Just in the Middle Ages Latin became for a time a language of international communication ( at least in Roman Empire ), so English is now commonly used in exchanges between, say, Japanese and Argentinean Business people, or between Singaporeans and their Vietnamese counterparts. English is also, of course, a mother tongue for many people in the world, thought as well see, such ‘native speakers’ are increasingly out – numbered by people who have English as a second or third language and use it for international communication.1
As an international language, English is used for communication among people in daily life and academic all over the world. It is not only used as communication tools but also used as written text in many books and source of knowledge to society.
. A distinction is often made that depends on how the language is learned: as a
native language (or mother tongue), acquired when the speaker is a young child (generally in the home), or as a foreign language, acquired at some subsequent period.
In educational world especially in Indonesian school, English is determined as a compulsory subject in the national curriculum. It is taught beginning from elementary school up to the university level. it is formally taught in schools from elementary level until university level and become obligatory subject in national
Jeremy Harmer , The Practice of English Language Teaching ; fourth edition , (England: Pearson Longma, 2007), p. 13
examination ( ujian nasional ) for junior and senior high school. So Indonesian people have about 8-10 years for learning English language.
Although we have much time to learn English, in fact many students do not master the English yet, especially in using for grammar in the sentences either on speaking or writing. This can be proven in a score examination; many students get lower than limited score in each of school level in Indonesia.
There are many aspects that cause this problem. They come from the internal aspect and external aspect. The internal aspects are from inside the students themselves such as motivation, interest, intelligence etc. and the external aspect are from outside of the students such as economic background, learning materials, method of teaching, etc.
One of external aspect is in method of teaching, In fact, when the students learn a second or foreign language, they will meet a method or an approach that it cannot be separated from their process in learning language. And basically, a method or an approach will often be influenced by a view or a theory of language. According to Mackey, “difference in ideas on language learning will affect both method of teaching of it.”2 This statement means that a view of language and approach will affect the method of language teaching. Therefore, a view to the language is very important for language teaching and so is an approach. Because of a view as well as an approach will require a particular method of teaching.
Approach defined as theories about the nature of language and language learning that serves as the source of practices and principles in language teaching (Richard and Rodgers 1986: 16).3 And method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is
William Frances Mackey, Language Teaching Analysis, (London: Indiana University Press, 1967), p. xi
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching; Third Edition, (England: Pearson Education Limited, 2001), p. 78
based upon, the selected approach. So it can be said that approach is axiomatic which describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught and a method is a procedural.
Sometimes students feel bored in learning grammar with the monotonous method, they just write in the book and remember for meanwhile but they didn’t practice anyway. To make the situation of classroom and teaching learning process lively, the writer would like to suggest an alternative approach, that is Communicative Approach. This approach will give the students opportunity to be active and creative during the teaching learning process.
The writer would like to propose and alternative method to make teaching – learning process more lively other than teacher – centered approach or others, that is one which common known under the term “communicative Approach” this approach will give the students opportunity to play an active role trough out the whole teaching – learning process.
Communicative approach is an approach in language teaching based on the humanistic view that emphasizes the centrally of the learner than the supremacy of the subject matter on the teacher. Teaching a language with communicative approach means, the language is taught as a means of communicative. The goal of teaching is the ability to communicate in target language.
The application of communicative approach in teaching of English throughout the world including Indonesia nowadays is no longer a new thing. In Indonesia communicative approach has been adopted since the implementation of the 1984 Curriculum continued with the 1994 curriculum, the 2004 curriculum, the 2006 curriculum, and now the KTSP “Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan”
It is fact of communication approach in teaching – learning process implicates to the student’s activity. Although the quality each activity is different. Their activities can not be observed when the teaching – learning process is running on. We can observe it when two or more students act to be questioners and answer the teacher’s question. The optimal learning result can be achieved when students and teachers act intention activity, as Hans said : “…….the crucial factor which
contributed toward successful teaching are overall atmosphere and in particular the personal relationship between teacher an learners, learner and learner”
Even though the optimal learning result and successful teaching depend mostly on the activity of teacher and learners and relationship between them, it is the fact that teacher – centered approach used in teaching learning process seems not to achieve good outcomes.
Role Playing is one of the techniques in the communicative approach. Teaching comparative degree using role playing is very fun and easy to understandable because the role play develops greater understanding of the complexity of professional practice and enables students to develop skills to engage in negotiations within the controlled environment of the classroom. Role play in the classroom can be implemented in a number of ways. It can involve face-to face interactions. The length of the process can also vary according to the aims of the activity. This guide will outline role play techniques found to be most useful for the language classroom at a tertiary level. Role play in the classroom involves students actively in the learning process by enabling them to act as stakeholders in an imagined or real scenario. It is a technique that complements the traditional lecture and assignment format of tertiary level social science learning. In a role play, the teacher selects a particular event or situation that illuminates key theories or may be of importance to the topic of study. Students are given detailed background readings and assigned stakeholder roles as preparation. The format of interaction between stakeholders can be varied and may depend on time or resources available. The role play is concluded with a debriefing or reflection stage which reinforces the concepts introduced by the role play.4
Teaching of English is stressed on mastering the four basic skills : listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Besides, the knowledge of grammar is one of the important factor that students should masters, in order to be able to listen, speak, read, and write correctly.
Dr. Kanokwan Manorom and Zoë Pollock, Role Play as a Teaching Method:A Practical Guide,( Ubon Ratchathani University,2006)p.3
Grammar mainly has a role in language teaching particular theories of grammar and learning associated with them provided justification for syllabus and in methodology in language teaching for decades.
Grammar is one of the language aspects which is taught to every language learners. Penny Ur noted that “grammar is defined as away words are put together to make correct sentences. It doesn’t only affect how the units of words are combined in order to make correct sentences but also affects their meaning.5 Therefore, the teaching of grammar means providing students with opportunities to use English in variety of realistic situations in order to learn to communicate effectively.6
Unfortunately, grammar is often taught in isolated, unconnected sentences that give a fragmented, unrealistic picture of English and make it difficult for students to apply what they have learned in actual situations. It is as the basic knowledge and as important role in understanding the English language. So by learning grammar, we can communicate our message clearly and precisely.
Talking about grammar, there are parts of speech. Adjective and adverb both are parts of speech. Both of them involved in expressing equal and unequal, they are positive, comparative and superlative degree. They are not as easy as we as think especially for learners. In expressing comparative and superlative meaning is more complex in English than in many languages, not all languages make a distinction between comparative and superlative , and some learners may find the distinction an awkward one to grasp. In learning of comparative degree learners need to know what and adjective and adverb are and they also need to learn when they cannot be used and what to use instead. Comparative are adjective and adverbs that in – er for one syllable ( e.g. taller, bigger, faster) and preceding more- for more than one syllable (e.g. more handsome, more beautiful ) .therefore, learners need to know about
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 75
Sandra L. McKay, Teaching Grammar; Form, Function and Technique, (London: Prentice Hall International, 1987), p. xi
adjective and adverb before they compare two things or person in comparative forms. But some problems appear when they are learning comparative, learners often have wrong in using more or ending –er (e.g. more big or handsomer ) some learners have difficulty in distinction using more - and –er. And also the learners may not know the appropriate irregular forms ( e.g. good - better – best ).
From these statements above, the writer analyze that the learners tend to make a mistake because the lack of knowledge about the comparative degree and they have difficulty in using them appropriately.
Based on the explanation above, the writer is interested in applying Role Play technique in Communicative Approach in teaching comparative degree to the sixth class of SDN. Duri Kosambi 07 Pagi on Jln. Raya Kresek No.51 RT 007/08 kec. Cengkareng 11750 Jakarta Barat.
B. The Limitation of The Problem
There are many problems that can cause the low ability of the students in using comparative degree namely the facility, the teacher performance, students’ interests , students’ motivation, the method in teaching and etc. Including the approaches that the teacher uses in teaching English. Therefore this research would apply the communicative approach in teaching comparative degree
C. The Formulation of The Problem
Based on the background of study, the writer formulates the problem as follows: “Is there any improvement in the students’ scores of the comparative degree after being taught by using the Communicative Approach ?”
The study is based on field research. In this research, the writer used pre-experimental method by using “one group pre-test and post test design” where the writer did the research in a single group only. He used the same material to treated the students.
The method is used to know any increases of the students’ scores of Comparative Degree after being taught by Communicative Approach.
E. Organization of The Study
This paper consists of four chapters. The first chapter is introduction. It covers background of study, limitation and formulation of Study, significance of the Study, and organization of study.
The second chapter discusses theoretical framework consisting of four parts. Part A is Comparative Degree which covers definition of comparative degree, and pattern of Comparative Degree. Part B is Communicative Approach which covers Principles, Designs, procedure , and Strength and Weakness of Communicative Approach .part C is Teaching comparative Degree through Communicative Approach D is Hypothesis of the Study
The third chapter is Research methodology and findings which covers two parts. Part A is Research Methodology which consists of purpose of study, purpose of study, Place and Time of study, Population and Sample of study, Instrument of Study, and Technique of analyzing Data. Part B is Research finding decided into three; the first is description of Data, the second is interpretation of Data and the third one is Test of Hypothesis
The last chapter presents Conclusion and Suggestion. It is core review of previous discussion in this paper. And there are some suggestion that might be profile the language teachers, learners in teaching – learning process
A. Comparative Degree 1. Definition
The term “ comparison” derived ultimately from Latin word” compare” meaning make equal , liken , compare “7 According to Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary ; “ Comparison is the process of comparing two or more things or people “ .8
Meanwhile based on the World University Encyclopedia “ The comparison is the act of setting forth the points of similarity or contrast between on thing or person and another . in grammar, comparison is that inflection of adjectives or adverbs which indicates differences in degree of quality, the three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative and Superlative9 .and the degrees of comparison are known as degrees of modifiers. Many modifiers can be distinguished either as adjectives which modify nouns and pronouns, or as adverbs, which modify other parts of the sentences .We recognize three degrees of modifiers as follows : : Positive, implying no comparison my home is as big as your home ) comparative implying that one exceeds another ( my home is bigger than your and more beautiful than your home ) and the superlative which implies the highest degree, at least within the certain limitation ( my home is the biggest and the most beautiful home in the town ) 10
From some terms above, the writer conclude that comparison is to show or to point out three degrees quality and quantity of all of creations in this life and it’s degrees as follows :
Barnhat, Robert K, “ Dictionary of Etymology “ ( New York ; Harper Collins publishers, inc. 1988). P.144
A.s. Honrby , “ Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary “. ( London; Oxford University Press 1991) p.245.
Mervill W, Feldman and Rudolp H . Yeatman J.R “ the word University Encyclopedia “ ( Washington Dc; published company , inc.1964 )
a. Positive degree , it used when two units are compared to an equal degree Example : My book is as cheap as your book
( Buku saya sama murahmya dengan buku kamu )
b. Comparative degree, it used when two units are compared to unequal degree.
Example : 1. My book is cheaper than your book ( Buku saya lebih murah dari buku kamu ) 2. my class is more comfortable than your class ( Kelas saya lebih nyaman dari pada kelas kamu )
c. the superlative Degree, it is used when three units or three are compared to unequal degree.
Example : 1. My book is the cheapest book between my classmate’s books ( buku saya adalah buku termurah diantara buku- buku temen-teman saya )
2. My class is the most comfortable class in my school ( Kelas saya adalah kelas yang ternyaman di sekolah saya ) However, the writer only focuses on Comparative Degree to be discussed in this paper. Moreover The writer concludes that Comparative Degree is To modifies adjectives and adverbs when we want to express the notion that a person, thing or situation has more or less of a quality which is formed grammatically by adding –er ending to the base form ( short adjective or adverb of one syllable ) or by giving more – in beginning of the base form (long adjective or adverb of more than one syllable.
a. Comparative form of Adjective
Adjective is a word indicates a quality of the person or thing referred to by a noun11, meanwhile, according to Merriam Webster “ adjective is a word belonging to one of the major form classes in any of great many languages, typically used as modifier of a noun to denote a quality or extent, or to specify or designate a thing as distinct from something else12
The adjective change their form to express different degrees of quality. One of them is comparative degree. There are some groups or exceptions of comparative form from adjective. they are :
1. one syllable adjectives.
Form the comparative of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er.
One-Syllable Adjective Comparative Form
Tall taller Old older Long longer
• Mary is tallerthan Max.
• Max is olderthan John.
• My hair is longerthan your hair.
If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form
One-Syllable Adjective with Final -e Comparative Form
A.s. Honrby , “ Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary “. ( London; Oxford University Press 1991) p.15.
PhilipBadcock Merriam Webster, “ Editorial staff Webster’s Third International Dictionary of
One-Syllable Adjective with Final -e Comparative Form
• Mary's car is largerthan Max's car.
• Max is wiserthan his brother.
If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and add –er for the comparative form;
One-Syllable Adjective Ending with a Single Consonant with a Single Vowel before It
Big Bigger Thin Thinner
• My dog is biggerthan your dog.
• Max is thinnerthan John.
• My mother is fatterthan your mother.
2. Two-syllable adjectives.
With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more …
Two-Syllable Adjective Comparative Form
Peaceful more peaceful
Pleasant more pleasant
Careful more careful
• This morning is more peacefulthan yesterday morning.
• Max is more carefulthan Mike.
• Jill is more thoughtfulthan your sister.
If the two-syllable adjectives ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form.
Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -y Comparative Form
Happy happier Angry angrier Busy busier
• John is happier today than he was yesterday.
• Max is angrierthan Mary.
• Mary is busierthan Max.
Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er to form the comparative
Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -er, -le, or -ow Comparative Form
Narrow narrower Gentle gentler
• The roads in this town are narrowerthan the roads in the city.
• Big dogs are gentlerthan small dogs.
3. Adjectives with three or more syllables.
Adjective with Three or More Syllables Comparative Form
Generous more generous
Important more important
Intelligent more intelligent
• John is more generousthan Jack.
• Health is more importantthan money.
• Women are more intelligentthan men.
Irregular Adjective Comparative Form
Good better Bad worse Far farther Little less Many more
• Italian food is betterthan American food.
• My mother's cooking is worsethan your mother's cooking.
Two-syllable adjectives that follow two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er and with more
Two-Syllable Adjective Comparative Form
Two-Syllable Adjective Comparative Form
Clever more clever
Gentle more gentle
Friendly more friendly
Quiet more quiet
Simple more simple
• Big dogs are gentlerthan small dogs..
• Big dogs are more gentlethan small dogs.13
b. Comparative Form of Adverbs
An adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any other part of language: verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs, except for nouns; modifiers of nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how? (or in what way?),
when?, where?, why? and to what extent?. In English, they often end in -ly.14 Here are common four kinds of adverbs, they are :
1.Adverb of place ; here, there, at home, in the office etc. 2. Adverb of time ; now, today, tomorrow, yesterday, etc..
3.adverb of frequency ; always, usually, sometimes, seldom, ever etc. 4. Adverb of manner ; Hard, well, Happily, quickly, slowly, carefully, etc.
But in this study, the writer only discussed adverb of manner.Adverb of manner is an adverb that explains the condition of verb. This adverb is divided two kinds: pure
such as well, hard , fast etc. and not pure which are usually formed by ending –ly , such as quickly, happily, slowly etc. 15
In general, comparative form of adverbs is the same as for adjectives:
a. add -er to short adverbs:
Adverb Comparative hard
• Jim works harder than his brother.
b. adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative : Adverb Comparative quietly
more quietly more slowly more seriously
Drs. Ahmad Izzan and FM. Mahpuddin , How to Master English ,( Jakarta :Kasain Blanc, 2007) p. 148
• The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.
• Could you sing more quietly please?
c. Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms:
Adverb Comparative badly
far little well
• The little boy ran further than his friends.
• You're driving worse today than yesterday !16
B. Role Playing in Communicative Approach
The full name of the Communicative Approach (CA) is "The Communicative-Adaptive approach." This highlights the two most distinctive features of the CA: first, that it is a new way to understand human emotionally-laden communications and second, that it has shown that the primary function of the emotion-processing mind is to cope with - adapt to - immediate emotionally-charged triggering events.
The communicative approach (CA) was developed by Robert Langs MD, In the early 1970's. It is a new theory or paradigm of emotional life and psychoanalysis that is centered on human adaptations to emotionally-charged events--with full
appreciation that such adaptations take place both within awareness (consciously) and outside of awareness (unconsciously). The approach gives full credence to the unconscious side of emotional life and has rendered it highly sensible and incontrovertible by discovering a new, validated, and deeply meaningful way of decoding unconscious messages. This procedure-called trigger decoding--has brought forth new and highly illuminating revisions of our understanding of both emotional life and psychotherapy, and it calls for significant changes in presently accepted psychoanalytic thinking and practice17.
The communicative approach is quite popular in the teaching of English “ it is partially a reaction against the artificiality of pattern practice and also against the belief that consciously learning the grammar of a language will necessarily result in an ability to use the language “18
The communicative approach could be said to be the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audio-lingual and grammar translation methods of foreign language instruction. They felt that students were not learning enough realistic. They did not know how to communicate using appropriate social language, gestures, or expressions so they were at a loss to communicate in the culture of the language studied.
The Communicative approach-or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)- is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach, but also a shift in emphasis in how to teach.19 The term ‘what to teach’ is an aspect of the Communicative approach stressed the significance of language functions rather than focusing solely on grammar and vocabulary. A guiding principle was to train students to use these
George Yule, The Study of Language, ( Cambridge ; Cambridge University Press, 1996) p. 194
language forms appropriately in a variety of contexts and for a variety of purpose. And the term ‘how to teach’ of the Communicative approach is closely related to the idea that ‘language learning will take care of itself’, and that plentiful exposure to language in use and plenty of opportunities to use it are vitally important for a student’s development of knowledge and skill.
In recent years ‘Communicative Language Teaching’ has become a fashionable term to cover a variety of developments in syllabus design and, to a lesser extent, in the methodology of teaching foreign language.20
Communicative Approach to language teaching derives from the fact that at every stage such as the setting of learning targets, the definition of syllabus, the development of learning materials, the elaboration and implementation of classroom activities, and the assessment of learners’ progress as a medium of communication.21 According to Jack C. Richard (2001), ”communicative language teaching is a broad approach to teaching that resulted from a focus on communication as the organizing principle for teaching rather than a focus on mastery of the grammatical system of language”. In 1970s, linguistics moved away from a focus on grammar as the core component of language abilities to a consideration of how language is used by speakers in different contexts of communication.22
Meanwhile Diane Larsen-Freeman said “…in the communicative approach the notion of what it takes to be communicatively competent is much expanded”.23 Thus Jack Richard and Theodore S. Rodgers asserted, “The communicative approach in language teaching starts from a theory of language as communication. The goal of
C. J. Brumfit and K. Johnson, The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), p.ix
Ann Swarbrick, Teaching Modern Language, (London: The Open University, 1994), p. 43
Jack C. Richards, Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 36
Diane Larsen-Freeman, Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 131
language teaching is to develop what Hymes (1972) referred to as “communicative competence”.24
As said Widdowson (1978) in “The Learner-Centered Curriculum” written by David Nunan, “…a basic principle underlying all communicative approaches is that learners must learn not only to make grammatically correct, prepositional statements about the experiential world, but also to develop the ability to use language to get things done”.
Also Ian Tudor in “Learner-Centeredness as language Education” noted that “CLT may be seen as being learner centered by having accorded centre-stage in programme design to the messages learners wish to convey and communicative goals they need to pursue in real-world situations of use. Furthermore CLT claimed that the teaching objective is the development of communicative competence, that is the ability to use English for communication in real-life situations as opposed to classroom situations.25
The term communicative approach has the same meaning as the term notional and functional.” The distinction between them is clearly set out by Johnson: “notions are rather abstract concepts-frequency, location, quality, and so on. And functions refer to the practical uses to which we put language, most usually interaction with other people”.26
From quotations above, the writer can conclude that communicative approach only emphasizes communicative competence in language learning by using interaction and communication in natural situation and also The Communicative Approach can be applied in teaching grammar.
Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language
Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 69
Nuril Huda, Language Learning and Teaching Issues and Trends, (Malang: IKIP MALANG publisher, 1999), p. 93
Jo. Mc. Donough and Cristopher Shaw, Material and Methods in ELT, (Oxford: BlackWell, 2003), p. 27
2. Communicative Competence
The definition of ‘communicative competence’ has been widely discussed or mentioned by many scholars. Hymes referred communicative competence as that aspect of our competence that enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific contexts. Meanwhile,
Savignon (1983: 9) noted that “communicative competence is relative, not absolute, and depends on the cooperation of all the participants involved.27
Jack C. Richards noted that, “the capacity to use language appropriately in communication based on the setting, the roles of the participants, and the nature of transaction was referred to as communicative competence”.28
Michael Canale has suggested (1983) that communicative competence has the following four components; the first two subcategories reflect the use of the linguistic system itself; the last two define the functional aspects of communicative:29
a. Grammatical competence is that aspect of communicative competence that encompasses “knowledge of lexical items and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantic, and phonology” (Canale and Swain 1980: 29). It is the competence that we associate with mastering the linguistic code of a language, the “linguistic” competence of Hymes and Paulston, referred to above. Krashen’s (1982) said that grammar can be acquired naturally from meaningful input and opportunities to interact in the classroom: in other words, that grammatical competence can develop in a fluency-oriental environment without conscious on language forms. 30
H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 4th edition, (New York: Addison Weslon Longman, Inc. : 2000), p. 246
Jack C. Richards, “Curriculum Development”…, p. 36
H. Douglas Brown, “Principles of Language Learning”…, p. 246-247
Tricia Hedge, Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 143-145
b. The second subcategory is discourse competence, the complement of grammatical competence in many ways. It is the ability we have to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterances. Discourses mean everything from simple spoken conversation to lengthy written texts (article, books and the like). While grammatical competence focuses on sentence level grammar, discourse competence is concerned with intersentential relationships.
c. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of the sociocultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence “requires are understanding of the social context in which language is used: the roles of the participants, the information they share, and the function of the interaction. Only in a full context of this kind can judgments be made on the appropriateness of a particular utterance” (Savignon 1983: 37)
d. The fourth subcategory is strategic competence, a content that is exceedingly complex. Canale and Swain (1980: 30) described strategic competence as “the verbal and non verbal communication strategies that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or due to insufficient competence.” Strategic competence consists of using communication strategies. These strategies come into play when learners are unable to express what they want to say because they lack the resources to do so successfully. They compensate for this either by changing their original intention or by searching for other means of expression. 31
Based on the statement above it is important to understand and to know communicative competence which included four domains of knowledge and skills, i.e. Grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic and strategic competence in language learning. The fourth characteristic of CLT often made it difficult for a no-native speaking teacher who is not very proficient in the second language to teach
effectively. Dialogs, drills, rehearsed exercises, and discussions (in the first language) of grammatical rules are much simpler for some no-native speaking teachers to contend with.
Here are the main core principles which make it the most successful language learning approach in use today.
3.Basic Principles for Teachers
b. A teacher's main role is a facilitator and monitor rather than leading the class. In other words, "the guide by the side" and not "the sage on the stage".
c. Lessons are usually topic or theme based, with the target grammar "hidden" in the context e.g. a job interview.
d. Lessons are built round situations/functions practical and authentic in the real world e.g. asking for information, complaining, apologizing, job interviews, telephoning.
e. Activities set by the teacher have relevance and purpose to real life situations - students can see the direct benefit of learning
f. Dialogues are used that centre around communicative functions, such as socializing, giving directions, making telephone calls
g. Emphasis on engaging learners in more useful and authentic language rather than repetitive phrases or grammar patterns
h. Emphasis on communication and meaning rather than accuracy. Being understood takes precedence over correct grammar. The fine tuning of grammar comes later. i. Emphasis is put on the “appropriacy” of language. What is the most appropriate
language and tone for a particular situation?
j. Communicative competence is the desired goal. i.e. being able to survive, converse and be understood in the language.
k. Emphasis is put on correct pronunciation and choral (group) and individual drilling is used
l. Authentic listening and reading texts are used more often, rather than artificial texts simply produced to feature the target language
m. Feedback and correction is usually given by the teacher after tasks have been completed, rather than at the point of error, thus interrupting the flow.
4.Basic Principles for Learners
a. Learners are often more motivated with this approach as they have an interesting what is being communicated, as the lesson is topic or theme based.
b. Learners are encouraged to speak and communicate from day one, rather than just barking out repetitive phrases
c. Learners practice the target language a number of times, slowly building on accuracy
d. Language is created by the individual, often through trial and error
e. Learners interact with each other in pairs or groups, to encourage a flow of language and maximize the percentage of talking time, rather than just teacher to student
f. Unless the focus is on the accuracy stage of the lesson, learners are corrected at the end of an activity so as not to interrupt their thought process
5. The Techniques and The Steps in Role Playing
Activities in CLT typically involve students in real or realistic communication, when the accuracy of the language they use is less important than successful achievement of the communicative task they are performing. Thus role-play and simulation have become very popular in CLT, where students simulate a television programmed or a scene at an airport-or they might put together the simulated front page of a newspaper. Sometimes they have to solve a puzzle and can
only do so by sharing information. Sometimes they have to write a poem or construct a story together.32
There are some techniques or materials associated with the communicative approach which can be applied in the teaching learning process such as, oral drills, scrambled sentences, guessing games, picture, and role play:
a. Through Oral Drills
Oral drills are a very structured way to introduce students to a new grammatical structure. Depending on the drill, the teacher can either call on students individually or ask the class for a chorale response. Either way, the drill should move quickly.
Here are some activities for oral drills:
Form Activity: Form drill for comparative degree by short adjective
Grammar: Students practice forming comparative degree by short adjective
Procedure: The teacher provides two sentences . the students combine two sentences into one sentence of comparative degree
Example: Teacher: Doni is 6 years old Susi is 7 years old
Students (chorale response): Susi is older than doni Teacher: wawan is 100 cm
Ratih is 90 cm
Students (chorale response): wawan is taller than ratih b. Through Scrambled Sentences
This type of exercise teaches students about the cohesion and coherence properties of language. They learn how sentences are bound together at the suprasentensial level through formal linguistic devices such as pronouns, which make a text cohesive, and semantic propositions, which unify a text and make it coherent.
Here are some examples from scrambled sentences;
Put the words in the correct order.
is a cat Bigger a dog Than
Lion Is The Animal Wildest
like? you What do animal
? Which Ice cream Ice tea
c. Through Guessing Games
Games are used frequently in CLT. The students find them enjoyable, and if they are properly designed, they give students valuable communicative practice.
According to Morrow there are three features of communicative activities were manifested in the card game which observed in the following way: An information gap existed because the speaker did not know what her classmate was going to do in the weekend. The speaker had a choice as to what she would predict (which animal) and how she would predict it (which form her prediction would take). And the last, the speaker received feedback from the members of her group. If her prediction was incomprehensible, there is no the members of her group would respond. If she got a meaningful response, it means her prediction was understood.
Here are the activities for guessing games:
Procedure: Give the class the name of an animal. For this activity student’s work in pairs or small groups to prepare a description of an animal. (For a longer activity have each group prepare 3-5 separate animal descriptions. Note that if you allow students to write out their description, this becomes more like a focused practice activity). Once students have prepared their descriptions, each group takes turn telling a description to the rest of the class, who then guess the name of the animal.
Example: A possible description of a rabbit could include, “It lives in a hole, it eats plants and vegetables.
It bigger than mouse It has a lot of babies. It runs very fast.”33 d. Through Pictures
Pictures are versatile and useful resources for teaching aspects of grammar that require a structure-meaning match. They can used in all phases of a grammar lesson (such as in presentation, focused practice, communicative practice and for feedback and correction.34
Using picture is more effective to help students in understanding simple present tense. The teacher tells one of the student to in front of class, gives student a
Penny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical guide for teachers, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 256
picture about the animal, the student read the description about the animal is; in the Comparative sentences . For example, a cat
It is a pet
It usually lives in our homes It is smaller than the dog
It is more beautiful than the birds It likes to eat the fish
Then other students try to guess what the animal is.
e. Role Play
Role-Play is Communicative activity in which the learners are given a task to complete. In order to ensure a lively and unpredictable course of the activity, the learners are told who they are, what their opinions are and what know that is unknown to the others.35 Role plays are very important in CLT because they give students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles. Role plays can be set up so that they are very structured (for example, the teacher tells the students who they are and what they should say) or in a less structured way (for example, the teacher tell the students who they are, what the situation is, and what they are talking about, but the students determine what they will say).
Using role-playing require the students to imagine in situation. This could be occurred in conversation for example conversation talking about going to the bookstore in which giving suggestion by comparing price and distance. In this session the students express their daily conversation by English language. The teacher wants two students come forward to play the role as in the conversation; here is the conversation
Alan : Hi Susi
Susi : Hi. Alan how are you in this morning ?
Alan : fine thanks. Where are you going to ? Susi : Book store. I want to buy a history book. Alan : I think you can buy it in Alfa book store. Susi : Why?
Alan : Because the price is cheaper than another book store and the place is near from here
Susi : Alright !. it’s better for me to buy it right now . do you want go with me ? Alan : I am sorry. I have more important business right now
Susi : it’s okay. Thanks for your information “Good bye Alan “ Alan : you are welcome “Good bye Susi”
Piepho (1981) discusses the following levels of objectives in a communicative approach:
1. an integrative and content level (language as a means of expression) 2. a linguistic and instrumental level (language as a semiotic system and an
object of learning);
3. an affective level of interpersonal relationship and conduct (language as a means of expressing values and judgments about oneself and others); 4. a level of individual learning needs (remedial learning based on error
5. a general educational level of extra-linguistic goals (language learning within the school curriculum).36
b. The Syllabus
Discussions of the nature of the syllabus have been central in Communicative Language Teaching. We have seen that one of the first syllabus models to be proposed was described as a notional syllabus (Wilkins 1976), which specified the semantic-grammatical categories (e.g., frequency, motion, location) and the categories of communicative function that learners need to express. The Council of Europe expanded and developed this into a syllabus that included descriptions of the objectives of foreign language courses for European adults, the situations in which they might typically need to use a foreign language (e.g., travel, business), the topics they might need to talk about (e.g., personal identification, education, shopping), the functions they needed language for (e.g., describing something, requesting information, expressing agreement and disagreement), the notions made use of in communication (e.g., time, frequency, duration), as well as the vocabulary and grammar needed. The result was published as Threshold Level English (van Ek and Alexander 1980) and was an attempt to specify what was needed in order to be able to achieve a reasonable degree of communicative proficiency in a foreign language, including the language items needed to realize this "threshold level."37
c. Types of learning and teaching activities
The range of exercise types and activities compatible with a communicative approach is unlimited, provided that such as exercises enable learners to attain the communicative objectives of the curriculum, engage learners in communication, and require the use of such communicative process as information sharing, negotiation of meaning, and interaction.
Littlewood (1981) distinguishes between “functional communication activities” and “social interaction activities” as major activity types in
Communicative Language Teaching. Functional communication activities include such tasks learners comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and differences. Social interaction activities include conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role plays, simulation, skits, improvisations, and debates.
d. Learner Roles
The emphasis in Communicative Language Teaching on the processes of communication, rather than mastery of language. The role of learner as negotiator between the self, the learning process, and the object of learning-emerges from and interacts with the role of joint negotiation within the group and within the classroom procedures and activities which the group undertakes. The implication for the learner is that he should contribute as much as he gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent way.
e. Teacher Roles
The teacher has two main roles: the first role is to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, and between these participants and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as an independent participant within the learning teaching group. These roles imply a set of secondary roles for the teacher; first, as an organizer of resources and as a resource himself, second as a guide within the classroom procedures and activities, a third role as a researcher and learner, with much to contribute in terms of appropriate knowledge and abilities, actual and observed experience of the nature of learning and organizational capacities.
f. The Role of Instructional materials
A wide variety of materials have been used to support communicative approaches to language teaching. Unlike some contemporary methodologies, such as Community Language Learning, practitioners of Communicative
Language Teaching view materials as a way of influencing the quality of classroom interaction and language use. Materials thus have the primary role of promoting communicative language use. We will consider three kinds of materials currently used in CLT and label these text-based, task-based, and realia.
Savignon (1983) discusses techniques and classroom management procedures associated with number of CLT classroom procedures (e.g., group activities, language games, role plays) but neither these activities nor the ways in which they are used are exclusive to CLT classroom. Finocchiaro and Brumfit offer a lesson outline for teaching the function “making a suggestion” for learners in the beginning level of secondary school program that suggest that CLT procedures are evolutionary rather than revolutionary:38
1. Presentation of a brief dialog or several mini dialogs, preceded by a motivation (relating the dialog situations) to the learners’ probable community experiences) and a discussion of the function and situation-people, roles, setting, topic, and the informality or formality of the language which the function and situation demand
2. Oral practice of each utterance of the dialog segment to be presented that day (entire class repetition, half-class, groups individuals) generally preceded by your model
3. Questions and answers based on the dialog topic (s) and situation itself.
4. Questions and answers related to the students’ personal experiences but centered around the dialog theme.
5. Study one of the basic communicative expressions in the dialog or one of the structures which exemplify the function.
6. Learner discovery of generalization or rules underlying the functional expression or structure.
7. oral recognition, interpretative activities (two to five depending on the learning level, the language knowledge of the students, and related factors). 8. Oral production activities-proceeding from guided to freer communication
9. Copying of the dialogs or mini-dialogs or modules if they are not in the class text.
10.Sampling of the written homework assignment, if given.
11.Evaluation of learning (oral only), e.g., How would you ask your friend to……….? And how would you ask me to………….?”
4. Strength and Weakness of Communicative Approach
Each approach has its strength and weakness. Here is some strength of communicative approach:
a. Psychologically students are more active in asking question based o their communication needs.
b. The students can use the language that it is learned as an instrument to communicate.
c. It is more humanistic, because it concern with the students, activities in real situations and has meaning in content of function in language.
d. Communicative interaction gives learners more opportunities to express their own individuality in the classroom.39
a. It takes more time for the teacher to make preparation b. It needs teacher’s creativity to make the class a live
William Littlewood, Communicative Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), p. 94
c. The teacher should master the materials in sorts of real situation in class activities
d. Discouraging shy students to express their ideas (to produce sentences) because they are shy to other people in front of the class.
e. Often makes difficult for a non native speaking teacher who is not very proficient in the second language to teach effectively.
C. Application Role Playing in Communicative Approach in Teaching Comparative Degree
1. Preparing Learning Material
Before starting the teaching and learning process in the class, a teacher should note several preparations to achieve a successful and to meet student’s need:
1. Selecting and preparing materials and classroom activities. It can be achieved by searching from various sources such as magazines, newspaper, reading other grammar book, etc.
2. Integrating form, meaning and content in syllabus design.
3. Identifying and analyzing which students’ errors to concentrate on at any given time.
4. Preparing appropriate exercises and activities for rule presentation or error correction.
5. Consulting a variety of grammar reference books in order to establish how a structure if formed, when it is used, and whether there are any particular rules or exceptions governing it s usage.
6. Answering student’s question about grammar.40
2. Stimulating Students Through Communicative Practice
Teacher should understand that learners have to be motivated and involved in order to be successful. A very effective way of increasing learners’ motivation and involvement is by giving reinforcement through communicative and meaningfulness
Marianne Celce-Murcia and Sharon Hilles, Techniques and Resources In Teaching
talk. The language used both teacher and students to express the function, which is based on simple structural pattern with part of to be in present tense. For example: talking about our routines and habits.
Besides making the students ready in accepting the lesson, it also enables the teacher to diagnose student’s weakness in a particular kind of communication and it enables the students aware of their language needs. So they have high motivation to concentrate their attention to teaching learning process.
D. Hypothesis of the Study
1. Null Hypothesis ( Ho )
“There is no significant difference between teaching comparative degree through communicative approach and teaching Comparative Degree without communicative approach at SDN Duri Kosambi 07 Pagi Cengkareng Jakbar. ” 2. Alternative Hypothesis ( Ha )
“There is significant difference between teaching Comparative Degree through communicative approach and teaching Comparative Degree without communicative approach at SDN Duri Kosambi 07 Pagi Cengkareng Jakbar. Thus, the communicative Approach can be used to teach comparative degree. But the specific technique in communicative approach is the steps those applied in teaching comparative degree. By designing the suitable steps in Role Playing such as beginning by Oral Drills, then doing scrambled sentence, next reinforcing by guessing game about the comparative degree, and showing the picture. The last, the student applied the understanding of comparative degree using role play which the dialogue is given by the teacher
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS
A. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to know any improvement of the students’ scores of the Comparative Degree after being taught by Role Playing in the Communicative Apporach.
2. Place and Time of Study
The writer did research at SDN. Duri Kosambi 07 Pagi on Jln. Raya Kresek No.51 RT 007/08 kec. Cengkareng 11750 Jakarta Barat. He conducted this reserach from 28 Juli up to 10 September 2009
3. Population and Sample of Study
The object of the research is the sixth grade of SDN 07 pagi Cengkareng Jakarta Barat. The sixth grade of this school consists of two classes with 42 students in class VI A, 41 students in class VI B. So there are 83 students in number.
Here, the writer did not take total of population as sample. But for observation the sample are 41 students, that is class VI B. The reasoning to take this class is that the student’s score of VI B is they are direcly involved with my purpose to know the effecctiveness and this research is an experimental study in which class was treated by communicative approach.
4. Instrument of Study
In this research, the writer used the test which is made by himself. The material of the test will be taken from their handbook and other related book about Comparative Degree. The test consists of 15 items divided into three parts. First part consists of 5 items for matching the pictures by the sentences to measure the students’ knowledge about adjective regular comparisons. The second consists of 5 items for multiple choice to measure their understanding abaut adjective and adverb regular comparison. The last part consists of 5 items for making the sentences by available words to measure their understanding about irregular adjective and adverb in comparative form. The score per items from numbers 1 until 15 is 6.7 . it means if a student get 10 items rights so he/ she gets the score 66.7. From the description above we can conclude that the highest score is 10. the following is the description of the test
The Speficication of Questions
NO COMPARATIVE DEGREE QUESTION
1 Part of body
5.Procedure of Collecting Data
Collecting Data is one important thing in the research that can be determined the result of the research, as follows:
The writer did the pre-test by giving the students test as mentioned above as a pre-test. After they were taught Comparative Degree without using Communicative Approach. They were only given one hour to finish completing the test.
the writer did post-test to the students. The test was the same as the pre-test. However, the post test was given after treatment had been given by teaching Comparative Degree through Role Playing in Communicative Apporach.
Having got the data from pre-test and post-test, they were analyzed and processed by using statistic calculation of the T-test formula with the significance degree 5% and 1%. The formula as follows;
MD : Mean of difference: the average score from the differences gained scores between I variable and II variable, which are calculated with the formula;
∑ D : Total score between I variable (X variable) and II variable (Y variable). And D is gained with formula; D = X – Y
N : Number of Class
SDD : The standard deviation from the differences between score of X variable and Y variable, which is gained with the formula:
N D N
D 2 (
SEMD : The standard error from mean of differences that is gained with the formula;
SEMD = SDD
Anas Sudjono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan , (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Pustaka, 1997), Cet. Ke-8, p. 289
df : Degree of freedom with formula: N – 1
A. RESEARCH FINDINGS 1. Description of Data
After conducting the research, the writer obtained two kinds of data; the scores of the pre-test and the scores of post-test.
a. The Pre-Test Scores
The result of Pre-test
NO SCORE NO SCORE
1 40 22 73 2 67 23 80 3 67 24 80 4 73 25 87 5 47 26 60 6 53 27 60 7 73 28 73 8 53 29 68 9 47 30 68 10 60 31 60 11 60 32 60 12 73 33 77 13 73 34 93 14 80 35 60 15 60 36 60 16 93 37 80 17 73 38 73 18 60 39 80
19 68 40 73 20 80 41 80
21 77 ∑X 2822
the writer calculated the result of variable x ( ∑x ) is 2822, and seeking the mean score of variable y, the higher score, and lower score of the students’ pre-test with formula:
• Mx = ∑ x = 2822 = 68.83(Mean score) N 41
• The higher score = 93
• The lower score = 40
b. The Post-Test Scores
The Result of the Students’ Post-test
NO SCORE NO SCORE
1 60 22 67
2 80 23 100
3 73 24 100
4 60 25 73
5 53 26 80
6 67 27 73
7 80 28 80
8 80 29 60
9 67 30 73
11 80 32 67
12 67 33 73
13 93 34 100
14 100 35 60
15 73 36 67
16 80 37 80
17 67 38 80
18 73 39 93
19 80 40 77
20 80 41 93
21 80 ∑y 3127
Based on the table of the result on pre-test, the writer calculated the result of variable x ( ∑y ) is 3127, and seeking the mean score of variable y, the higher score, and lower score of the students’ pre-test with formula:
• My = ∑ y = 3127 = 76,26 (Mean score) N 41
• The higher score = 100
• The lower score = 53
c. The comparison between the pre-test and post test score
After finding the score of the students’ pre-test and post-test, he compared the result of the test by using t-test formul
The result of the students’ English Pre-Test and Post-Test No. The score of
The score of post-Test (y)
D = ( X – Y) D2 = ( X – Y )2
1 40 60 -20 400
2 67 80 -13 169
3 67 73 -6 36
4 73 60 17 289
5 47 53 -6 36
6 53 67 -14 196
7 73 80 -7 49
8 53 80 -27 729
9 47 67 -10 100
10 60 80 -20 400
11 60 80 -20 400
12 73 67 6 36
13 73 93 -20 400
14 80 100 -20 400
15 60 73 -13 169
16 93 80 13 169
17 73 67 6 36
18 60 73 -6 36
19 68 80 -12 144
20 80 80 0 0
21 77 80 -3 9
22 73 67 6 36
24 80 100 -20 400
25 87 73 14 196
26 60 80 -20 400
27 60 73 -13 169
28 73 80 -13 169
29 68 60 8 64
30 68 73 -5 25
31 60 60 0 0
32 60 67 -7 49
33 77 73 4 16
34 93 100 -7 49
35 60 60 0 0
36 60 67 -7 49
37 80 80 0 0
38 73 80 -7 49
3 9 80 93 -13 169
40 73 77 -4 16
41 80 93 -13 169
N= 51 ∑X 2822 ∑y 3127 ∑ D =- 292 ∑ D2 =6625
N = Number of cases x = The score of pre-test y = The score of post-test
D = Difference ∑x = The total score of x ∑y = The total score of y ∑D = The total of difference
∑D2 = The total of quadrate difference
Based on the data in table 3, writer calculated the result of ∑ D = -292 and ∑ D2 = 6625. Then, the writer tried to find out the standard deviation with the formula:
N D N
D 2 (
= 161.5−(−7.13)2 = 161.5−50,83 = 110.67
To find out the mean of differences (MD) between variable X and Y, the writer used the formula;
MD = ∑ D N
= -292 41 = -7,12
After finding the result of SDD, the writer can seek SEMD (Standard Error of the Mean of Difference) using formula as follows:
SEMD = SDD
N-1 = 1 41 52 . 10 −
= 40 52 . 10 = 33 . 6 52 . 10 = 1.66
The last calculation is determining the result of to (t observation) of the test with formula:
MD SE MD = 66 . 1 12 . 7 = - 4.29
The last result – 4.29 indicated that there was a difference of degree as much as – 4.29. Regardless the minus, it does not indicate negative score.
Then, to complete the result of the research, the writer tried to find out the degree of freedom ( df ) with formula:
df = N – 1 = 41 - 1 = 40
df = 40 (See table of “t” value at degree of significance of 5% and 1%) At the degree of significance of 5% = 2, 02
2. Interpretation of Data
Based on the collected data, the writer found that the mean scores of post-test after being taught using communicative approach was 76.26 while the mean score of pre-test before using communicative approach was 68.83. the degree ( df ) is 40 is obtained from ( df = N-1) =(df = 41-1 = 50) in this paper, the writer used the degree of significance of 5% and 1 % . the values of degree of significance are 2,02 and 2,69. comparing the t0 with each values of degree significance, the result is 2,02 < 4.29 > 2, 69 its shows that t- observation is bigger than t- table, so the alternative hypothesis ( Ha) is accepted and the nulll hyphotesis ( Ho) is rejected.
From the result of the three table above, we can see that the teaching comparative degree through communicative approach is adequately successful. It can be seen on the table above there is any increase about students score after being taught using communicative approach.
3. Test of Hypothesis
As Sujiono stated that if the result of calculation to( t observation ) is bigger than tt ( t table ) to > tt so the null hypothesis is rejected42. It means there is a significance increases in teaching the comparative degree through communicative approach.. and if the result of calculation to ( t ovservation ) is smaller than tt (t table ) to< tt so the null hypothesis ( Ho) is accepeted It means there no is a significance increases in teaching the comparative degree through communicative approach.
So the hypothesis of this research as follows : 1 (Ha) “ there is a significant difference between the students’ scores of the comparative degree after being taught by using the Communicative Approach and before being taught by using the Communicative Approach “. 2 ( H0) ““ there is no a significant difference between the students’ scores of the comparative degree after being taught by
using the Communicative Approach and before being taught by using the Communicative Approach “.
The statistic hypothesis If to > tt : There is a significant deference and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.If to < tt : There is no significant deference and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected and null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted.
According to the result of the statistic calculation indicates that the value of to is 4.29 meanwhile, the values of degree of significance of 5% and 1 % are 2,02 and 2,71. obtained from ( df = N-1) =(df = 41-1 = 40). by comparing the t0 with each values of degree significance( t-table ),, the result is 2,02 < 4.29> 2, 71.since the to score in the table is bigger than tt score obtained from the result of calculating , so the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accaepted and the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the result of the analysis of the research, it shows that the value of to is 4.29. meanwhile, the values of degree of significance of 5% and 1 % are 2,02 and 2,71 obtained from ( df = N-1) =(df = 41-1 = 40). by comparing the t0 with each values of degree significance( t-table ), the result is 2,02 < 4.29 > 2, 71.since the to score in the table is bigger than tt score obtained from the result of calculating , so the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accaepted and the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. So it can be said that there is significance increase in the students’ score after being tought by communicative approach
the writer makes conclusion that the communicative approach can improve the students’ score of comparative degree. it can be proven from the result of the analysis research. The result shows that the t- observation is bigger than t- table. From the result of the data analysis the writer concluded that there is a significance increase in students’ score after being taught by communicative approach.
There are some suggestions that can be given in relation to the writer’s conclusion. The suggestions are as follows:
1. The teachers are suggested to use the communicative approach in teaching English, especially in teaching comparative degree
2. The teacher should be able to motivate the students in teaching learning process to get the good result of the test.
3. The teacher should choose the suitable technique or materials in applying the communicative approach.
4. The students are suggested to be familiar in learning Grammar based on the communicative approach procedure.
5. The headmaster should consider the communicative approach in teaching comparative degree can improve students’ ability and increase the students’ score on the test.
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Brumfit, C. J. and K. Johnson, The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979
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RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
SD : _____________________
Mata Pelajaran :Bahasa Inggris Kelas/Semester : VI/1
Standar Kompetensi : 3. Memahami tulisan bahasa Inggris dan teks deskriptif
bergambar sangat sederhana dalam konteks sekolah
Kompetensi Dasar : 3.2 Memahami kalimat, pesan tertulis, dan teks deskriptif
bergambar sangat sederhana secara tepat dan berterima
Indikator : 3.2.1 Mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi dalam kalimat-kalimat sangat sederhana
3.2.2 Mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi dalam pesan tertulis
3.2.3 Mengidentifikasi teks deskriptif bergambar sangat
dalam kalimat-kalimat sangat sederhana
2. Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi dalam pesan tertulis sangat sederhana
3. Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi dalam teks
deskriptif bergambar sangat sederhana Tema : Animal ( in the zoo )
Aspek/ Skill : all of the skills Alokasi waktu : 2 x 35
Materi pembelajaran :
a. Perbandingan dua hal yang berbeda :
• Satu suku kata S1 + tobe/verb + adj/adverb + er +than +S2 Contoh :
1. Elephant is bigger than deer
2. Tiger runs faster than fox
• Lebih dari satu suku kata S1 + tobe/ verb + more + adj/adverb + than + S2
Lion is more dangerous than elephant
b. kosa kata yang terkait.
Pendekatan, tehnik dan Metode Pembelajaran 1). Pendekatan : komunikatif 2). Tekhnik : using realia 3). Metode pembelajara : whole class Langkah-langkah Kegiatan Pembelajaran:
Alan : Because the price is cheaper than another book store and the place is near from
Susi : Alright !. it’s better for me to buy it right now . Alan : How do you go there?
Susi : I will go to the market by car.
Alan : Why don’t you go there by motorcycle. It moves faster than car in this condition “
Susi : Yes, I see. Jakarta is often in traffic jam.
Alan : I think you should go in a hurry. Look the sky is getting dark. Susi : Yes, you are right. Thank you for your information.
Alan : You are welcome. See you next time. Susi : See you,Alan
Name : Class :
A. Match the following sentences with the pictures
1. The car is smaller than buss A.
2. Pretty is thinner than Anna B.
3. The shirt is more expensive than the bag C.
4. The boy is shorter than his mother D.
B. Choose the correct words to complete each sentence ..!
1. the goat is _____________than the cow a. small c. more small b. smaller d. more smaller
2. the elephant is__________than the buffalo a. bigger c. more big
b. big d. more bigger
3. my grand father is _________than my father a. more old c. older
b. oldest d. younger 4. I run __________than my friends
a. well c. more quick b. more quickly d. quick
5. A glass of ice tea is _________than a glass of avocado juice a. expensive c. cheap
b. more expensive d. cheaper
C. Write Comparative sentences, Use the words in the parenthesis
1. ( A rabbit/fast/ a turtle )
____________________________________________ 2. ( Rido’s home/ far / Ewin’s home from the School ) ____________________________________________ 3. ( Andi’s hair / long / Bobi)
_____________________________________________ 4. ( Susi / beautiful / Sinta )
______________________________________________ 5. ( Ari’s score / bad / Dewi’s score )
Tabel Nilai “t” untuk berbagai df
Harga Kritik “t”pada taraf signifikansi Df atau db
5% 1% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 200 300 400 500 1000 12.71 4.30 3.18 2.78 2.57 2.45 2.36 2.31 2.26 2.23 2.20 2.18 2.16 2.14 2.13 2.12 2.11 2.10 2.09 2.09 2.08 2.07 2.07 2.05 2.05 2.04 2.04 2.03 2.03 2.02 2.02 2.01 2.00 2.00 1.99 1.99 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.96 1.96 63.66 9.92 9.92 5.84 4.60 4.03 3.71 3.50 3.36 3.25 3.17 3.11 3.06 3.01 2.98 2.92 2.90 2.88 2.86 2.84 2.83 2.82 2.81 2.80 2.79 2.78 2.77 2.76 2.75 2.72 2.71 2.69 2.68 2.65 2.65 2.64 2.63 2.63 2.62 2.61 2.60 2.59 2.59 2.59 2.58