Character Characterization Method of the Research

H. Theoretical Framework

Since the story in Mr. Brooks is rich of personality issues, so the theory that the writer applies in observing the story is Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis about personality structure. However, to apply the theory of Sigmund Freud’s personality structure, there should be an analysis about the intrinsic element of the story. The most important element that must be observed in the film is character. Character is not only playing a major role in the story but character is also creating a conflict that can develop and build the idea of the story. Therefore, there will be two theories which can be applied in the research; Character and Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis about personality structure.

3. Character

Character is a vital and necessary element in the story. Without character there would not be plot and, hence, no story. Character is rather easily discernible, and it engages a natural interest in personalities. By understanding the characters in one story, someone can catch what exactly the story is about. According to Judith A. Stanford in his book, Responding to Literature: Stories, Poems, Plays and Essays, “character is the fictional people who are part of the action of a story or literary work”. 27 The term character also denotes the essential qualities and personality traits of a fictional or real individual. The ability to create compelling and believable characters is one of the hallmarks of the literary artist. A character in a work of fiction may be realized in a number ways; such as; major and minor, protagonist and antagonist, round and flat , and static and dynamic. 27 Judith A. Stanford, Responding to Literature: Stories, Poems, Plays and Essays 4 th ed New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2003 p. 38

4. Characterization

Characterization is the presentation of the attitudes and behavior of imaginary persons in order to make them credible to the author’s audience. 28 In presenting and establishing character, an author has two basic methods or techniques at his disposal; direct and indirect.

5. Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis about Personality Structure

Freud is the first to suggest the now widely concept that human mind and personality are like an iceberg, with only a small part visible and the great bulk submerged and concealed. 29 One of Freud’s most influential ideas concerned so central to the study of psychology is his concept of the unconscious mind, composed in part of repressed motives and thought. Behaviors or actions of an individual are produced by the interaction of these three systems. a Id Id is the most primitive part of the personality, present in the newborn infant, from which the ego and superego later develop. Id consists of the basic biological impulses; the needs to eat, drink, eliminate wastes, avoid pain and gain many pleasures. The id operates on the pleasure principle; it endeavors to avoid pain and obtain pleasure regardless of the external circumstances. 30 The id is the core of consciousness in human’s mind. It includes the instinctual drives, sex and aggression. The id seeks to gratify its desires immediately and to reduce uncomfortable physical tensions. In attempting to 28 Ibid 29 Jerome Kagan, Ernest Havement, Psychology: An Introduction 2 nd edition USA: Harcourt brace Javanovich, Inc, 1968 p. 405 30 Rita L. Atkinson, et. al, Introduction to Psychology New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publisher, 1981 p. 395 satisfy these needs, the id acts without considering external circumstances, whether these needs can or should be satisfied at the moment. b Ego The ego represents the individual’s picture of physical and social reality, of what will lead to what and which things are possible in the world as it is actually perceived. 31 It develops soon after birth when the infant realizes that all of she or he wants will not automatically come to her or him, that she or he will have to figure out a way to get what she or he wants. The ego is conscious control system that is formed in the child as someone becomes aware of social demands. A person with the strong ego has ability to plan ahead, to tolerate frustration, to work for delayed gratification, and to adapt with social norms. The ego is the realistic personality process, therefore ego is said to obey the reality principle : the gratification of impulses must be delayed until the appropriate environmental conditions are found. It is essentially the “executive” of the personality, in that it decides what actions are appropriate and which id impulses will be satisfied in what manner. The ego mediates among the demands of the id, the relatives of the external circumstances, and the demand of the superego. c Superego The third system of personality is superego. Superego is the internalized representation of the values and morals of society as taught to the child by the parents and others. 32 It is essentially the individual’s conscience. The superego judge whether an action is right or wrong. The superego develops in response to parental rewards and punishments. It incorporates all the actions for which the child is punished or 31 Ibid p. 414 32 Rita L. Atkinson, et. al, Op. Cit p. 396 reprimanded as well as the actions for which the child is rewarded. Through the incorporation of parental standards into superego, behavior is brought under self-control. Children no longer need anyone to tell them it is wrong to steal; their superego tells them. The inferred superego is most nearly synonymous with conscience. It keeps someone working according to an ideal of the self arising in early childhood, an ideal formed especially as a consequence of parental prohibition. It operates on what called as perfection principle . 33

I. Research Methodology

1. Method of the Research

The writer uses the descriptive qualitative method in this research. By using this method, the writer will do the research by explaining, describing and analyzing the characteristic of the main character and the personality structure on Mr. Brooks’ character in the film.

5. Data Analysis

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PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

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