Plutchik‘s three-dimensional circumflex model describes the relations among emotion concepts, which are analogous to the colors on a color wheel. The cone’s
vertical dimension represents intensity, and the circle represents degrees of similarity among the emotions. The eight sectors are designed to indicate that there are eight
primary emotion dimensions defined by the theory arranged as four pairs of opposites. In the exploded model the emotions in the blank spaces are the primary
dyads—emotions that are mixtures of two of the primary emotions.
D. The Types of Emotion
There are many types of emotions. Plutchik developed a remarkable many types emotion list that could be described by English words. In this research, the
writer will consider in positive and negative emotions.
Positive Emotions, namely:
Excitement is an intense state of interest. It can be stimulated by novelty, by change, by unpredicted events, or by the anticipation of some event.
Excitement is the emotion that accompanies exploration, adventurousness, and
risk taking. It helps focus attention and seems to strengthen or sustain problem solving efforts.
The expression of excitement in humans can be seen in the behavior of fans at a college football game. A long pass or a touch-down is a critical stimulus.
People shout, jump up and down, and wave arms, banners and scarves. At some colleges, the fans look on more serenely than others.
The expression of surprise is widely recognizable across cultures. A lifted brow; wide, rounded eyes; and an open, oval mouth give the face an exaggerated,
rounded look. Surprise differs from interest in that it is a sudden, short-lived emotion. We do not remain surprised for long. In the moment of surprise there is
a sharp jolt that can be experienced as a gasp, sudden muscle tightening, or knee buckling.
According to Pluthick, surprise described as the emotional dimension associated with orientation. The orienting response takes place while the organism
is examining something new or strange. The emotion of surprise can be expressed as long as the object has not yet been categorized or evaluated. Once the object is
recognized as dangerous or pleasant, the surprise fades.
Philip R. Newman and Barbara M. Newman, Principles of Psychology, USA: The Dorsey Press , 1983, pp. 341-342
According to Principles of Psychology book, joy same like surprise, can not be sought directly. It seems to occur most intensely in moments that are
unplanned or unexpected. Joy may accompany triumph, creative effort, exercise, a good meal, or a chance meeting with an old friend. The experience of joy is
spontaneous. One may strive for it by engaging in pleasurable experiences and miss the mark. States of varying intensity related to joy are delight, happiness,
cheerfulness, and serenity. The signals of joy, especially the smile and laughter, provide a means for communication between infants and their caregivers.
In responses to joyous emotion, for example, by laughter or excited behavior, efforts are made to prolong or continue the situation, and usually no
effort is made to avoid or end it.