ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FACULTY STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA
Perpustakaan STAIN Salatiga llliilliill 0 7 T D 3 0 1 0 8 3 7 . 0 1 A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS IN APS SONGS THESIS
Submitted to the Board o f Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment o f the Requirements for the Degree o f Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) in the English Department o f Education Faculty
State Institute for Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga NIM. 113 03 031
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FACULTY STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA 2007
D E P A R T E M E N A G A M A RI S E K O L A H T IN G G I A G A M A IS L A M N E G E R I (S T A IN ) S A L A T IG A JL Stadion 03 Telp. (0298) 323706, 3 2 3 4 3 3 S a la tig a 50721
DECLARATIONIn the name of Allah The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful.
Hereby the writer fully declares that this thesis is made by the writer her self, and it is not containing materials written or has been published by other people, and other people's ideas except the information from the references.
The writer capable account for this thesis if in the future this thesis can be proved of containing others' ideas or in fact the writer imitates the others' thesis.
Likewise, the declaration is made by the writer and the writer hopes that this declaration can be understood.
Salatiga, Augst 10th 2007 Reseacrher
IIS TARW IY ATI NIM. 113 03 031 Dra. Woro Retnaningsih, M.Pd The Lecturer o f Education Faculty
State Islamic Studies Institute o f Salatiga
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES
Case : lis Tarwiyati’ s Thesis Salatiga, Agustus 22th , 2007 Dear The Head of State Islamic
Studies Institute of Salatiga Assalamu 'alaikum Wr. Wb.
After reading and correcting lis Tarwiyati’s thesis entitled “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS IN ATS SONGS”, I have decided and would like to propose that if it could be accepted by the education faculty, I hope it would be examined as soon as possible.
Wassalamu ’alaikum Wr. Wb.
Consultant Dra. Woro Retnaningsih. M.Pd
NIP. 150 262 646
DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS AFFARIS STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE SALATIGA
Jl. Stadion 03 Phone (0298) 323706 Salatiga 50721
STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS IN AI’S SONGS t
IIS TARWIYATI NIM. 113 03 031 Has been brought to the board of examiners in October 1st, 2007/Ramadhan 19th 1428 H to completely fulfill the requirement of the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
Islam (S.Pd.I) in English and Education Department.
Salatiga, Ramadhan 19th, 1428 H
October 1st, 2007 M Board Examiners
Dra. Woro Retnaningsih. M.Pd NIP. 150 262 646
Patient is the main key of the su cc ess
The thesis is dedicated to :
1. My dearest parent, my father (aim. Noto) and special for my mother (Uwuh) who had given me advice, guidance, support and a prayer.
2. My dearest sister (Istiyani and Siti Nuijanah)
3. My beloved boy (Mas Ery) who always give me support, advice and attention
4. My best friend (Novia and Endah) who always help and support me
5. My best friend in boarding house (Retno and mbak Rosita) who had given me motivation
6. All of my friends in English Department ’03
7. All of my friends in PPL ’06
8. All of my friends in KKN ’07
The title of this thesis is “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE CONJUNCTION IN AI’S SONGS”. The problem had begun to interest the researcher since she found that lyric of AEs songs was not easy to be understood, especially to the student who are still studying English. The problem that were studied in the thesis are : 1) What conjunctions are used in AEs songs? 2) What are the significant meanings of conjunction in AEs songs? 3) What are the messages conveyed in AEs songs lyrics by using those conjunctions? In accordance to the problem, the thesis discussed about : 1) To identify the use of conjunctions in AEs songs, 2) To find out or to know the meanings of conjunction in AEs songs, 3) To reveal the messages conveyed in AEs songs using conjunctions.
The research is intended to be a descriptive study, and the writer uses documentation as the way to collect the data. Documentation, in this case is the text of AEs songs cassette the writer takes 10 (ten) songs from the second album (The A List) which is published in 2000. The tittle of the songs are : Take On Me,
Same Old Brand New You, No More, One More Try, The Things We Never Did, Nothing But Trouble, Tomorrow, She Doesn’t See Me, I Wonder Why and I’ll Take The Tears. The goal is merely to describe the problems that had been stated before.
From the analysis, it can be concluded that there are two types of conjunction. Those are coordinating conjunction and subordinating conjunction. The next is the meaning of AEs songs by those conjunctions and the message conveyed in AEs songs almost all of them are about the living of the song author with love.
The achievements of this research are expected to give some contributions for further study of 1) Academic benefit : a) Theoretically, the student will use it as one of literature reviews in their study to find out some other aspects of these songs, b) This study can contribute in the science of linguistics, especially in giving description about the use of conjunction in AEs songs. 2) Social benefit, a) For the readers, they can understand the conjunction is useful to guide them in making true sentences, b) For the researcher, the writer hopes that there are other researcher who would analyze English song’s with used conjunction from different point of view.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAlhamdulillahirobbil ’alamin, in the name of Allah the Lord of the
universe, because of Him the writer could complete this thesis as one of the requirements of getting “Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) in English Department of Educational Faculty of State Islamic Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga in 2007.
However, this success would not be achieved without support, guidance, and encouragement from individuals and institutions, therefore let her to say
- * thanks to :
1. Drs. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag, as the head of State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga.
2. Dra Woro Retnaningsih, M.Pd., as the consultant who was educated directed and given the writer advices, suggestion and recommendation for this thesis from beginning until to the end.
3. Hanung Triyoko, SS, M.Hum, as the head of English Educational Faculty, thanks for guidance, kindness and brainstorming.
4. Ruwandi, S.Pd. M.A. thanks for your great attention, motivation guidance and advice.
5. Mr. Sa’adi, Mr. Hammam, Mr. Norwanto, Mr. Ari Setiawan, Mrs. Setya Rini, and whole lecturer in English Department, thanks for your guidance.
6. The main staff of library who have given services dealing with reading and borrowing reference books.
7. My perfect typest Mr. Yuliy Sahabat Comp.
8. All of my best friends in English Department ’03: Novia, Endah, Kuni, Nurul, and others. Thanks for your supporting.
9. All of my friends in KKN 2007 Nunik, Imsi, Deqi’, Marsono, Ja’al and Istiqomah, thanks for your motivation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER III THE BIOGRAPHY OF AI
CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS
BIBLIOGRAPHY CURICULUM VITAE APPENDIX
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language is one of the most important thing for human being, it is as a
means of communication. To survive the life, people have to build communication with each other. As a mean of communication, language is used to share ideas, knowledge, and feeling in written or spoken form, in formal or informal situation. Human being as a social and individual person always communicate with each other. In communication people use language as medium. According to Pit Corder, language is thus seen as part of human psychology in particular sort of behavior, the behavior which has as its principal function that of communication.1
Language plays an important rule in every aspect of human life such as : technology, sciences, economics and arts. There is branch of art, namely songs.
The songs have special things. It have imaginative quality and specific characteristic of the language use such as denotation, connotation, and symbols.
Besides, to writes a song needs structure of sentence such as : tenses, preposition, article, conjunction and others. Every word in the song has the power of meaning to person through its rhythm, to get trick and suggestion.
’Corder Pit, Introducing Applied Linguistic, Penguin Books, New York, 1982, page 23
2 English songs are used to express human feelings. It is necessary for listener especially Indonesia people to comprehend the content of the song. Now, there are many young people or teenagers who like to collect English song cassettes in order to improve their English.
A l’s songs have many popular songs such as Take on Me, Same Old Brand New You, No More, The Things We Never Did, Nothing But Trouble, etc.
Conjunction can be difficult and confuse to interpret for general readers mainly conjunction used in A l’s songs. For example :
You and me We sit and talk o f friendship then I ask I f you can see I f we could be together, forever I see the light die in your eyes Coz you ’re cared you ’ll hurd So you don ’t want to try
After reading the text, the listeners usually do not know what is the topic of the text. They are unable to understand the sentences that they read or listen to.
In the song, there are many messages. The language used in literary work has been specific language used in orderly communication. The style in the literary language is to express maximum idea. Song and music parts of this world of sound and art based on the organization of sounds in time. From the phenomena above, the writer is interested in conducting the study of conjunction in A l’s
songs. Here the writer carries out a research entitled : A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS IN A l’S SONGS.
B. The Research Problem
1. What conjunctions are used in Al ’s songs ?
2. What are the significant meanings of conjunction in Al ’s songs ?
3. What are the messages conveyed in A l’s songs lyrics by using those conjunctions ?
C. The Objective of the Study 1. To identity the use of conjunction in Al ’s songs.
2. To find out or to know the meaning of conjunction in Al ’s songs.
3. To reveal the message conveyed in A l’s songs using those conjunctions.
D. The Limitation of the Study
In English song, there are many interesting problems that can be analyzed and discussed. It is impossible to analyze all of them and this thesis is limited to the following things.
1. This research was limited by the writer on analyzing the conjunction used by A l’s songs
2. This research was limited on the second album of A l’s songs, especially ten songs.
E. Review of Related Literature
In this thesis, the writer takes review of related literature from the other thesis. As comparison the writer uses the other thesis and the title is “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE PREPOSITIONS IN BLUE’S SONGS”,2 which have been researched by Siti Aminah in 2004. The student of State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga. In this thesis, she analyzed about preposition, according to her, the are many preposition combinations (14%), preposition based on the data analysis (38%).
The second review related to this research and the title is “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF COLLOQUIAL STYLE IN
ENGLISH SONGS”.3 Which have been researched by Endriana Sri Wahyuni in 2002-2003, the student of State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga. In this thesis, she analyzed about colloquial style. According to her, the language style used in English songs is colloquial style which discusses about non standard English which is now recognized as normal and interesting variety of English.
The third review related to this research and the title is “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE USED IN CELINE DION’S SONGS”4 which have been researched by Mochamat in 2006 the student of State
2 Siti Aminah, A Descriptive Study on the Use Prepositions in Blue’s Songs, unpublished thesis, Salatiga, 2004
J Endriana Sri Wahyuni, A Descriptive Study on the Use o f Colloquial Style in English Songs,Unpublished thesis, Salatiga, 2002
4 Mochamat, A Descriptive Study on Figurative Language Used in Celine Dion’s Songs, Unpublished thesis, Salatiga, 2006
5 Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga. In this thesis, he analyzed about figurative language style. According to him, the language style used in Weslife’s songs is figurative style based on simile, metaphor, personification and metonymy, apostrophe and hyperbole.
F. The Theoretical Frame Work
According to Marcella Frank, the conjunctions are member of a small class that have no characteristics form.5 It joins the units of part of speech, phrases and clause most conjunctions are historically derived from other part of speech, particularly from preposition. According to Thomson and Martinet, conjunction can join clause or sentences and are then often know as “conjunction”.6 It joins words, phrases and clauses. It can be used in other ways and sometimes as other parts of speech.
G. The Benefit of the Study
The writer hope it has benefits to :
1. Theoretically, the student will add finding of learning English structure. So the other student research will use it as one of literature reviews in their linguistic study to find out some other aspect of there song.
2. Practically, this study can contribute in the science of linguistic especially in giving description about the use of conjunctions in A l’s songs.
5 Marcella Frank, Modern English A Practical Reference Guide, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, page 206
6 Thomson and Martinet, A Practical English Grammar Fourth Edition, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong, page 288
3. It can increase our knowledge in English structure especially using conjunctions in A l’s songs.
H. The Methodology of Research
1. The Method Research In this study the writer uses library research. According to Mestika
Zed, library research is the study that used library sources to get the information. Actually this research limits the activity only on the matter of
- * 7 library collection without doing field research.
2. The Method of Collecting Data In this study the writer applies documentation as the way to collect the data. Suharsimi Arikunto states that, documentation is the study that is done to obtain the information in record, picture, sound, etc. documentation in this case is the text of A l’s songs.
The technique of collecting the data are as follows:
a. The writer selected the album from all of A l’s album
b. The writer selected the song from second album
c. The writer read all of the lyrics of those songs
d. The writer selected conjunctions belonging to Al ’s song
7Mestika Zed, Metode Penelitian Kepustakaan, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta 2004, page 1
3. The Method of Analyzing Data The writer uses descriptive analysis technique to analyze the use of conjunction in AI’s songs.
The technique procedures of analyzing the data are as follows :
a. Collecting all of the albums by A1
b. Reading the text of the song
c. Identifying the types of conjunction
d. Analyzing the sentences which had conjunction
e. Describing the message of some lyrics
I. Thesis Organization
Chapter I, is the introduction which contains the background of the study, statement of the problem, the objective of the study, limitation of the study, review of related literature, the theoretical framework, the benefit of the study, the methodology of the research and thesis organization.
Chapter II the review of related literature contains definition of conjunction, types of conjunctions, meaning of conjunction, the using of conjunctions in sentence and the differences between conjunction and preposition
Chapter III is the biography of A1 Chapter IV is data analysis which contains the conjunction used in A l’s songs, data analysis, the message conveyed in A l’s songs. Chapter V is closure contains the conclusion and suggestion.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Theoretical Review of Conjunction
1. Definition of Conjunction The term conjunction comes from two Latin words : “con”, which means “together” and “jungere” which means “j o i n A conjunction joins things together. John E Warriner in “English Grammar and Composition” says that the conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words.1
According to Marcella Frank in “Modern English” most conjunctions are historically derived from other parts of speech particularly from prepositions.2 3 Arthur in “Spoken English” says that a conjunction is join words, phrases and clauses.0
From definition above, a conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, clauses and derive from other parts of speech, like preposition. It is very important used to write story, poem, song etc. There are many conjunctions that we know in English language such as conjunctions are usually used :
1 Warriner E. John, English Grammar and Composition First Course, Harcourt Brace, Jo Vanovich, New York, 1977, page 68
2 Marcella Frank, Modern English A Practical Reference Guide, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1972, page 206
3 Melville Clark Arthur, Spoken English an Idiomatic Grammar fo r Foreign Students,
9 And Not only - but also Since
But Not only - but - as well as That
Yet Both - and Till/until Or Although/though When
For As Whenever So Because While, etc. Either-or Before
2. Types of Conjunction Conjunctions are divided into two classes :
a. Coordinating conjunction Coordinating conjunction joins sentences of equal rank, or it joins words that stand in the same relation to some other word in the sentences :
He was working and his sister was sleeping.
(Here, ‘and’ joins two sentences, ’’He was working’ and ’His sister was sleeping ’, and they are of equal rank).
Ram and Shyam came.
(Here, ‘and’ joins ‘Ram’ and ‘Shyam'\ and both these words have the same relation with “came”)4
4 Masaldan K.N., Basic English Grammar for School, New Light Publisher, New Delhi,
10 The chief coordinating conjunctions are : and, but, for, or, nor,
also either... or, neither... nor.3 Rachmat Taufiq in “Belajar Mudah
Bahasa Inggris ” says that coordinating conjunctions consists of : and,
but, yet, or, for, either or, neither nor, both and not only but also or not only but as well.5
6 Coordinating conjunctions maybe subdivided into five classes : 1) Cumulative : these conjunction simply add one statement to another
It includes : and, both... and, also, too, as well as, no less than, not only... but also, etc.
Example : Take this and leave the rest. 2) Alternative : These conjunctions offer a choice between one statement and another
It includes : either... or, neither ... nor, or, otherwise, else. Example : She must sweep, or she will die. 3) Adversative : These conjunctions help to contrast one statement with another.
It includes : But, yet, still, however, nevertheless, though, whereas, which, on the other hand, one the contrary.
Example : You may find him, yet you may not.
5 Wren and Martin, High School English Grammar and Composition. Schand and Company Ltd., New Delhi, 1995, page 128
6 Rachmat Taufiq, Belajar Mudah Bahasa Inggris, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1996,
4) Illative : these conjunctions help to infer one statement from another It includes : Therefore, on that account, hence, consequently, accordingly, so, etc.
Example : You are young, therefore, do not lose heart. 5) Explanatory : These conjunctions help to explain more clearly one statement by means of another
It includes : namely, that is, as, for example, say, let us say, that is to say, etc.
Example : I know many varieties as red, black, pink.7
b. Subordinating Conjunction Subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which depends for its full meaning.
The chief subordinating conjunctions are : after, because, if, that, though, although, till/until, before, unless, as, when, where, while Example : I read the paper because it interests me. The sentence contains two statements or clauses one of which,
‘because it interest me’, is dependent on the other. Hence the conjunction introducing the dependent or subordinate clause.
Subordinating conjunctions maybe classified according to their meaning, as follows
12 1) Time
In includes : before, since, after and till l would die before 1 lied.
I returned home after he had gone.
Many things have happened since I saw you, etc.
2) Cause or reason It includes : because, since, as Example : My strength is as the strength o f ten, because my heart is pure.
Since you wish, it shall be done. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
He may enter, as he is a friend.
3) Purpose It includes : that and lest Example : We eat that we may live.
We held my hand lest I should fall.
4) Result or consequence It includes : that Example : He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
5) Cossesion It includes : though, although Example : A book ’s a book, although there is nothing in it.
6) Condition It includes : if, unless Example : Rama will go i f Hari goes.
7) Comparison It includes : than
o Example : he is stronger than Rustum.
Some conjunctions are used in pairs are called correlatives conjunctions. Those are : either - or, neither - nor, both - and,.though yet, whether or, not only - but also.
Conjunction may be also classified according to their form those are simple, compound and phrasal conjunctions 1) The simple conjunctions are single words used to join grammatical unit. Oldest conjunctions are in the main the shortest and simplest ones and, if, but, though, lest, because most of these are derived from simple on primary prepositions.
Example : Rani has finished and collected her homework.
Andrew is being it, but he looks fine.
2) The compound conjunctions have formed by combining two or more words into compounds, “because, although, unless, and nevertheless” are compounds conjunctions because they have been formed by combining two or more words
14 Example: Although Madonna is beautiful, many people are impressed on her.
Because he is bad, I do not want to love him.
3) The phrasal conjunctions are those connectives that are made up of two or more separate words, each group of words serving as a single grammatical unit to join words on groups of words. “As if, as though, in case that, in as much as, in order that, provided that, supposing that, and so that are phrasal conjunction in common use in standard and literary English.9 Example : She looks at me as i f I were stupid.
In spite o f the rain, we keep going out.
3. The Meaning of Conjunctions The meaning of conjunctions as follows :
Coordinate conjunction those are :
a. And means to show continuation It uses to relate :
Noun - noun Example : Susan and Agnes are my close friends.
Pronoun - pronoun Example : She and I love to go to the movies.
- Adjective - adjective Example : He is diligent and clever.
- Verb - verb
Example : Peter sang and danced.10
b. However It means “but”. It can precede or follow its clause or come after the first word or phrase.
Example : I will offer it Tom, however, he may not want it on.
c. Otherwise It means if not/or else Example : We must be early, otherwise we will not get a seal.
d. So It means precedes its clause Example : Our cases were heavy, so we took a taxi.
e. Therefore It can be used instead of ‘so’ in formal English. It can come at he beginning of the clause or after the first word or phrase, or before the main verb.
Example : You are not, still you could do something to help him.
f. Still, yet Those are come at the beginning of the clauses they introduce still means admitting that yet means in spite of that/all the same.
16 Example : You are not rich, still you could do something to help him.
She was ill, yet she go to campus. ' 1
g- Or It means to introduce and alternatives. It same with “otherwise" Example : You may choose this book or that one.
h. For It means showing the reason Example : We took a taxi, for it was yet.. i. Both - and Example : Both Nina and Susi will go to the campus. j. N either-nor Example : Neither Tom nor Agnes speak Indonesian. k. Not only - but also / not only - but - as well
Example : Mrs. Todd not only told the students to do the exercise but also helped them.
Anne not only speaks carefully but clearly as well.
l. Either - or Example : Either Tom or Helen must go.
You may either stay or go for a walk.
Subordinate conjunction has classified by single word, two word conjunctions, conjunctions with three or more words. It has also indicated the adverbial relationship that each conjunctions expresses :
a. Time 1) After Example : She never saw him again after he left town.
2) As Example : As she was leaving the house, the mailman arrived with a package.
3) Before Example: She always hat a chat with her neighbor before she begins her morning chores.
4) Once Example: once the news about the merger becomes known, the price o f the company ’s stock will rise sharply.
5) Since Example : He has been very ill since he had his accident.
6) Till/until Example : Let’s sit out here till the sun sets.
We will wait inside until the rain stops.
7) When (ever) Example : We can leave when (ever) you are ready.
8) While Example: Please watch my baggage while I purchase my train ticket.
9) Now (that) Example : Now that we are ready to leave, we must say goodbye to all our friends.
h. Cause 1) As
Example : They left the party at 11 P.M. as they had to get up early the next day.
As he was ill, he couldn ’t come.
2) Because Example : He succeeded because he worked hard.
3) Since Example : Since we were late, we did not get any food.
4) Where as Example : Where as I believe her story, I shall help her.
5) In as much as Example : In as much as no offer has been made to pay for the damage, our company will have to take this case to court.
6) Now (that) Example : Now that it has started to rain, the crops will be saved.
c. Contrast 1) Although
Example : Although I love her very much I can not possibly marry her.
19 2) Though
Example : She listened to me patiently though she was angry 3) Where as
Example : He was very generous, where as his brother was quite stingy.
4) Granted (that) Example : Granted that he was dealt with unjustly, he still should not have killed the man.
d. Manner 1) As Example : He always does as he pleases.
2) In that Example : Both girls are similar in that they love expensive clothe.
3) As if Example : He looks as if he is very tired.
4) As though Example: They are spending money as though there is not tomorrow.
e. Condition 1) If
Example : I f the temperature drops tonight, the lake will freeze over.
2) Once Example : Once you have made a mistake, you can not corrective
3) Unless/if not Example : He never goes to any social function unless his wife can come with him.
4) Beyond that Example : I have no complaint about my job beyond that it is boring.
5) But that Example : But that he needed money desperately, he would never have turned to his brother for help.
6) Except Example : That house is just what we want, except that it is too expensive.
7) Only that Example : I have no complaint about the hotel, only that it is dull here.
8) Provided (that) Example : We should be able to do the job f o r ,you quickly,
provided (that) you give us all the necessary information.
21 9) Save that
Example : The plane would have gone o f f very well, save that one
o f the officials become very greedy.
10) If only Example : I could get more work done i f only there were not so much noise.
11) In case Example : In case you leave the house, please close the windows.
12) Only if Example : We will manufacture these handbags only i f we can obtain the right leather.
f. Purpose 1) Lest (negative)
Example : Lest their young son get into further trouble with
police, they decided to send him to a strict military academy.
2) So (that) Example : He traveled through half the world so (that) he might see her once more.
4. The Using of Conjunctions in Sentence There are some sentence structure that used conjunctions. Those are compound, complex and compound - complex sentences.
a. Compound Compound sentence is made up of two or more independent clauses and no adverbial or relative clauses.
The independent clauses in compound sentence are joined by coordinating conjunction : and, but, for, or, yet, nor, so. It may also be joined by a semicolon (;). In most case, the semicolon replaces the coordinating conjunction.
Example : 1) / put the package on the table, and I sat down
That sentence consists o f :
I put the package on the table (independent clause) But (coordinating conjunction) I sat down
(independent clause) 2) Arthur was late for school; that school bus broke down
That sentence consists o f :
Arthur was late for school (independent clause)
that school bus broke down (independent clause)
b. Complex sentence Complex sentence has one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. A subordinate clause may be an adjective clause or an adverb clause. Adjective clauses begin with a relative pronoun, 1
23 who, whom whose, which, that. Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. After, although, because, if, until, when, etc.
Example : When I watch Martha Graham 's dances, I feel like studying
dance I feel like studying dance
(one independent clause)
When I watch Martha Graham's dances
c. Compound - complex sentence A compound - complex sentence is a combination of the compound sentence and the complex sentence. It has two or more independent clauses and at least on subordinate clause. Example : Isabel began painting only two years ago, but she has al
ready been asked to hang one o f her paintings at the art exhibit that is scheduled for next month.
(Two independent clauses)
Isabel began painting only two years ago, but she has al ready been asked to hang one o f her paintings at the art exhibit.
That is scheduled for next month.14
24 B. The Differences Between Conjunction and Preposition in Sentence Sometimes, the using of conjunction in sentence is very confuse. There are some conjunctions that used as preposition. So, the writer try to present the differences between conjunction and preposition.
a. A conjunction simply joins the two part of the sentence “Take this and give that”
b. A conjunction is never connected with an object “That was long before Tom came”
a. Preposition also joins two word but it does more. It govern a noun or pronoun “He sat beside Rama. He stood behind me”
b. Preposition is connected with an object “Stand before me” some time, several words are used in the sentences as conjunction and sometime as preposition. Look at the following word list
Preposition Conjunction Stay ‘till’ Monday We shall stay here ‘till’ you return I have not met him ‘since’ Monday We shall go ‘since’ you desire it He died ‘for’ his country
I must stay here, ‘for’ such is my duty The dog ran ‘offer’ the cat We came ‘after’ they had left Everybody ‘but’ Ganpat was present
He tried ‘but’ did not succeed Look ‘before’ you leap
He stood ‘before’ the painting
26 short time. The album “Here Were Come” has sold for gold ,that is 10.000 copies cassettes.
The second album The A List was released in 2000. This album consists of 15 top single hits. Take On Me, Same Old Brand New You, No More, One More Try, The Things We Never Did, Too Bad Baby, Nothing But Trouble, Tomorrow, She Doesn’t See Me, Scared, Celebrate Our Love, Living The Dream, I Wonder Why, I’ll Take The Tears and One In Love. The popular song that got no 1 hits on radio chart in Singapore. No More has been topping the chart of radio station all over Singapore too. The video clip of this album was made in Singapore. This album sold for gold more millions copies of cassette and CD. Because of their popularity in The A List album, they were crowned “Best New Comer” at the Brit. Awards 2001.
After the success Here We Come and The A List albums AI released the third album make it good on the 20th of May 2002. One of the popular hit was Caught In The Middle. It made it to number is in the U.K. Charts. This album consists of is hits songs. All songs were written by the lads themselves and several of the instrument played by them too. Caught in The Middle become the most played song on French radio for 8 years. AI left the UK soon after that, to “Make It Good” in the US. The released AI their first American Album on the 25th of June. It had 7 track which have been previously released or put on album back in the UK.
After Paul left AI on October the 9th 2002 because personal reasons, Ben Mark and Christian left their record Company Sony. Each of us have begun
27 working on individual project which means that we need to take temporary break from the band and to part company with Sony Music. Ben was making his own solo demo album at the moment, Mark was writing songs with people at the moment and Christian has formed a record company in his native land Norway which was going to be releasing singles from a new Norwegian artist called Maria Arredondo.
CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS In this chapter, the data are taken from English song by AI’s especially the
second album such as :
1. Take On Me
2. Same Old Brand New You
3. No More
4. One More Try
5. The Things We Never Did
6. Nothing But Trouble
8. She Doesn’t See Me
9. I Wonder Why
10. I’ll Take The Tears
A. Conjunction used in AI’s Songs
In the chapter II (Review of Related Literature), it has been about the conjunction. Here the writer wants to identification the type of conjunction its variations in AI’s songs.
29 Type of conjunction
TAKE ON ME Coordinating conjunction (alternative)
I’ll be gone in a day or two So, needless to say at adds and ends Coordinating conjunction (cumulative, adversative) But I’ll be stumbling away
Subordinating conjunction (result) Slowly learning that life is ok It’s so much better to be safe than Subordinating conjunction (comparison) sorry
Coordinating conjunction (alternative) Yeah is it life or just a play
SOME OLD BRAND NEW YOU I can still remember the time you were Subordinating conjunction (time) there when I needed to hold you, feel you You said you’d change but I’m afraid Coordinating conjunction (adversative) Can appear to be so real and Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Yet turn out to be a fantasy Subordinating conjunction (result) A fool for you (a fool for you) Coordinating and subordinating But I’ve got better things to do than let conjunction (adversative, comparison) you walk all over me
NO MORE Telling me you’ll walk away Coordinating conjunction (cumulative, adversative) But then you go and stay You’re calling me day and night Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Then you always turn around Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) And give him one more try You expect me to be there Coordinating conjunction (adversative) But we never get nowhere No more back and forth, I don’t wanna Coordinating conjunction (cumulative)
30 Expression Type of conjunction
If I’m not what you want. I don’t wanna hear no more Better make a move or you gonna find I did’nt taken it ‘cos you know it’s wrong
ONE MORE TRY You gave me everything I need And now I’m lost And you said this is going nowhere, girl And you said I turned my back on Let’s give it one more chance ‘cos I can’t give you up Could be day and rights so wild Could be the times I wasn't there and all the nights we didn't share
THE THINGS WE NEVER DID You and me We sit and talk of friendship then I ask If you can see If we could be together, forever I see the light die in your eyes ‘Cos you're scared you'll hurt So you don't wanna to try Well take a chance and come home with me If you try then at least you'll see You turn to me, I see your eyes and
Subordinating conjunction (condition) Coordinating conjunction (alternative) Subordinating conjunction (cause or reason) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Subordinating conjunction (cause or reason) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Subordinating conjunction (condition)
Subordinating conjunction (cause or reason) Coordinating conjunction (illative) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative)
Subordinating conjunction (condition) Coordinating conjunction (cumulative)
31 Type of conjunction
somehow they cease to shine Subordinating conjunction (cause or
You see the light die in my eyes ‘cos I'm scared to lose you reason)
NOTHING BUT TROUBLE Coordinating conjunction (adversative)
Funny on how I just give up on my defenses but she's one of a kind Just a girl that could easily twist your Coordinating conjunction (adversative) mind but right now it feels so fine
Coordinating conjunction (adversative) She's nothing but trouble
Subordinating conjunction (cause or To let her go Cause somewhere inside of me reason)
Subordinating conjunction (time) When I look in her eyes It's just hard to anyone's advice Coordinating conjunction (adversative) But somewhere I realize
TOMORROW Subordinating conjunction (time)
You know that when you smile You stop the rain
And we will be together Coordinating conjunction (cumulative) Subordinating conjunction (cossesion)
Although I'm gone, remember me While I'll here, all I'm thinking about is Subordinating conjunction (time)
Used to make me feel so blue Coordinating conjunction (adversative) But know I'm with you
SHE DOESN’T SEE ME Subordinating conjunction (time)
When she passes me by, she's a ray of light Coordinating conjunction (cumulative)
Like the first drop of sun from the sky And I know she's a queen who deserves a king