# Dari Tidak Bisa Menjadi Bisa (2)

THE APPLICATION OF PRESENTATION, PRACTICE AND PRODUCTION (PPP)

METHOD TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY ( A RESEARCH

CONDUCTED AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF MAN BATUDAA IN 2012/2013

ACADEMIC YEARS)

Anggraeni M.S Lagalo

Nim : 321 409 176

English Department

Faculty of Letters and Culture

State University of Gorontalo

ABSTRACT

ANGGRAENI M.S. LAGALO. 2013. NIM: 321 409 174. Skripsi: The application of

presentation, practice and production (PPP) method to increase students’ speaking ability. (A

research is conducted in MAN Batudaa). The advisor are; (1) Karmila Machmud, M.A, Ph.D,

(2) Magvirah El Walidayni Kau, S.Pd, M.Pd.

The objective of this research is to know whether presentation, practice, production (PPP)

method can increase students’ ability in speaking skill or not. It is conducted at the tenth

grade students of MAN Batudaa. The sample is chosen by using purposive sampling

technique, they are class D. This research uses quantitative method, namely pre-experimental

method. The data are collected by using rubric speaking and audio record, and they are

analyzed by using t-test. The criteria used to verify the hypothesis is rejected Ho if tcount is

bigger than tlist ( tcount ≥ tlist ). The result shows that tcount (6,29) ≥ tlist (2,014) with the level

significance α = 0,05 and df = ( n1 + n2 – 2 ) = ( 24 + 24 -2 ) = 46. It means that, the

hypothesis is acceptable. It means that, the application of presentation, practice, production

method can increase students’ speaking ability with the influence of presentation, practice,

and production method from pre-test to post-test is 7,35%.

Key words: students’ ability, speaking and presentation practice production method .

BACKGROUND

Teaching and learning language is dealing with the language skills and language

components, which consist of four basic skills, they are listening, speaking, reading and

writing. In this research, the researcher only focuses in one skill namely speaking. Speaking

is important skill used by teacher, and students in teaching-learning English. It has to be use

directly in communication. Brook in Tarigan (1990, p.4) defines: “speaking is an activity that

direct two-way communication is face to face communication”. As a human being, we

always need communication to express our idea to do everything, what is more as a students

or learners they have to speak with their teacher as long as in learning process to express their

idea.

Teaching English in the classroom, speaking skill include in material of curriculum in

Senior High School. Moreover, in teaching English the teachers should needs the learning

method, because, a method is one of important aspect in teaching process. Antony in Richard

(2001, p.19) states that method is an overall plan for orderly presentation of language

material. Related to the explanation previous, there is one method that can be used in learning

process, namely PPP (presentation, practice and production). This is a popular method in

teaching language as a foreign language. Harmer (2007, p.64) added that PPP is a method for

teaching in a foreign language, especially in communicative teaching learning.

In this method, the teacher presents the target language by explaining and

demonstrating to the students in communicative learning teaching. Then the students will

practice the language in a controlled manned before doing the production stage. Presentation

stage, involves explaining the aim of the lesson include that students know what they will

learn and why. For a good presentation, the teachers can use song, game, or story. Practice

stage, the goal is to help the students use the new language. The teacher can ask the students

to produce sentences or answer question to demonstrate they understand how to use the

language correctly. Production stage, this stage can help motivate students to communicate

meaning with new language. Students should have the opportunity to experiment with the

language. Therefore, PPP is a good method to use in English teaching especially in speaking

skill.

This research made based on the researcher initial observation at Senior high school,

especially in 10th grade of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Batudaa. It is also as the researcher’s

location of teaching practice II. The researcher found that; first, in English class, the

researcher was teaching speaking skill. At that time, researcher gave assignment to retell their

own experience whatever they want to tell. Some students can do that, but some of them

cannot. Second, students are still afraid to explore what they want to ask that relate with the

material. Third, students are still afraid to make a mistake if they will speak. Forth, the

students rarely practice to use English in their daily communication. Fifth, the method or

technique that teacher use quite the same in every class meeting.

Considering the previous explanation, the researcher wants to apply PPP method in

teaching speaking. Those, the researcher formulate this research is “The application

presentation, practice and production (PPP) method to increase students speaking ability”.

LITERATURE REVIEWS

Concept of Speaking

Teaching and learning process is a process of transmit the knowledge or information

from the teacher to the students. According to Izzan (2008, p.23) in the language learning

should be involve four factors, there are, teacher, language teaching, teaching method and

lesson material. In language learning, the four skills are described in terms of their direction.

Language generated by the learner (in speech or writing) is referred to as productive.

Language directed at the learner (in reading or listening) is called receptive. Another

important idea is the channel, which refers to medium of the massage (aural/oral or written).

Thus, speaking is the production aural/oral skill.

Tarigan (1990, p.15) states that, speaking is skill the speech sound of the word, and

the ability to express the idea, message, and feeling. In addition, speaking is described as the

ability to express our self in life situations, or the ability to converse, to sequence of ideas

fluently (Lado, 1999, p.240).

Components of Speaking

According to Harmer (2007,p.343) speaking is a complex skill because at least it is

concerned with components of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, fluency and

comprehension. Speaking has some important components, there are:

Grammar.

Leech (1982, p.4) states that grammar is a set of rules which describe how we

use a language. The aim of grammar is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise

in language in oral written form. Therefore, grammar is needed for students to arrange

a correct sentence in conversation.

Vocabulary.

Rezikin (2007, p.5) states that aside grammar, the other component which is

important is vocabulary. Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in

communication. Without having a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate

effectively or express their ideas in both oral and written form.

Pronunciation.

Pronunciation is the way for students’ to produce clearer language when they

speak. It deals with the phonological process that refers to the components of a

grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds vary and

pattern in a language. There are two features of pronunciation; phonemes and supra

segmental features. A speaker who constantly mispronounces a range of phonemes

can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to

understand (Gerard, 2000, p.11).

Fluency.

Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Fluency

in speaking is the aim of many language learners. Signs of fluency include a

reasonably fast speed of speaking and only a small number of pauses and “ums” or

“ers”. These signs indicate that the speaker does not have to spend a lot of time

searching for the language items needed to express the message (Brown, 1997, p.4).

Comprehension.

Comprehension also is the one components of speaking. Hornby (2000, p.194)

states that comprehension is the mind, act power of understanding exercise aimed in

improving is testing ones. There are four components of speaking that must to

attention by the students if they want to speak well.

Concept of Teaching Speaking

According to Hornby (1995, p.37) teaching means giving the instruction to (a person)

give a person (knowledge skill, etc). While, speaking means to make use of words in an

ordinary voice. So, teaching speaking is giving instruction to a person in order to

communicate. Tarigan (1990, p.3-4) states that speaking is a language skill that is developed

in child life, which is preceded by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is learned.

It means that speaking is the basic language. The goal of teaching speaking skills is to

communicate efficiency.

Based on several arguments previous, teaching speaking in the researcher’s opinion,

is the way how students to express their ideas, emotions or feeling, and interact to other

person in any situation.

How to Evaluate Speaking

Assessment of speaking is the activities undertaken to acquire and streamline the

information about the speaking learning outcomes of the students at grade level during and

after the teaching and learning activities. According to Brown (2004, p.172-173) the

procedure evaluate speaking based on pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, fluency and

comprehension. The procedures as follow:

Oral proficiency scoring categories (Brown, 2004, p.172-173), there are follows:

Pronunciation : 1 – 5

Grammar : 1 – 5

Vocabulary : 1 – 5

Fluency : 1 – 5

Comprehension : 1 – 5

Concept of Presentation, Practice and Production Method

Presentation here refers to the introduction to a new subject or lesson. It requires

creating a realistic situation in which the target language would be taught and acquired.

Usually, this is done through using pictures, dialogues and actual classroom situations.

Practice where the students practice the target language in one to three activities that

progress from very structured (students are given activities that provide little possibility for

error) to less-structured (as they master the material). These activities should include as much

“student talk” as possible and not focus on written activities, though written activities can

provide a structure for the verbal practices.

Production is the stage of the lesson where the students take the target language and

use it in conversations that they structure (ideally) and use it to talk about themselves or their

daily lives or situations. Practice should involve student talk at as much as 90% of the time –

and this component of the lesson can/should take as much as 20-30% of the lesson time.

Procedures of Presentation, Practice and Production Method

Harmer (2007, p.65-66) states that there are the procedures of presentation, practice

and production method, as follows:

Presentation

The process of presenting the lesson focuses on teacher giving information to

the students. The goal of presentation stage is to introduce the new material to

the learners, for example; Short & simple explanations, a brief description of

the new topic/idea, pictures / video / music / demonstrations / acting to

illustrate the new, material.

Practice

The practice process is focused on teacher and students working and

interacting together to put the new material into practice. For example;

brainstorming, exercise (on the board worksheet completed with the teacher),

question & answer comprehension exercises, games that involve the teacher,

drills / repetition, and demonstration / role playing.

Production

Production focuses on students demonstrating their ability to the teacher so the

teacher can observe what the individual students have learned and which

students need additional support. In this process the teacher is; receiving

information and indirectly students mistakes, monitoring the students as they

complete exercises / activities that enable them to demonstrate comprehension

without giving the answers (supporting those students who need extra one-onone help).

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

Description of Pre-Test Data

The following are the data description of pre-test. First, the lowest score is 48 and the

highest score is 87. The data statistical calculation of pre-test is obtained as follows: the

interval (R) is 36, set amount of class (K) is 5, and the wide of interval class (P) is 8, clearly

(see appendix 8 on page 55). Therefore, from the calculation of data in pre-test found out that

the mean score (̅ ) is 67,17, while the standard deviation (S) is 9,58.

The students’ speaking ability in pre-test, there are 3 students (12,5%) who got the

scores in the range 48-55; 4 students (16,67%) got the scores in the range 56-63; 5 students

(20,83%) got the scores in the range 64-71; 10 students (41,67%) got the scores in the range

72-79; 2 students (8,33%) who got the scores in the range 80-87.

Based on previous explanation and based on these intervals, the researcher can conclude that

the most of students’ scores in the pre-test is the scores from 72-79 or 41,67%.

Description of Post-Test Data

The following are the data description of post-test. First, the lowest score is 64 and

high and the highest score is 96. The data statistical calculation of post-test is obtained as

follows: the interval (R) is 36, set amount of class (K) is 5, and the wide of interval class (P)

is 8. Clearer can be seen in (appendix 8 on page 55). Therefore, from the calculation of data

in pre-test found out that the mean score (̅ ) is 77,83, while the standard deviation (S) is

10,21.

The students’ speaking ability in post-test, there are 4 students (16,67%) who got the

scores in the range 60-67; 5 students (20,83%) got the scores in the range 68-75; 6 students

(25%) got the scores in the range 76-83; 5 students (20,83%) got the scores in the range 8491; 4 students (16,67%) who got the scores in the range 82-99.

Based on previous explanation and based on these intervals, the researcher can conclude that

the most of students’ scores in the post-test is the scores from 76-83 or 25%. Most of students

show an improvement in their ability. It can be said that students’ score in post-test is

increased because of treatment.

The result of normality testing of pre-test

Based on the result of pre-test and the analysis result. The researcher found that L0 is

0,0955. For level significant α = 0,05 and total of sample (n) = 24, found that Llist is 0,1764. It

is visible that L0(count) < Llist or 0,0955 < 0,1764. Therefore the researcher can conclude that

the hypothesis H0 is received, it is mean the sample is from the population normal distribute.

The result of normality testing of post-test

Based on the result of post-test and the analysis result in appendix 12 on page 60. The

researcher found that L0 is 0,0907. For level significant α = 0,05 and total of sample (n) = 24,

found that Llist is 0,1764. It is visible that L0(count) < Llist or 0,0907 < 0,1764. Therefore the

researcher can conclude that the hypothesis H0 is received, it is mean the sample is population

normal distribute.

Hypothesis verification

The hypothesis of this research is “the application of PPP method in teaching

speaking can increase the tenth grade students’ speaking ability.

The hypothesis verification is done after analyzing the normality of post-test and pre-test.

The hypothesis verification is done after analyzing the normality of post-test and pretest. The hypothesis is analyzed by using the criteria as follows:

H0 will be received if -t ( 1 - ⁄

H0 will be rejected if -t ( 1 - ⁄

) t(1- ⁄

)

In this research hypothesis testing was doing with used T-test. Based on calculation

found that tcount is 6,29 for level significant α = 0,05 and degree of freedom (df = n1 + n2 – 2 =

24 + 24 – 2 = 46) found that t(t (1 – ½ α )(df) = t (0,975)(46) = 2,014. From that result shows that tcount

> tlist or 6,29 > 2,014.

So that, the result of this calculation shows the hypothesis “the application of PPP

method can increase students’ speaking ability”.

Discussions

The objective of this research has been illustrated in chapter I that wants to find out

the whether presentation, practice and production (PPP) method increase students’ ability in

speaking or not. This research was conducted at MAN Batudaa. The researcher took one class

as the subject of this research. The research took class D of the tenth grade students as the

sample of this research.

The pre-test was giving before applying the PPP method. The topic in the pre-test is

about describing animals. The researcher order them to make simple paragraph about animals

based on their basically knowledge.

After giving the pre-test, the researcher did the treatment of the application of PPP

method. The treatment conducted in three meetings. The topic in first meeting is describing

person, second meetings is describing building and the third meetings is describing about

place.

After applying several treatments the students’ ability in speaking especially in five

components of speaking was increased. It is proved by in pronunciation, the students in

pronounce was better. In addition, the students’ grammar was batter too it is because they

could make a simple sentence correctly. Then, the students’ vocabulary was increase.

Students’ fluency also increase, then the students’ comprehension was better after giving the

treatment.

Last step is post-test. The post-test was giving after the treatment by applying PPP

method. The topic in the post-test is same on pre-test it is about describing animals. The

result data in post-test is higher than pre-test data. The result was agreement with Harmer

(2007, p.64) that states the PPP method is a method for teaching as a foreign language,

especially in communicative learning teaching.

After using the PPP method, there is the increasing value of the students in speaking

especially in description. It is the data post-test is higher that pre-test data. Based that, the

students had on opportunity to express their ideas, and gave the motivation to the students to

speak up.

Based on the result of this research, Based on the previous analysis, by seeing the

hypothesis verification and data analysis, it showed that their ability in speaking can increase

in the result of post-test. So that, it can be concluded that presentation, practice and

production method can increase the students’ speaking ability.

CONCLUSION

There is the different between the result in before treatment and the after the treatment

by applying. It is proved at the result of hypothesis is tcount = 6,29 and H0 is rejected. The

influence of PPP method is 7,35%.

Presentation, practice and production (PPP) method can increase students’ ability in

speaking. In this research, the rise of students’ ability in speaking can be seen in the result of

post-test where it was better than pre-test. The total score of pre-test is 403, and in the post-

test are 467. The mean score of students’ ability in speaking before treatment is 67,17 and the

mean score of students’ ability after treatment is 77,83.

This research focused on the students’ ability in component of speaking. They can

produce well of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, fluency and comprehension if they

focus on those component itself. By applying presentation, practice and production method in

teaching learning English process, the students’ ability is better than before.

REFERENCES

Arikunto, S. (2007). Menejemen penelitian. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Arikunto, S. (2010). Prosedur penelitian (suatu pendekatan metode praktik.

Jakarta: Rineka Cipta

Brown, D. H. (2004). Language assessment principle and classroom practice.

America: Longman.

Burns, A. & Joyce, H. (1997). Focus on speaking. Sydney: Robert Burton

Printers Pty Ltd.

Dantes, N. (2012). Metode penelitian. Yogyakarta: Andi.

Grugeon, E. Dawes, L. Smith, C & Hubbard, L. (2005). Teaching speaking & listening

in the primary school (third edition). London: David Fulton.

Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of english language teaching (third edition).

England: Longman.

Harmer, J. (2007).The practice of english language teaching (fourth edition).

England: Longman.

Hornby. (1995). Definition of speaking skill. New York: Publisher.

Izzan, A. (2008). Metodologi pembelajaran bahasa inggris. Bandung: Humaniora.

Kountur, R. (2005). Metode Penelitian untuk penulisan skripsi dan tesis.

Jakarta Pusat: PPM.

Louma, S. (2003).Assessing speaking.United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Retrieved from http://assets.cambridge.org/052180/0528/sample/0521800528WS.pdf

Richard, C.S. & Rodgers, S.T. (1999).Approaches and methods in language teaching.

New York: Cambridge University Press.

Scarino, A. &Liddicoat, A. (2009).Learning and teaching languages. Australia: Curriculum

Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.deltapublishing.co.uk/content/pdf/learningto-teach-english/LTE_p07_19.pdf

Sudjana. (2002). Metode statistika . Bandung: Tarsito.

Sugiyono. (2012). Metode penelitian kombinasi (mixed method). Bandung: Alfabeta.

Tarigan, H.G. (1990). Berbicara sebagai suatu keterampilan berbahasa.

Bandung: Angkasa.

Thornbury, S. (2005). How to teach speaking. England: Longman.

METHOD TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY ( A RESEARCH

CONDUCTED AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF MAN BATUDAA IN 2012/2013

ACADEMIC YEARS)

Anggraeni M.S Lagalo

Nim : 321 409 176

English Department

Faculty of Letters and Culture

State University of Gorontalo

ABSTRACT

ANGGRAENI M.S. LAGALO. 2013. NIM: 321 409 174. Skripsi: The application of

presentation, practice and production (PPP) method to increase students’ speaking ability. (A

research is conducted in MAN Batudaa). The advisor are; (1) Karmila Machmud, M.A, Ph.D,

(2) Magvirah El Walidayni Kau, S.Pd, M.Pd.

The objective of this research is to know whether presentation, practice, production (PPP)

method can increase students’ ability in speaking skill or not. It is conducted at the tenth

grade students of MAN Batudaa. The sample is chosen by using purposive sampling

technique, they are class D. This research uses quantitative method, namely pre-experimental

method. The data are collected by using rubric speaking and audio record, and they are

analyzed by using t-test. The criteria used to verify the hypothesis is rejected Ho if tcount is

bigger than tlist ( tcount ≥ tlist ). The result shows that tcount (6,29) ≥ tlist (2,014) with the level

significance α = 0,05 and df = ( n1 + n2 – 2 ) = ( 24 + 24 -2 ) = 46. It means that, the

hypothesis is acceptable. It means that, the application of presentation, practice, production

method can increase students’ speaking ability with the influence of presentation, practice,

and production method from pre-test to post-test is 7,35%.

Key words: students’ ability, speaking and presentation practice production method .

BACKGROUND

Teaching and learning language is dealing with the language skills and language

components, which consist of four basic skills, they are listening, speaking, reading and

writing. In this research, the researcher only focuses in one skill namely speaking. Speaking

is important skill used by teacher, and students in teaching-learning English. It has to be use

directly in communication. Brook in Tarigan (1990, p.4) defines: “speaking is an activity that

direct two-way communication is face to face communication”. As a human being, we

always need communication to express our idea to do everything, what is more as a students

or learners they have to speak with their teacher as long as in learning process to express their

idea.

Teaching English in the classroom, speaking skill include in material of curriculum in

Senior High School. Moreover, in teaching English the teachers should needs the learning

method, because, a method is one of important aspect in teaching process. Antony in Richard

(2001, p.19) states that method is an overall plan for orderly presentation of language

material. Related to the explanation previous, there is one method that can be used in learning

process, namely PPP (presentation, practice and production). This is a popular method in

teaching language as a foreign language. Harmer (2007, p.64) added that PPP is a method for

teaching in a foreign language, especially in communicative teaching learning.

In this method, the teacher presents the target language by explaining and

demonstrating to the students in communicative learning teaching. Then the students will

practice the language in a controlled manned before doing the production stage. Presentation

stage, involves explaining the aim of the lesson include that students know what they will

learn and why. For a good presentation, the teachers can use song, game, or story. Practice

stage, the goal is to help the students use the new language. The teacher can ask the students

to produce sentences or answer question to demonstrate they understand how to use the

language correctly. Production stage, this stage can help motivate students to communicate

meaning with new language. Students should have the opportunity to experiment with the

language. Therefore, PPP is a good method to use in English teaching especially in speaking

skill.

This research made based on the researcher initial observation at Senior high school,

especially in 10th grade of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Batudaa. It is also as the researcher’s

location of teaching practice II. The researcher found that; first, in English class, the

researcher was teaching speaking skill. At that time, researcher gave assignment to retell their

own experience whatever they want to tell. Some students can do that, but some of them

cannot. Second, students are still afraid to explore what they want to ask that relate with the

material. Third, students are still afraid to make a mistake if they will speak. Forth, the

students rarely practice to use English in their daily communication. Fifth, the method or

technique that teacher use quite the same in every class meeting.

Considering the previous explanation, the researcher wants to apply PPP method in

teaching speaking. Those, the researcher formulate this research is “The application

presentation, practice and production (PPP) method to increase students speaking ability”.

LITERATURE REVIEWS

Concept of Speaking

Teaching and learning process is a process of transmit the knowledge or information

from the teacher to the students. According to Izzan (2008, p.23) in the language learning

should be involve four factors, there are, teacher, language teaching, teaching method and

lesson material. In language learning, the four skills are described in terms of their direction.

Language generated by the learner (in speech or writing) is referred to as productive.

Language directed at the learner (in reading or listening) is called receptive. Another

important idea is the channel, which refers to medium of the massage (aural/oral or written).

Thus, speaking is the production aural/oral skill.

Tarigan (1990, p.15) states that, speaking is skill the speech sound of the word, and

the ability to express the idea, message, and feeling. In addition, speaking is described as the

ability to express our self in life situations, or the ability to converse, to sequence of ideas

fluently (Lado, 1999, p.240).

Components of Speaking

According to Harmer (2007,p.343) speaking is a complex skill because at least it is

concerned with components of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, fluency and

comprehension. Speaking has some important components, there are:

Grammar.

Leech (1982, p.4) states that grammar is a set of rules which describe how we

use a language. The aim of grammar is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise

in language in oral written form. Therefore, grammar is needed for students to arrange

a correct sentence in conversation.

Vocabulary.

Rezikin (2007, p.5) states that aside grammar, the other component which is

important is vocabulary. Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in

communication. Without having a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate

effectively or express their ideas in both oral and written form.

Pronunciation.

Pronunciation is the way for students’ to produce clearer language when they

speak. It deals with the phonological process that refers to the components of a

grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds vary and

pattern in a language. There are two features of pronunciation; phonemes and supra

segmental features. A speaker who constantly mispronounces a range of phonemes

can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to

understand (Gerard, 2000, p.11).

Fluency.

Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Fluency

in speaking is the aim of many language learners. Signs of fluency include a

reasonably fast speed of speaking and only a small number of pauses and “ums” or

“ers”. These signs indicate that the speaker does not have to spend a lot of time

searching for the language items needed to express the message (Brown, 1997, p.4).

Comprehension.

Comprehension also is the one components of speaking. Hornby (2000, p.194)

states that comprehension is the mind, act power of understanding exercise aimed in

improving is testing ones. There are four components of speaking that must to

attention by the students if they want to speak well.

Concept of Teaching Speaking

According to Hornby (1995, p.37) teaching means giving the instruction to (a person)

give a person (knowledge skill, etc). While, speaking means to make use of words in an

ordinary voice. So, teaching speaking is giving instruction to a person in order to

communicate. Tarigan (1990, p.3-4) states that speaking is a language skill that is developed

in child life, which is preceded by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is learned.

It means that speaking is the basic language. The goal of teaching speaking skills is to

communicate efficiency.

Based on several arguments previous, teaching speaking in the researcher’s opinion,

is the way how students to express their ideas, emotions or feeling, and interact to other

person in any situation.

How to Evaluate Speaking

Assessment of speaking is the activities undertaken to acquire and streamline the

information about the speaking learning outcomes of the students at grade level during and

after the teaching and learning activities. According to Brown (2004, p.172-173) the

procedure evaluate speaking based on pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, fluency and

comprehension. The procedures as follow:

Oral proficiency scoring categories (Brown, 2004, p.172-173), there are follows:

Pronunciation : 1 – 5

Grammar : 1 – 5

Vocabulary : 1 – 5

Fluency : 1 – 5

Comprehension : 1 – 5

Concept of Presentation, Practice and Production Method

Presentation here refers to the introduction to a new subject or lesson. It requires

creating a realistic situation in which the target language would be taught and acquired.

Usually, this is done through using pictures, dialogues and actual classroom situations.

Practice where the students practice the target language in one to three activities that

progress from very structured (students are given activities that provide little possibility for

error) to less-structured (as they master the material). These activities should include as much

“student talk” as possible and not focus on written activities, though written activities can

provide a structure for the verbal practices.

Production is the stage of the lesson where the students take the target language and

use it in conversations that they structure (ideally) and use it to talk about themselves or their

daily lives or situations. Practice should involve student talk at as much as 90% of the time –

and this component of the lesson can/should take as much as 20-30% of the lesson time.

Procedures of Presentation, Practice and Production Method

Harmer (2007, p.65-66) states that there are the procedures of presentation, practice

and production method, as follows:

Presentation

The process of presenting the lesson focuses on teacher giving information to

the students. The goal of presentation stage is to introduce the new material to

the learners, for example; Short & simple explanations, a brief description of

the new topic/idea, pictures / video / music / demonstrations / acting to

illustrate the new, material.

Practice

The practice process is focused on teacher and students working and

interacting together to put the new material into practice. For example;

brainstorming, exercise (on the board worksheet completed with the teacher),

question & answer comprehension exercises, games that involve the teacher,

drills / repetition, and demonstration / role playing.

Production

Production focuses on students demonstrating their ability to the teacher so the

teacher can observe what the individual students have learned and which

students need additional support. In this process the teacher is; receiving

information and indirectly students mistakes, monitoring the students as they

complete exercises / activities that enable them to demonstrate comprehension

without giving the answers (supporting those students who need extra one-onone help).

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

Description of Pre-Test Data

The following are the data description of pre-test. First, the lowest score is 48 and the

highest score is 87. The data statistical calculation of pre-test is obtained as follows: the

interval (R) is 36, set amount of class (K) is 5, and the wide of interval class (P) is 8, clearly

(see appendix 8 on page 55). Therefore, from the calculation of data in pre-test found out that

the mean score (̅ ) is 67,17, while the standard deviation (S) is 9,58.

The students’ speaking ability in pre-test, there are 3 students (12,5%) who got the

scores in the range 48-55; 4 students (16,67%) got the scores in the range 56-63; 5 students

(20,83%) got the scores in the range 64-71; 10 students (41,67%) got the scores in the range

72-79; 2 students (8,33%) who got the scores in the range 80-87.

Based on previous explanation and based on these intervals, the researcher can conclude that

the most of students’ scores in the pre-test is the scores from 72-79 or 41,67%.

Description of Post-Test Data

The following are the data description of post-test. First, the lowest score is 64 and

high and the highest score is 96. The data statistical calculation of post-test is obtained as

follows: the interval (R) is 36, set amount of class (K) is 5, and the wide of interval class (P)

is 8. Clearer can be seen in (appendix 8 on page 55). Therefore, from the calculation of data

in pre-test found out that the mean score (̅ ) is 77,83, while the standard deviation (S) is

10,21.

The students’ speaking ability in post-test, there are 4 students (16,67%) who got the

scores in the range 60-67; 5 students (20,83%) got the scores in the range 68-75; 6 students

(25%) got the scores in the range 76-83; 5 students (20,83%) got the scores in the range 8491; 4 students (16,67%) who got the scores in the range 82-99.

Based on previous explanation and based on these intervals, the researcher can conclude that

the most of students’ scores in the post-test is the scores from 76-83 or 25%. Most of students

show an improvement in their ability. It can be said that students’ score in post-test is

increased because of treatment.

The result of normality testing of pre-test

Based on the result of pre-test and the analysis result. The researcher found that L0 is

0,0955. For level significant α = 0,05 and total of sample (n) = 24, found that Llist is 0,1764. It

is visible that L0(count) < Llist or 0,0955 < 0,1764. Therefore the researcher can conclude that

the hypothesis H0 is received, it is mean the sample is from the population normal distribute.

The result of normality testing of post-test

Based on the result of post-test and the analysis result in appendix 12 on page 60. The

researcher found that L0 is 0,0907. For level significant α = 0,05 and total of sample (n) = 24,

found that Llist is 0,1764. It is visible that L0(count) < Llist or 0,0907 < 0,1764. Therefore the

researcher can conclude that the hypothesis H0 is received, it is mean the sample is population

normal distribute.

Hypothesis verification

The hypothesis of this research is “the application of PPP method in teaching

speaking can increase the tenth grade students’ speaking ability.

The hypothesis verification is done after analyzing the normality of post-test and pre-test.

The hypothesis verification is done after analyzing the normality of post-test and pretest. The hypothesis is analyzed by using the criteria as follows:

H0 will be received if -t ( 1 - ⁄

H0 will be rejected if -t ( 1 - ⁄

) t(1- ⁄

)

In this research hypothesis testing was doing with used T-test. Based on calculation

found that tcount is 6,29 for level significant α = 0,05 and degree of freedom (df = n1 + n2 – 2 =

24 + 24 – 2 = 46) found that t(t (1 – ½ α )(df) = t (0,975)(46) = 2,014. From that result shows that tcount

> tlist or 6,29 > 2,014.

So that, the result of this calculation shows the hypothesis “the application of PPP

method can increase students’ speaking ability”.

Discussions

The objective of this research has been illustrated in chapter I that wants to find out

the whether presentation, practice and production (PPP) method increase students’ ability in

speaking or not. This research was conducted at MAN Batudaa. The researcher took one class

as the subject of this research. The research took class D of the tenth grade students as the

sample of this research.

The pre-test was giving before applying the PPP method. The topic in the pre-test is

about describing animals. The researcher order them to make simple paragraph about animals

based on their basically knowledge.

After giving the pre-test, the researcher did the treatment of the application of PPP

method. The treatment conducted in three meetings. The topic in first meeting is describing

person, second meetings is describing building and the third meetings is describing about

place.

After applying several treatments the students’ ability in speaking especially in five

components of speaking was increased. It is proved by in pronunciation, the students in

pronounce was better. In addition, the students’ grammar was batter too it is because they

could make a simple sentence correctly. Then, the students’ vocabulary was increase.

Students’ fluency also increase, then the students’ comprehension was better after giving the

treatment.

Last step is post-test. The post-test was giving after the treatment by applying PPP

method. The topic in the post-test is same on pre-test it is about describing animals. The

result data in post-test is higher than pre-test data. The result was agreement with Harmer

(2007, p.64) that states the PPP method is a method for teaching as a foreign language,

especially in communicative learning teaching.

After using the PPP method, there is the increasing value of the students in speaking

especially in description. It is the data post-test is higher that pre-test data. Based that, the

students had on opportunity to express their ideas, and gave the motivation to the students to

speak up.

Based on the result of this research, Based on the previous analysis, by seeing the

hypothesis verification and data analysis, it showed that their ability in speaking can increase

in the result of post-test. So that, it can be concluded that presentation, practice and

production method can increase the students’ speaking ability.

CONCLUSION

There is the different between the result in before treatment and the after the treatment

by applying. It is proved at the result of hypothesis is tcount = 6,29 and H0 is rejected. The

influence of PPP method is 7,35%.

Presentation, practice and production (PPP) method can increase students’ ability in

speaking. In this research, the rise of students’ ability in speaking can be seen in the result of

post-test where it was better than pre-test. The total score of pre-test is 403, and in the post-

test are 467. The mean score of students’ ability in speaking before treatment is 67,17 and the

mean score of students’ ability after treatment is 77,83.

This research focused on the students’ ability in component of speaking. They can

produce well of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, fluency and comprehension if they

focus on those component itself. By applying presentation, practice and production method in

teaching learning English process, the students’ ability is better than before.

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