The Main Character’s Struggle As The Lower Class Society Reflected In Suzanne’s Novel The Hunger Games

THE MAIN CHARACTER’S STRUGGLE AS THE LOWER CLASS SOCIETY REFLECTED IN SUZANNE’S NOVEL THE HUNGER GAMES
A THESIS
BY: USWATUNNISA REG. NO. 100705107

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA
MEDAN 2015

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THE MAIN CHARACTER’S STRUGGLE AS THE LOWER CLASS SOCIETY REFLECTED IN SUZANNE’S NOVEL THE HUNGER GAMES
A THESIS

BY: USWATUNNISA REG. NO. 100705107

SUPERVISOR

CO-SUPEPVISOR

Dr. Siti Norma Nasution, M.Hum

Dra. DyahRahayuPratama

Submitted to the Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara Medan in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of SarjanaSastra from Department of English

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA MEDAN 2015

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Approved by the Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara (USU) Medan as thesis for The SarjanaSastra Examination.

Head,

Secretary,

Dr. H. MuhizarMuchtar, M.S

RahmadsyahRangkuti, MA.Ph.D

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Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of SarjanaSastra from Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara, Medan.
The examination is held in Department of English Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara on 29th April 2015
Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara

Dr. H. SyahronLubis, MA NIP.19511013 197603 1 001

Board of Examiners
Dr. H. MuhizarMuchtar, M.S ___________________
RahmadsyahRangkuti, MA. Ph.D ___________________
Drs. Parlindungan, M.Hum ___________________
Dr. Siti Norma Nasution, M.Hum ___________________

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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION I, USWATUNNISA, DECLARE THAT I AM THE SOLE AUTHOR OF THIS THESIS EXCEPT WHERE REFERENCE IS MADE IN THE TEXT OF THIS THESIS. THIS THESIS CONTAINS NO MATERIAL PUBLISHED ELSEWHERE OR EXTRACTED IN WHOLE OR PART FROM A THESIS BY WHICH I HAVE QUALIFIED FOR OR AWARDED ANOTHER DEGREE. NO OTHER PERSON’S WORK HAS BEEN USED WITHOUT DUE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IN THE MAIN TEXT OF THIS THESIS. THIS THESIS HAS NOT BEEN SUBMITTED FOR THE AWARD OF ANOTHER DEGREE IN ANY TERTIARY EDUCATION.
Signed : Date : 29th April 2015
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COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

NAME TITLE OF THESIS
QUALIFICATION DEPARTMENT

: USWATUNNISA
: THE MAIN CHARACTER’S STRUGGLE AS LOWER CLASS SOCIETY REFLECTED IN SUZANNE’S NOVEL THE HUNGER GAMES : S-1/SARJANA SASTRA : ENGLISH

I AM WILLING THAT MY THESIS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR REPRODUCION AT THE DESCRETION OF THE LIBRARIAN OF DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH, FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA ON THE UNDERSTANDING THAT USERS ARE MADE AWARE OF THEIR OBLIGATION UNDER THE LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

Signed : Date : 29th April 2015

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. In the name of Allah SWT, all praise to HIM so my thesis can be completed
as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of SarjanaSastra from the English Department, Faculty of Letters, University of Sumatera Utara.
On this occasion with great humility, I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to the people who have already contributed their great support so that I can finish my study.
First of all,this thesis is dedicated for my beloved family especially my my father Ir. Surya Abdullah, mother Dra. RahmiDewi, who have given a great support in finishing the study and for their endless love, support and pray.
Secondly, my deepest appreciation for my supervisor Dr. Siti Norma Nasution, M.Humwho always guides me and provides the time to assist me in writing this thesis, then to my co supervisor Dra.DyahRahayuPratama. Next, I would like to thanks kakTika for helping me in academic and administrative matters.
Thirdly, I would like to thanks to my special one, BayuPratamafor the love, care, and support. Then to my best friend, Anis, Nadia, Ninis, Aldi.thanks for the care, the love and for the years full of sweet memories. I would also to thanks to all of my friendsespecially Zara, Dimas, Fatih, Abel, OzaWahyu, Yuni, Tari, Cila, Balqis, Refi, Wina, Om, and Madzi. Thanks for the years full of joyfulness, laughs and all the moments.
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Medan USWATUNNISA
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ABSTRAK

Kertaskaryainiberjudul “The Main Character’s Struggle as Lower Class Society

Reflected in Suzanne’s Novel The Hunger Games.” Novel

iniberisitentangperjuangkaum

proletariat

ataukelaspekerjaterhadapkaumborjuis.Penulismenggambarkanperjuangan

yang

dialamikelasbawahuntukbertahanhidup.Dalamkertaskaryainipenulismenggunakanteor

iMarxisme Karl Marxuntukmenguatkananalisis.Di dalam novel

inijelastergambarkanbagaimanaperjuangankelasbawahuntukbertahanhidup.Novel

tersebutdimulaidenganberceritatentangseoranganakberusia 16 tahun yang

menjaditulangpunggungkeluargadanberjuanguntukhidupnyadankeluarganya.Dalampe

nulisankertaskaryaini,

penulismenggunakanmetodeintrinsikdanekstrinsik.Dari

hasilpengumpulan data menunjukkanbahwaanaktersebutadalahsalahsatukaum

proletariat yang berusahauntukbertahanhidup.

Kata kunci:MasyarakatKelasBawah, The Hunger Games, Perjuangan.

ABSTRACT
This paper is entitled “The Main Character’s Struggle as Lower Class Society Reflected in Suzanne’s Novel The Hunger Games.” The novel is about the struggles of the proletariat or the working class against the bourgeoisie. The author describes the struggles experienced by the lower classes and how they survive. In this paper, the author use karlmarx'smarxism theory to strengthen the analysis. This novel clearly illustrates the struggles of how the lower classes survive. The novel begins with the story of a 16 year old girl who is the breadwinner of the family, that strives for her life and her family. In writing this paper, the author uses intrinsic and extrinsic methods. From the data source collected, it shows that the child is one of the proletariat who is trying to survive.
Keywords:Lower Class People, The Hunger Games, Struggle.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION ................................................................................. v COPYRIGHT DECLARATION............................................................................. vi ACKNOWLEDGMENT ......................................................................................... vii ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................... viii ABSTRACT............................................................................................................... ix TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... x CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………....1 1.2 Problem of the Study……………………………………………..5 1.3 Objective of the Study……………………………………………5 1.4 Scope of the Study………………………………………………..5 1.5 Significance of the Study………………………………………...6
CHAPTER 2 : REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Novel............................................................................................7 2.2 Sociology of Literature ..............................................................11 2.3 Social Class................................................................................12 2.4 Social Class Struggle .................................................................14 2.4.1 Lower Class ............................................................................16
CHAPTER 3 : METHOD OF THE STUDY 3.1 Research Design ........................................................................19 3.2 Data and Source of Data ............................................................20 3.3 Data Collecting ..........................................................................20 3.4 Data Analysis.............................................................................21
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CHAPTER 4 : ANALYSIS AND FINDING 4.1 Social Stratification of Society..................................................22 4.1.1 Types of Social Class Found in the Novel.......................23 4.2 Capitol’s Power .........................................................................27 4.3 Katniss .......................................................................................28 4.3.1 Katniss’s Struggle in Facing Her Life ..............................31 4.3.2 Katniss’s Struggle in Facing the Games ...........................35
CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.2 Conclusion .................................................................................42 5.2 Suggestion..................................................................................43
REFERENCES......................................................................................................... 44 APPENDICES
I. Summary of The Hunger Games............................................. xii
xi

ABSTRAK

Kertaskaryainiberjudul “The Main Character’s Struggle as Lower Class Society

Reflected in Suzanne’s Novel The Hunger Games.” Novel

iniberisitentangperjuangkaum

proletariat

ataukelaspekerjaterhadapkaumborjuis.Penulismenggambarkanperjuangan

yang

dialamikelasbawahuntukbertahanhidup.Dalamkertaskaryainipenulismenggunakanteor

iMarxisme Karl Marxuntukmenguatkananalisis.Di dalam novel

inijelastergambarkanbagaimanaperjuangankelasbawahuntukbertahanhidup.Novel

tersebutdimulaidenganberceritatentangseoranganakberusia 16 tahun yang

menjaditulangpunggungkeluargadanberjuanguntukhidupnyadankeluarganya.Dalampe

nulisankertaskaryaini,

penulismenggunakanmetodeintrinsikdanekstrinsik.Dari

hasilpengumpulan data menunjukkanbahwaanaktersebutadalahsalahsatukaum

proletariat yang berusahauntukbertahanhidup.

Kata kunci:MasyarakatKelasBawah, The Hunger Games, Perjuangan.

ABSTRACT
This paper is entitled “The Main Character’s Struggle as Lower Class Society Reflected in Suzanne’s Novel The Hunger Games.” The novel is about the struggles of the proletariat or the working class against the bourgeoisie. The author describes the struggles experienced by the lower classes and how they survive. In this paper, the author use karlmarx'smarxism theory to strengthen the analysis. This novel clearly illustrates the struggles of how the lower classes survive. The novel begins with the story of a 16 year old girl who is the breadwinner of the family, that strives for her life and her family. In writing this paper, the author uses intrinsic and extrinsic methods. From the data source collected, it shows that the child is one of the proletariat who is trying to survive.
Keywords:Lower Class People, The Hunger Games, Struggle.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of The Study
Literature is an imaginative of the author which reflects life. This kind of life is reflected through true experience of the main character such as sadness, happiness, war, and even social life. Generally, literature can be divided into three genres: poetry, prose and drama. Prose, as a genre of literature tells a story and portrays people in the society. As a form of prose, novel can be defined as a long fictional story in book form that express the idea of man’s life experience through the skill of novelist. Novel can be considered as work of imagination in prevailing social problems, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, and dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel.
Literary works usually talk about some problems in society. The problems are called social problems.Social problem is a form of behavior, which is considered from social norms. It is a conceptof the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.The problem is called social because it is against social norms.
The novel The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, deals with social class. This novel shows us the differences between people according to their social class. In this case, the class differences are clearly visible between the two societies, the Capitol and Districts.Wealth is heavily concentrated in the hands of the rich, particularly those people living in the Capitol, and the result is a huge disparity
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between their lives and the lives of the poor. The Hunger Games is actually an annual event which one boy and one girl aged 12 to 18 from each of the twelve districts surrounding the Capitol are selected by lottery to compete in a televised battle to the death. The games that put on by the Capitol are meant to punish the 12 districts of Panem as well as to remind them of the Dark Days. Panem is the name of the country that under the control of the Capitol. The Hunger Gamespresent the tributes suffering as mass entertainment, and the more the tributes suffer, ideally in battle with one another, the more entertaining the Games become. The problem is about the differences of social class level and the struggle of the poor through the games. There are some similarities between the level of today’s social class and the future as in this novel. As nowadays the class differences are clearly distinguish the state of people’s life, by seeing where they live, the clothes they wear and other material possessions.
The main character discussed here is a girl who starts to fight for her life and her family through the games. The protagonist as well as the narrator of the novel, KatnissEverdeen is a strong, resourceful sixteen years old who is far more mature than her age would suggest. Katniss is the main provider in her family, who has responsible for her mother, and her younger sister, Prim. Katniss is fiercely protective of her younger sister, and she volunteers to take Prim’s place in the Hunger Games to protect her. In fact, Katniss is more responsible than anyone else for her family’s live.Katniss lives with her mother and sister in the poorest area of District 12, nicknamed "The Seam". She supports her family through hunting and gathering roots in the woods. In the games, she does not begin to seek attention once she becomes a
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celebrity and begins doing television interviews. Rather, she always tries to figure out how to get through the interviews so she can go back to her life.
In the social sciences, social stratification is about social classes of the people based on factors like wealth, income, social status, occupation, and power. Stratification is the relative social position of people in a given social group, category, geographical region or other social unit. Stratification is often broadly divided into three main divisions of social class: upper class, middle class, and lower class.According to Karl Marx’s theory: "class" is determined entirely by one's relationship to the means of production, the classes in modern capitalist society being the "proletarians", those who work but do not own the means of production, and the "bourgeoisie", those who invest and live off of the surplus generated by the former, and the aristocracy that has land as a means of production.
In this novel the writer will discuss two types of class divisions, upper and lower class. Upper class is rich. They have more money than they could possibly spend, which leaves them with much leisure time for cultivating a variety of interests. They live in exclusive neighborhoods, gather at expensive social clubs, and send their children to the finest schools. As might be expected, they also exercise a great deal of influence and power both nationally and globally. The upper class as seen in the novel is the Capitol. The lower class is typified by poverty, homelessness, and unemployment. People of this class, just few of them have finish high school, suffer from lack of medical care, adequate housing and food, decent clothing, safety, and vocational training. As seen in the novel, lower class people work for the upper class
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(Capitol). They provide the needs of the Capitol by working in the industry in their district.
In this research the writer uses the Hermeneutical Interpretation to analyze the novel. The system of analysis in hermeneutics is to reveal, explain and translate. Thus the activities of interpretation shows on three basic things: an oral recitation, a reasonable explanation, and a translation from another language.This analysis begins when the data is collected.This theory explainsabout how to understand structure and pattern from the data. Also, the writer use sociology of literature, both sociology and literature have the same object, whichis human being. However, the essenceof sociology and literature is very different. Sociology is the objective knowledge. It limits to what happen in recent times. But literature is evaluative, subjective andimaginative.
In this research the writer is also using a dynamic structuralism theory. Structuralism is an understanding of elements of the structure itself with mechanism of interrelation, the interrelation of one element with the others, and the interrelation of one element with the totality. Dynamic structuralism was first found by Mukarovsky and FelikVodicka. They said that literary works are the process of communication, fact of semiotic, consists of sign, structure, and values. Definitively, structuralism gives attention to the analysis of elements in literary works.
In this study, the writer wants to explain that novel is one of the most effective tools in presenting certain problems or ideas. Novels can also bring certain messages and hidden intentions from the author or certain social situations. The Hunger Games is one of the most read modern novels that discuss social class and the
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struggles that people face.This research means to analyze human struggle, especially lower class struggle. This study is hoped to send a message or a picture for people living in society, that class stratification has always divided people apart from time to time, and is often a cruel human judgment. 1.2 Problem of The Study
In this analysis, there are questions that need to be answered: 1. What are the types social class found in the novel? 2. What is the struggle of the main character (KatnissEverdeen) from the lower class?
1.3 Objective of The Study
Based on the problems of study above, the objectives of the study are: 1. To identify types of social class found in the novel. 2. To describe the struggle of the main character from the lower class.
1.4 Scope of The Study
In doing an analysis, it necessary to limit the focus that is going to analyze to make sure that the study is not out of the context. Social class is divided into three parts: upper class, middle class and lower class. In this thesis, the writer will identify the types of social class as portrait in the novel as well as discuss about the struggle of lower class people through the main character’s life. The study will only be discussed around KatnissEverdeen’s life, how did she survived to make sure to win the Games also how she fought for the existence of their district and the impact of the
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social class that is affecting her life. Social class is reflected into living, health and nutrition, and employment. 1.5 Significance of the Study
One of the significance of this study is that the writer wants toexplain the knowledge of social class and the struggle of the lower class toward the higher class, so that it becomes a reference for students who are learning about struggle of lower class based on The Hunger Games’snovel. I especially discuss about the struggle of the lower class people, because class is one of the biggest phenomena and main problem that still exist in our lives. The novel is set in the future, yet the problem found is mainly about class struggle.
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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Novel Novel is one of the literary works that represents an idea or a thought of the
author. The author expresses their feeling, the passion and the emotion that relates tothe experiences of life. John Peck said in How to Study a Novel (1983:12), he illustrates the process of analyzing a novel and also includes some very useful example of analysis. He states that a novel tellsus about human life, butthis can be subdivided into what it tells us about characters and what it tells us about society, although, of course, it is mainly concerned with the way the two interrelate.However, it is often productive to focus a discussion on eithercharacter or society.Novels are different from stories, poems, and narratives in a number of key respects. Though they are presented in the form of a book, they are much more than that, any bound paper constitutes a book. All novels are books, therefore, but not all books are novels. Most literary scholars define novels by what they contain and how they are presented. First, a novel must be written down rather than told through an oral account.
A literary works such as novelare supported by elements of the intrinsic approach and the extrinsic approach. The intrinsic approach was originally written by Rene Wellek and Austin Warren in their book “Theory of Literature”. Rene Wellek introduced his intrinsic approach, which essentially is a study of literary work based on analyzing the internal elements that build that work. According to Wellek (1962: 332) the natural on sensible starting point for work in literary scholarship is the interpretation and analysis of the works of literary themselves. After all, only the
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works themselves justify all our interest in the life of an author, in his social environment, and the whole process of literature. Wellek’s opinion is that the study of literature naturally needs to be started from the analysis of the literary work itself because then it would enable us to identify he many aspects that built that work. Wellek further explained by introducing elements that from the foundation of a literary work, plot, setting, theme, character, point of view, and style. By analyzing these elements, a student could comprehend the work by figuring out how the story flows, where the story is set, how the characters act and think. Although so many of elements of novel, the writer just pick four elements. Four elements discussed are theme, plot, setting and character. Four of element is enough to describe clear detail about thestruggle of Katniss’s life.
Intrinsic elements as follows: • Theme is the basis of the story, the idea of a common base of a
masterpiece. The basic idea is commonly used to develop the story.
The theme that found in the Hunger Games novel is: Power and Class society The main source of power in The Hunger Games is clear: the
totalitarian government of the Capitol. Because the Capitol holds most of the country of Panem’s wealth, the government there is able to control the people in all of the districts across Panem. The Hunger Games, then, are the ultimate display of the government’s power and were designed to warn the populace against rebellion. In the Hunger Games, the citizens of Panem become nothing more than pawns in an elaborate game of life or death. Since only one teenage contestant, or "tribute," can win, the tributes are forced to kill teens from the other districts and one from their own district. It's all symbolic of
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how the Capitol prevents the people in the districts from joining forces and rebelling – the Games keep the people of the districts divided and fighting among themselves. Worst of all, the government broadcasts the event live on television, reinforcing the idea that the tributes are giving their lives for little more than the entertainment of the Capitol.Let’s not forget, though, that this book is also about ways to resist the kind of power that the Capitol represents. While the people of Panem might not have the Capitol’s money, they do have other ways of fighting back.The Hunger Games is a novel about the people who have money and the people who don't. The Capitol is the wealthiest than all of the districts.Some districts are more privileged than others, so they can train their tributes to do well in the Hunger Games – a competition they see as a way to gain glory and fame. And there is no much advantage in the poor districts. Katniss's district is located in district 12. It is an impoverished coal mining region that never stands a chance in the Games. They view the Games as a punishment that must be endured, something that robs them of their children. The novel tells you to think about how money can change things for youand change how you see the world. • Plot.The story development pattern is formed by causality. In general, the
plot is divided into the following sections. a. Introduction to the story situation b. Disclosure of events c. Towards a conflict d. Height of the conflict e. Completion
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• Conflict is the essence of the groove. Conflict is a disagreement. Kinds of conflict include: a. Human contradiction with himself (inner conflict) b. Conflicts with other human c. Conflicts of humans with the environment, whether the economic,
political, social, cultural d. Conflicts of man with God or faith.
• Setting. Itmeans the story’s time and place. While setting includes simple attributes such as climate or wall décor, it can also include complex dimensions such as the historical moment the story occupies or its social context. Because particular places and times have their own personality or emotional essence, setting is also one of the primary ways that a fiction writer establishes mood. Setting is often developed with narrative description, but it may also be shown with action, dialogue, or a character’s thoughts.
• Characters and characterizations. In fiction, character refers to a textual representation of a human being (or occasionally another creature). Most fiction writers agree that character development is the key element in a story's creation, and in most pieces of fiction a close identification with the characters is crucial to understanding the story. Authors achieve characterization with a variety of techniques: by using the narrative voice to describe the character, by showing the actions of the character and of those reacting to her, by revealing the thoughts or dialogue of the
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character, or by showing the thoughts and dialogue of others in relation to the character. • Point of view. A strategy, technique, or strategy that the author used to express ideas and stories. Extrinsic Elements are elements outside the literary works, but it does not directly affect the structure or organism system literature. Extrinsic elements consist of individual subjectivity authors state that have attitudes, beliefs, and worldviews that all it affects the work done. In addition, the extrinsic elements related to psychology author and author of circumstances in terms of both economics, political, religious, cultural, and social.
2.2 Sociology of Literature Sociology is the branchof social science. It is an effort to use systematic
methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human societies and human social activity.The sociology of literature comes from two words, they are sociology and literature. The word “sociology”comes fromthe Latin word “socious” and “logos”. They are two studies that are different but have a very close relation. Some relation between society and literature are: literary work is part of society and it uses language, which is part of social institution, and literary work is a picture of society.“Socious” means together, unity, and friends, whereas “logos” means words andknowledge. So sociology is the study of origins and evolution of society; the knowledgethat study about the whole relationship.
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In Encyclopedia Americana (2004: 87), it is said that Sociology is the scientific study of the social behavior of human beings, or put differently,the study of human groups. Actually, both sociology and literature have the same object, whichis human being. However, the essenceof sociology and literature is very different. Sociology is the objective knowledge. It limits to what happen in recent times. But literature is evaluative, subjective andimaginative.
According to Damono in his book PedomanPenelitianSosiologiSastra, he talks about social and environmental aspects; it is called the sociology of literature. The important factors that should be considered in analyzing the sociology of literature are the writers, the literary works itself, and the readers. Nowadays, the sociological approach that is most done by the researcher is paying attention to the aspect of documentary of literature. The basic idea is that literature is a mirror of its era. In this case, the job of sociology of literature is to connect the experience of the imaginative characters and situation created by the writer to the real condition that happen in one state or country.
2.3 Social Class Karl Marx (1997: 12), regarded social classes as an essential feature of social
evolution. He believed that the class that owns the means of production is able to keep the other classes in a subordinate position, and keep for itself any surplus that is produced. Economics power gives people the resources to apply political control and to form a ruling class which has a vested interest in maintaining its own superior position. Marx believed that this is achieved by the ability of the dominant class to
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ensure that all the major social institutions, marriage, education, the political system, religion and so on-uphold and serve its own purposes.
Marx(1997: 13)aimed to explain social change and produced a theory of history. He believed that the answer lay in conflicts among social classes. The whole of human history, Marx and Engels wrote in The Communist Manifesto: ‘the history of class struggles':
“these struggles are the engines that pull societies into new forms, and the history of humansocieties is a history of one ruling class being overthrown by a new one.” (1848: 20)
Marx defined these two classes in term of their different relationship to the means of production. The means of production are everything besides human labor that goes into producing wealth. One class, the bourgeoisie, owns these means of production. The other class, according to Marx, is everyone who does not own such means and therefore must sell his or her labor to the bourgeoisie. Marx called this class proletariat, employing the name used by the Romans to identify the poor. These terms essentially refer to owners (or employers) and workers (or employees).
Marx believed that they would have no effect on the awaiting revolutionary struggle. Finally,he excluded that stratification is the social conflict that result social jealousy because it should happen for there is no standard of living for every member of society. It is impossible to have equal domination for everyone has different capacity to trace his or her social recognition. It is only social feeling of that class difference that makes such class difference. So presence of gap that existbetween high-class people, lower-class people and middle-class people and the differencesthat can be consciously felt in social phenomenon is better known as social stratification.
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Ever since humans first developed as a distinct species and branched off from the rest of the animal world, we have organized ourselves in various ways in order to produce the necessities of life. We have come together in an array of socio-economic structures, including primitive communism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, and a wide variety of transitional and hybrid forms. For the majority of our existence, we lived as communists in a classless society, albeit on a low technological level. But ever since the rise of classes, as Marx and Engels explained in the Communist Manifesto, “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle.”
With the rise of class society came a division into differing layers of people (castes and classes) each with a definite relationship to each other and to the means of production, to the means by which we produce the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the homes we live in, and everything else we humans have extracted from nature through our labor and creativity. Broadly speaking, there are laboring classes, and those that live off the labor of others. It is the exploiters and the exploited. The two main contending classes in the class struggle are those who own the key economic levers of society, the means of production and those who have to work the means of production of another in order to survive.
Social class as mentioned before is basically divided to three parts: upper class, middle class and lower class. In this study, the writer particularly discusses about the state of lower-class society through the life of KatnissEverdeen.
2.4 Social Class Struggle
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Simply defined, the class struggle is the struggle over the surplus wealth created by the producing classes. The ruling class is that class which controls the state and owns the means of production of society, the land and natural resources, the workshops and factories, the banks. The actual producers of wealth are those who own nothing but their ability to work, and own a tiny plot of land on which they scrape out an existence while still having to work and pay debts to others, or sell their labor power for a wage to a capitalist. That is the simplified essence of the class struggle. In the modern era, that struggle is above all between the working class and the capitalist class.
There are two main classes in capitalist society (owners and workers. The owners, or capitalists, own the banks, the factories, and the corporations) in other words, everything essential to society’s productive capabilities. Their profits derive from work that is done by workers. Workers, on the other hand, can only survive by selling their ability to work to the owners.
The owners have a single goal: increasing profit. Since profits are based on the value that workers add in production above and beyond the cost of production, including wages, owners try to keep the cost of labor as low as possible. Workers, on the other hand, need to earn enough for food, clothing, shelter, education and other necessities. Workers’ and owners’ are in the different interests. And that’s being a basic for class struggle. A form of class struggle is strikes and other labor struggles. In those fights, workers join together based on common interests as workers to win back some of the surplus value they have produced.
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But class struggle is constant, even in periods of relative labor “peace.” Even when workers are not struggling to increase their share of the wealth they produce, the owners are trying to increase their share. Increased productivity, decreased wages, taking more taxes from the corporations to the working class, cutting health care benefits, all these are ways in which the capitalist class wages class struggle against the workers.
In this thesis, the writer analyze about the struggle of the people as a lower class who have to work hard to fulfill their needs in their life. Struggle is related to psychological unconscious mind. It is an effort to obtain freedom, to make great effort under difficulties, to be content with or against act, and to be confused. Thus, struggle may mean choices of action to do an effort, whether the way is true or wrong. Class struggle is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. In this research, struggle is the main discussion, especially the struggle of the main character through the games.
2.4.1 Lower Class
Lower class or also knownas ‘proletariat’ or ‘laboring class’ is the class of people employed for wages, especially in manual or industrial work. In Marxist theory and sociology of literature, lower class is often used synonymously with the term ‘proletariat’, and includes all those who expend either mental or physical labor to produce economic value, or wealth in non-academic terms, for those who own the means of production. The lower class is typified by poverty, homelessness, and
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unemployment. People of this class, few of them have finish high school, suffer from lack of medical care, adequate housing and food, decent clothing, safety, and vocational training. The media often stigmatize the lower class as “the underclass,” inaccurately characterizing poor people as welfare mothers who abuse the system by having more and more babies, welfare fathers who are able to work but do not, drug abusers, criminals, and societal “trash.”In this novel, Katniss who comes from the lower class districts have to go through such physical and mental labor in order to meet the demands and needs of her family’s lives.
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CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE STUDY In doing this study, the writer will go through the necessary steps for achieving the most effective study results and these steps involves research design, data sources, data collection and data analysis. The main source of this analysis especially the data was taken from the novel “Hunger Games” written by Suzanne Collins. The data are in form of quotations which are selected from the novel. The selection is oriented on the text which has connection with social class and struggle as expressed in the novel. This thesis used the theory of Marxism by Karl Marx, Iwill analyze the practice of Marxism and the elements applied in the society. From the analysis, Iwill be able to draw a conclusion for the problem formulation to reach the goal in solving the problem. In analyzing the data, the writer usesqualitative method,because all data are analyzed in the form of words and sentences. Qualitative is about exploring issues, understanding phenomena, and answering questions by analyzing the data. Hermeneutics method is also used in this analysis. There are actually similarities between hermeneutics and qualitative, both methods analyze the data by means of interpretation in the form description. Hermeneutics research is a qualitative research strategy.Hermeneutics research emphasizes subjective interpretations in the research of meanings of texts, art, culture, social phenomena and thinking. Thus the activities of interpretation shows on three basic things: an oral recitation, a reasonable explanation, and a translation from another language. This analysis begins when the data collected. This method explainsabout how understanding structure and pattern from the data. Having theability to understand
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language that used by the author in a novel and then to analyze the dataand the world that author is created in the formof wordsandlanguage. Because inthis thesis, the writer using the novel to get and observe the data.

3.1 Research Design Below is a flowchart of research of design:
Researcher

Source of data: a novel The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins

Quote or selected text related to social problem, and struggle of the main character

Conclusion

Data selected: using theories sociology of literature and Marxism.

3.2 Data Sources The data is collected from the novelentitledThe Hunger Games by Suzanne
Collins. In the aspects of data sources, thewriter divides the data into two, primary
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data and secondary data. The novel is the primary data, the words,sentences, dialogues between charactersor somequotation that relates to lower class and struggle will be used as evidence to support the analysis. The secondarydata was taken from related articles, papers,films, videos and other sources that can support and relate to this study.
3.3 Data Collection In the step of data collection, the writer will need both primary and secondary
data sources. First of all, the writer starts with getting the novel The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, which is the primary data of this research and read it over and over until the writer understands the story well. The writer will also look into secondary data such as gathering data from books, articles, webs and other supporting material that is relevant to the topic of the study. After the collection of raw materials, the writer starts to go through the data more thoroughly and takes down any notes for necessary explanations. This involves underlining and highlighting important data as well as quoting from the novel to provide concrete evidence. The data will be selected and organized in accordance with the problem of the study so finally the writer can carry out an analysis.
3.4 Data Analysis When all the data and information relates to the topic are collected,
theanalysis can be done. In analysis of this study, the writer will arrange the data in accordance to the area of analysis. The writer will then:
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1. Classify the data accurately by relating it to the problems and aims of this study within the novel.
2. Investigate and identify the types of social class that exist in the novel thatportrays the phenomenon of social stratification.
3. Identify and describe data that suggests struggles of the main character’s life in lower class society.
4. The writer then can make a conclusion from overall data analysis that have been identified and analyzed.
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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND FINDING
4.1 Social stratification of society
Social stratification is an inherent character of all societies. It is historical as we find it in all societies, ancient and modern. It is universal as it exists in simple or complex societies. The social differentiation on the basis of high and low is the historical heritage of all societies. These social strata and layers, divisions and subdivisions have over the time been accepted on the basis of sex and age, status and role, qualification and inefficiency, life chances and economic political ascription and monopolization, ritual and ceremony and on numerous other basis. It is varied nature. It is no less based on the considerations of superiority and inferiority, authority and subordination, profession and vocation.
By stratification, mean that arrangement of any social group or society by which positions are hierarchically divided. The positions are unequal with regard to power, property, evaluation and psychic gratification. It connected to social, because positions consist of socially defined statuses. Stratification is a phenomenon present in all societies that have produced a surplus. Stratification is the process by which members of society rank themselves and one another in hierarchies with respect to the amount of desirable goods they possess.
The whole Marxian perspective about social stratification revolves round the concept of social classes. No theorist stressed the significance of class for society and for social change more strongly than Karl Marx. Marx viewed class differentiation as
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the crucial determinant of social, economic and political inequality. According to Marx, there is always a dominant and a subordinate class, a ruling class and a subject class. The former (ruling class) is the class which owns the means of production (land and machinery) and the latter (subject class) sells its labor to survive. The ruling class survives its power from the ownership and control of the forces of production.
The relationship between these classes has always been exploitative in all phases of history with an exception of a simple primitive society. Marx believed that primitive societies are non class societies. In such societies, there is simple equality and as such there is no stratification based on class. In Marxian view, the ruling class exploits and oppressed the subordinate class. As a result, there is a basic conflict of interest between the two classes. This conflict between social classes has been continuous since the dawn of history.
4.1.1 Types of social class found in novel
By learning about the differences of class, there are two classes found clearly in the novel. There’s the Capitol as the upper class and the Districts as the lower class. In Panem, Panem is the name of the country that under the control of the Capitol, wealth is heavily concentrated in the hands of the rich, particularly those people living in the Capitol and certain of the districts, and the result is a huge disparity between their lives and the lives of the poor. This disparity reveals itself in numerous ways throughout the novel, but among the notable is food. In the poor districts, many of the residents do not even have enough to eat. Katniss notes that
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starvation is common in District 12, and she has to hunt illegally in the woods beyond the district’s borders to feed her family. The novel suggests that most of the district’s residents are not able and don’t know how to hunt, means that Katniss’s family have more chance to get the food than the other families. Furthermore, the most basic foods are luxuries in the districts.Katniss later learns that Peeta’s family,who own a bakery and have more capacity to live the life well,can not afford most of the food they bake. In contrast, when Katniss arrives in the Capitol, she is awed by the lavish feasts and elaborately prepared dishes. The food is abundant. Katniss tries hot chocolate for the first time.
Perhaps the best example of the inequality between rich and poor can be seen in the tessera system and the way the tributes are selected for the Games. In theory, the lottery by which tributes are chosen, called the reaping, is random and anyone can be picked. But in reality, the poor are much more likely than the rich to end up as tributes. In exchange for extra rations of food and oil, called tesserae, those children eligible for the Hunger Games can enter their names into the reaping additional times. Most of children from poor families have to take tesserae to survive, so the children of poor families have more entries in the reaping than children of wealthy families who need no tesserae. They are more likely to be picked as a result. Moreover, the rich who become tributes tend to have an additional advantage, because they are often trained to take part in the Games and volunteer to do so. These trained tributes, which Katniss refers to as Career Tributes, are generally bigger, stronger, and better prepared for the tribulations of the Hunger Games than those poor tributes who selected by chance. They are consequently more likely to survive. For these rich
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tributes, it is an honor to compete in the Games, while for the poor tributes it is
essentially a death sentence.
“The cameras haven’t lied about its grandeur. If anything, they have not quite captured the magnificence of the glistening buildings in a rainbow of hues that tower into the air, the shiny cars that roll down the wide paved streets, the oddly dressed people with bizarre hair and painted faces who have never missed a meal.”(4:59)
From quotation above, after arriving in Capitol, she believed that what she
saw through her television was real. The rich people will never feel hungry and they
have a beautiful life. She has to survive and find a meal in the wood to keep her
family alive. The visibility about the differences of class can be seen from the
quotation above. She was so fascinated by their living and all of their things.
According to Karl’s theory, People in higher income classes make sure that their
families have the best opportunity for a good life. In this case,the Capitolown the
production of the districts, that gives them a power to control the whole districts.
“What it must be like, I wonder, to live in a world where food appears at the press of a button? How would I spend the hours I now commit to combing the woods for sustenance if it were so easy to come by? What do they do all day, these people in the Capitol, besides decorating their bodies and waiting around for a new shipment of tributes to roll in and die for their entertainment?”(5:65)
Katniss is wondering why the Capitol wants to force the children of the poor
to kill each others. The conflict in her heart is about what she has to choose, fight just
for her life and survive for that or also fight for the life of the lower classes so the
Capitol can not make the children of the poor become an entertainment while
killingeach others for them.
From the beginning of the novel, Katnissis a strong, resourceful sixteen years
old who is more mature than her age. Katniss is the main provider in her family.Her 25

family member consists of her mother, her younger sister named Prim and herself. Katniss is fiercely protective to her younger sister, and she volunteers to take Prim’s place in the Hunger Games to protect her. In fact, Katniss is more responsible than anyone else in her family’s life. Moreover, she is responsible for feeding her family. She is hunting and foraging as her responsibly to feed her family.She got the hunting skills from her father before his death in a mine explosion years earlier. Based on her talented skills, she has the big opportunity to win the game against the stronger opponent. Upper Class: The Capitol.
Speaking of which, the Capitol is a shining city of wealth and grandeur city located where the Rockies used to be. The people of the Capitol are shallow, speak in a funny, affected accent and value surface appearances, plastic surgery, and entertainment. Being one o