AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING MADE BY THE TENTH GRADE OF MULTIMEDIA CLASS IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG

AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING
MADE BY THE TENTH GRADE OF MULTIMEDIA CLASS
IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG

THESIS
This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve Sarjana
Degree in English Education

By
ATIEK ERNAWATI
NIM: 08360037

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
2014
i

AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING
MADE BY THE TENTH GRADE OF MULTIMEDIA CLASS
IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG

THESIS

By
ATIEK ERNAWATI
NIM: 08360037

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
2014
i

This thesis written by Atiek Ernawati was approved on January 27, 2014

By

Advisor 1

Advisor 2

Drs. Adiloka, M.Pd

Iswahyuni, M.Pd

i

This thesis was defended in front of the examiners of Faculty of Teacher
Training and Education of University of Muhammadiyah Malang
and accepted as the partial requirement to achieve
Sarjana Degree in English Education on
January 27, 2014

Approved by:
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
University of Muhammadiyah Malang

Dean

Dr. Poncojari Wahyono, M.Kes

Examiners:

Signatures:

1. Dr. Hartono, M.Pd

1. ………………….

2. Rahmawati Khadijah Maro, S.Pd, M. PEd

2. ………………….

3. Drs. Adiloka, M.Pd

3. ………………….

4. Iswahyuni, M.Pd

4. ………………….

ii

MOTTO AND DEDICATION

MOTTO

“Sungguh menakjubkan perkara orang yang beriman, karena segala
perkaranya adalah baik. Jika ia mendapatkan kenikmatan, ia
bersyukur karena (ia mengatahui) bahwa hal tersebut adalah memang
baik baginya. Dan jika ia tertimpa musibah atau kesulitan, ia bersabar
karena (ia mengetahui) bahwa hal tersebut adalah baik baginya.”
(H.R Imam Muslim)
”Sabar bukanlah ilmu instan yang bisa kita pelajari dalam sekejap.
Sabar itu perlu disiplin dalam belajar, latihan dan praktek setiap hari.”
(Atiek Ernawati)
DEDICATION

I dedicated this thesis to:


My self



My beloved father and mother
(Sudarno and Maryuni)



My beloved family



My inspiration Yudi Krisdianto



My sister Ari Dwi Astuti and lovely friend Reni ,

Thanks you very much for pray, support, attention, suggestion
that you have given to me.
iii

AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING
MADE BY THE TENTH GRADE OF MULTIMEDIA CLASS
IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG
ABSTRACT

Writing is the most complicated one. In the process of writing, there are some
difficulties faced by the students. First, the students often make errors in their composition
when they write a paragraph, although the teacher has given the topic before. Second, they
did not re-check their assignment. Third, the students’ knowledge is low. The last, the
students do not understand well about steps of writing. Furthermore, they have less in
vocabulary and have no ability to write with good spelling but also in grammar.
The design used in this study was descriptive qualitative research design because the
researcher wanted to describe the students’ errors and to give information about the
frequency of occurrence of the grammatical errors made by the students in writing paragraph.
The subject in this study was tenth grade Multimedia students of SMK Muhammadiyah 2
Malang. Out of 29 students, there were only 24 students who were able to do the assignment.
This subject was chosen because more students in this class had most grammatical error. In
collecting data, the researcher used writing test to the tenth grade Multimedia students of
SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang. One way in which reliability or lack of reliability of a test is
indicated; all tests had measurement error. The result of the tried out showed that the
instrument used by the researcher was reliable.
Based on the result of the data analysis, it was found there were kind of error made by
students. In steps of writing there were 6 students who forgot about middle in writing
paragraph and 21 students who forgot about closing in writing paragraph. In proofreading
symbol identification and correction there were 6 (12,2 %) error in insert; 25 (51,1%) error in
capitalize16 (32,6%) error in make lower case. In the component of grammar there were 8
(19,6%) error in using nouns; 1 (2,4%) error in pronouns; 19 (46,3%) error in verbs; 10
(24,4%) error in adjectives; 3 (7,3%) error in conjunctions. In surface strategy taxonomy
there were 29 (25,4%) errors in omission; 20 (17,6%) errors in addition; 56 (49,1%) errors in
misformation 9 (7,9%) errors in misordering. Based on the explanation above, it can be
concluded that the most grammatical error made by students is proofreading symbol
identification and correction in point insert (51,1%).
However, based on the previous study done by Novita (2003), grammatical errors
made by students are in the matter of grammatical error in sentence fragments form,
grammatical error in comma splices form, grammatical error in run-on or fused sentences
form, grammatical error in dangling modifier form. In this study, it may be assumed that the
students made errors because they were confused in making and develop their mind-set in
paragraph. Based on the result of the test, the students found difficulties in constructing the
paragraph.
This study is expected to give the contribution to the teacher who should give more
attention to the students’ errors by explaining the material clearly. The students should pay

iv

attention to the grammar rules that becomes the important aspect in language learning.
Moreover, the further researcher can use the research as one of the references in conducting
some research on students’ non-linguistic problems in developing paragraph.

Key word: Writing, Grammatical Error

Advisor 1

The Writer

Drs. Adiloka M, Pd.

Atiek Ernawati

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Alhamdulilahirabbal Aalamin, praise to Allah, for all blessing, energy and the
brain storming, and health that finally make this thesis finished in due time. Thanks to
Allah who always give the power to make her stand in-patient and keep on trying. In
addition, the writer would like to say the deepest gratitude and thanks for whom that
had helped and encouraged to finish this thesis.
First, the writer would like to give the sincere gratitude to Drs. Adiloka, M.Pd
as the first advisor and Iswahyuni, M.Pd as the second advisor, for the help, advice,
and support during the thesis consultation especially during thesis examination.
Thanks for your guidance, patience, and understanding until this thesis can be
finished on time.
Second, the writer would like to say thanks so much to her beloved parents
moreover, family who always pray for her, give support and motivations. Third,
special thanks to Yudi Krisdianto for big help and support. The last, for the writer’s
sister and brother Ari Dwi Astuti and Arie Zakaria thanks for give the idea and
inspiration. Moreover, for her best friends Reni, Andy, Saban, Tata, Andik thanks for
always give her motivations so this thesis can be finished in due time.
Malang, January 2014

Atiek Ernawati
vi

TABLE OF CONTENT

APPROVAL....................................................................................................

i

LEGALIZATION ..........................................................................................

ii

MOTTO AND DEDICATION ......................................................................

iii

ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................

vi

TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................

vii

LIST OF TABLE............................................................................................

ix

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study .................................................................................

1

1.2 Statement of problem ................................................................................

6

1.3 Purpose of the study ..................................................................................

6

1.4 Significance of the Study ..........................................................................

6

1.5 Scope and Limitation ................................................................................

7

1.6 Definition of Key Terms ...........................................................................

7

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Writing .....................................................................................................

8

2.1.1 Steps in Writing ..............................................................................

9

2.1.2 Elements of writing ........................................................................

15

2.2 Grammar ..................................................................................................

18

2.2.1 Components of Grammar ...............................................................

19

2.3 Communicative Effect Taxonomy ...........................................................

21

2.4 Error .........................................................................................................

22

2.4.1 LinguisticCategory .........................................................................

23

2.4.2 SurfaceStrategy Taxonomy ............................................................

24

vii

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design ........................................................................................

26

3.2 Research Subject .......................................................................................

28

3.3 Instrument .................................................................................................

28

3.4 Procedure of Data collection and Analysis ...............................................

29

CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Research Finding........................................................................................

31

4.1.1 Error in Grammar ............................................................................

31

4.1.1.1 Component of Grammar.........................................................

31

4.1.1.2 Surface Strategy Taxonomy ...................................................

34

4.1.2 Errors in Organize of idea ..............................................................

35

4.1.2.1 Element of Writing Essay ......................................................

36

4.1.2.2 Proofreading Symbol Identification and Correction ..............

38

4.2 Discussion ................................................................................................

39

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1 Conclusion. ...............................................................................................

43

5.2 Suggestion ...............................................................................................

45

5.1.2 To the Teacher of English in the SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang.

45

5.1.3 To the Students in the SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang ................

45

5.1.4 For Further Research ......................................................................

45

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIXES

viii

LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1 Component of Grammar ..................................................................

32

Table 4.2 Surface Strategy Taxonomy. ............................................................

34

Table 4.3 Element of Writing Essay ................................................................

36

Table 4.4 Proofreading Symbol Identification and Correction ........................

38

ix

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brown, H. Douglas. 1980. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, Inc.
Bailey, Stephen. 2006. Academic Writing. New York: Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park,
Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
Clouse, Barbara Fine. 1986. The Student Writer Editor and Critic. USA: McGraw-Hill Book
Company.
Dulay, Heidy et al. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fall. 1998. Academic Studies English. Canada: New Brunswick Community College.
http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english/language-skills.htm/date/2012/14
http://file.upi.edu/Direktori/FPBS/JUR.PEND.BAHASA_INGGRIS/196211011987121DIDI_
SUHERDI.pdf/2012/15
James, Carl. 1998. Errors in Language Learning and Use Exploring Error Analysis. USA:
Addison Wesley Longman Inc.

Khotari, C.R.2008. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi,
India: New Age Internasional Limited Publisher.
Little, Joy. 1985. Building English Skill. USA: McDougal, Little & Company.
Novita, Dian.2003. An Analysis on Grammatical Errors Made by Fourth Semester Students
of English Department at Muhammadiyah University of Malang in Writing Narrative
Paragraph. Malang: Published Thesis
Parse, Rosemarie Rizzo.2011. Qualitative Inquiry the Path of Sciencing. Canada: Jones and
Bartlett Publisher.
Richard.
1999.
Writing
Difficulties
and
Disability.
Retrieved
http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/reading-difficulties-disabilities/date/2012/15

from

Ritongga, Abdul Kadir. 2009. Skemata Struktur Bahasa Indonesia Terhadap Kecampingan
Kalimat Bahasa Inggris Pada Mahasisa Akademi Pariwisata Medan: Kajian
Morfosintaktis. Medan: Published Thesis.
Spivey, Becky L. 2006. What is the
http//www.superduperinc.com/date/2012/5

Writing

Process?.

Sommers, Nancy. 2010. A Writer’s Reference. USA: Harvard University.

x

Retrieved

from

Tarigan, Henry Guntur and Djago Tarigan.1988. Pengajaran Analisis Kesalahan Berbahasa.
Bandung: Angkasa Press.
Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1988. Pengajaran Pemerolehan Bahasa. Bandung: Angkasa Press.

xi

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents background of study, statements of problems, purposes of
study, significance of study, scope and limitation, and definition of key terms.

1.1 Background of study
Language is the most important tool for communication in our daily activity.
By using language people, can share opinion, idea, feelings, etc. Beside being a tool
to communicate with others, language facilitates other communicants to understand
what others want and to compare their knowledge (Abdul Ritonga: 2009). Every
country has language as a mother tongue, but people who live there also learn foreign
language, one of it is English.
Generally, English is one of international languages learned by people. English
is the most commonly used language among foreign language speakers. When people
with different languages come together, they commonly use English to communicate
to each other. For example, when people go for vacation in France, they want to buy
something but they do not know about the language. Thus, they use English to ask the
price or the product sold.
English is very important to learn because nowadays there are many
information presented in English. Moreover, English has been the main factor and
bench mark in workplace. The ability to speak or write English well and in the correct
form is the extra value to increase personal performance. English is also used in

1

2

international business. If we want to take a managerial position in some multinational
companies, mostly we will be required to speak English. Therefore, English regarded
has important function to communicate with others, so that it is learnt from
elementary school until university in Indonesia.
English has four skills that should be mastered by the students, they are:
speaking, reading, listening and writing. These four skills have connection to each
other (http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english/language-skills.htm). However, it
cannot be decided from where these skills should be mastered. Based on that, learning
English in vocational schools should include the four skills. If students have difficulty
on one skill, it will obstruct the optimality in learning English.
Good mastery of English can be an effective means to increase the mastery of
science and technology, so as to improve the competitiveness of human resources in
Indonesia (http://file.upi.edu/ ). It can be accomplished by formal and non-formal
learning. Basically, vocational students are prepared for working so that they should
have skills including English. Learning English can help students to get information,
to communicate well and to increase their confidence when they have interview for
job with English in the future.
Vocationally, learning English is very important because vocational students
should have good communication skill because they are prepared for excellent and
professional human resources. It is also important because mostly students will face
English when they read the instructions of tools and when they create design by
computer in which the guidance is also written in English. English in vocational
school is not only learned in reading comprehension for understanding the instruction

3

or guidance, but it is also learned and taught in writing. It has relation with
communication, especially in business written. For example, they make letter of order
for buying tools or they make letter of complaint when they got broken equipments.
Yet, learning English in vocational school is not as successful as it is being expected.
When the writer observed and interviewed one of the teachers in a vocational school,
it was found that the students still need guidance and the teacher had to teach them
slowly. Teacher should give students the clear explanation on writing text or
paragraph it is better for the teacher to explain it step by step, start from outline to the
development of sentences into paragraph.
There are still many problems in teaching English for vocational students. In
fact, they have to master four skills of English; speaking, listening, reading and
writing. First, the students commonly have low motivation in learning English. They
feel scared first of English because in the first time they learn it, they have no large
number of vocabulary in English. It is one of the difficult problems in learning
English for vocational school. Second, the students have low involvement in English
teaching learning process. They do not want to be active in the class. They tend to
keep silent when the teacher gives interactive session. Third, students have low
achievement because of that. It is basically caused by less confidence among the
students. It all happen in every skills of English, knowing vocabularies, structure,
tenses and grammar is still hard for them; speak, listen, read and write also difficult
for students.
Based on the explanation above, the author would like to make a research on
one of the skills in English, that is writing. Writing is one of the language skills and

4

an activity that has a relationship with the process of thinking and expression skills in
script form Siradanai Tan (stated in Abdul Ritonga: 2009). Writing is also one of the
most complicated and complex skill for students (Richard: 1999). Students are
required to produce words, sentences, and paragraphs to show their skill in a work. It
means that students should know how to use words through its spelling, meaning, and
its grammatical positions. They should understand about meaning, and its
grammatical positions, because they need it to arrange sentences and develop
sentences into paragraph.
Writing activity refers to the knowledge of how some words are organized into
a sentence possessing a series of words that have meaning. Having good writing,
learner will be helpful in delivering their ideas, messages and feelings either to the
reader Hartanti (stated in Novita 2003). In writing there are some components namely
punctuation, structure and grammar. There component are always used in writing. If
one of it is missing, it will cause errors and the writing can not be understood well.
Usually errors that often occur in vocational high school students when they
write something are they did not observed the word structure and the sentences are
meaningless. Sometime they also interpret or arrange sentences word by word
without paying attention to meaning. If people want to write in English, they have to
understand well on the grammar. Grammar is one of the important aspects on writing.
Using and mastering correct grammar is not easy, because the things grammar and
the Indonesian are grammar very different. In fact, some students are not able to use
grammar correctly.

5

Actually, grammar is used to explain about the structure of a sentence so it will
make the reader understand well about the meaning. A sentence without grammar
would be disorganized and causes some mistake like grammatical error in writing.
Grammatical error is big problem in writing subject Hartanti (stated in Novita 2003).
In vocational school, students should already know about grammar or structure in
writing but in reality they still make many errors when making paragraph. In study
English the students must pay attention in grammar. Indonesian students, as foreign
language learners of English, also face difficulties about grammar because of the
difference in linguistic structure between Indonesia and English. It means that the
students have difficulties in learning English grammar.
Learning English in the tenth Multimedia class at SMK Muhammadiyah 2
Malang is conducted in all skills, such as speaking, reading, listening and writing.
According the writer’s observation in teaching writing, students were taught to make
the opening dialogue, greeting, telling things and times, expressing feeling and
describing something. However, the students still make errors, especially in grammar.
They are difficult in starting to make sentences because they have less vocabulary but
the worst is that they cannot use “to be” in the proper place. They usually present “I”
with “am” and it will follow with other “to be”. According to them, it is like “I” is
come with “am”. Using “the” in the sentence is often done by students. It seems that
they feel appropriate in using “the” in most words. Another problem in grammar is
that they are difficult in determining adverb, auxiliary, and article. Accordingly, the
researcher take a research to analyze the grammatical error occurs in class tenth of
Multimedia class at SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang.

6

1.2 Statement of the Problem
1. What kinds of grammatical errors the tenth grade of Multimedia class make in
learning writing in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang?
2. How the tenth grade Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang
organize their idea in writing essay?

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purposes of the study are:
1. To find the kinds of grammatical errors made by the tenth Multimedia class in
SMK Muhammadiyah 2, Malang.
2. To know how the tenth grade Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2
Malang organize their idea in writing essay.

1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to give contributions to English teachers in SMK
Muhammadiyah 2 Malang to improve their students’ writing including vocabulary,
grammar, and developing paragraph. The result of this study is also expected to have
contribution for teacher in knowing their students grammatical error and deciding
what appropriate method and strategy for teaching writing, also student’s error,
especially the grammatical error in writing paragraph based on the picture or
describing something or someone can be used as a reference of the evaluation for the
next treatment in order to improve the process of teaching and learning as well. This
analysis is also to make the students know of their own error, especially grammar.
They will know the weakness in their learning process and it will help them to

7

improve their competence in writing. So, this study is also expected to be useful for
further researchers who want to create the similar research.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
There are some grammatical errors that often occur in the students such as errors
in making paragraph that appropriate with the picture, describing something or
someone and making dialogue. This study does not analyze all errors; it just focuses
on writing in describing something or someone. The writer only limits the problems
to the student’s grammatical error in writing made by the tenth Multimedia in SMK
Muhammadiyah 2, Malang.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms
1. Grammar
Grammar is a process how some words and their component combine to form
a sentence that is easily understood by the reader.
2. Error
Error is a situation where someone made a mistake in learning something.
3. Writing
Writing is an activity to convey idea in the written form.

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