The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel Ranah 3 Warna.

THE INTRINSIC ANALYSIS IN AHMAD FUADI’S NOVEL
RANAH 3 WARNA

A PAPER

BY
R A LAOLI
REG. NO. 082202056

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA
FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDIES
DIPLOMA III ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM
MEDAN
JUNE 2011

Universitas Sumatera Utara

It has been proved by
Supervisor,

Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M.Hum.
NIP. 19630216198903 1 003
Submitted to Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for DIPLOMA (D-III) in English

Approved by
Head of Diploma III English Study Program,

Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A.
NIP. 19521126198112 1 001

Approved by the Diploma III English Study Program
Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatra
as a Paper for the Diploma (D-III) Examination

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Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the D-III Examination of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty of
Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera.

The examination is held on June 2011

Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera
Dean,

Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A.
NIP. 19511013197603 1 001

Board of Examiners

Signature

1.

Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. (Head of ESP)

2.

Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M.Hum. (Supervisor)

3.

…………………………….. (Reader)

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AUTHOR'S DECLARATION

I, R A LAOLI, declare that I am the sole author of this paper. Except where the
reference is made in the text of this paper, this paper contains no material
published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which I have
qualified for or awarded another degree.

No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main
text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another
degree in any tertiary education.

Signed : ...……………….
Date

:

2011

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COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name

: R A LAOLI

Title of Paper

: The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel Ranah
3 Warna

Qualification

: D-III / Ahli Madya

Study Program

: English

I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the discretion
of the Librarian of the Diploma III English Department Faculty of Letters USU on
the understanding that users are made aware of their obligation under law of the
Republic of Indonesia.

Signed : ….……………..
Date

:

2011

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Bismillahirrahmaanirrahiim.
First of all, I would like to thank and praise to the Almighty God, Allah SWT for
blessing and giving me health, strength and ease to accomplish this paper as one
of the requirements to get Diploma III certificate from English Department
Faculty of Letters, University of Sumatera Utara.
Then, I would like to express a deep gratitude, love, and appreciation to:
 My beloved parents, Rasyad Laoli and Salmiah. Thank you for all your
motivations, advices, prays, loves and financial for me. I present this
paper for you.
 Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. as the Head of English Diploma
Study Program, who gives me a lot of knowledge.
 Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M. Hum. as my supervisor. Thank you for
the valuable time in giving the correction and constructive critics in
completing this paper.
 Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A. as the Dean of Faculty of Letters, University of
Sumatera Utara.
 All lecturers in English Diploma Study Program for giving me advices and
knowledge.
 My lovely Siblings, Sri Dedek Eka Wati, Apriyani Syahfitri, Aprizul
Khoir and Sevilla Az-zahra .

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 Special thanks to my beloved girl Yurisa Ismi Rangkuti for your support,
cares, spirit and other things that help me to complete this paper.
 My entire friends in Pemerintahan Mahasiswa (PEMA), UKM Teater
‘O’, Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam (HMI), BTM Al-Iqbal, UBK
SaHIVa, TNB, the Original and Gemapala. Thank you for the nice
friendship during us together. I will never forget your kindness to me.
 My best friends: Zainul, Aseng, Arus, Oki, Ibnu, Sutan, Zuhri,
Amman. Naffy, Ferry, Maryadi, Agung and Rizky. Thank you for the
nice friendship during our study. I will be missing the days we spent
together.
Finally, I do realize that this paper is still far from being perfect. Therefore, I
welcome any constructive critics and suggestions towards this paper. I hope this
paper will be a worthwhile for the readers.

Medan,

June 2011

The writer,

R A Laoli
Reg. No. 082202056

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ABSTRAK
Novel merupakan salah satu hasil karya sastra manusia yang tidak hanya berisi
cerita yang menarik, tetapi juga mengandung pesan moral bagi pembacanya.
Kertas karya yang berjudul “The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel
Ranah 3 warna” ini membahas tentang unsur-unsur intrinsik dalam suatu karya
sastra yang terdiri dari tema, alur, karakter, gaya, latar dan sudut pandang. Ranah
3 warna merupakan novel lanjutan dari trilogy negeri 5 menara yang ditulis oleh
Ahmad Fuadi, yang merupakan salah satu novelis berbakat Indonesia. Di novel
yang merupakan hasil dari kisah nyata sang penulis ini banyak terjadi lika-liku
kehidupan yang menuntut Alif, sang tokoh utama untuk selalu sabar dan tabah
dalam menghadapi cobaan yang menerpa dalam perantauannya menuntut ilmu.
Novel ini mengisahkan tentang perjalanan alif mulai semenjak dia lulus dari
pesantren, mengikuti ujian kesetaraan SMA, menempuh ujian UMPTN hingga
akhirnya dia berhasil masuk Universitas Padjajaran jurusan Hubungan
Internasional, Bandung. Beberapa tokoh yang terlibat dalam perjalanan alif
menghadapi badai kehidupan dalam novel ini adalah : Randai, Raisa, Ayah,
Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado, serta Rusdi. Kertas karya ini
menggunakan metode tahap demi tahap, yaitu membaca sumber data utama yang
mmerupakan Novel Ranah 3 Warna itu sendiri, lalu menginterpretasikan dan
menganalisis unsur-unsur intrinsiknya sehingga dapat menyimpulkan teks-teks
yang relevan untuk dapat membuat kertas karya ini. Novel ini mendeskripsikan
bagaimana setiap unsur – unsur intrinsik dalam sebuah karya sastra saling
berkaitan satu sama lain, karena tanpa adanya saling keterkaitan itu, tak akan
mungkin sebuah karya sastra akan tercipta.

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ABSTRACT
Novel is one of the literary not only contains an interesting story, but it also
contains a moral message for the readers. The paper entitled “The Intrinsic
Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s novel Ranah 3 Warna” is about the intrinsic elements
in a literary work consist of theme, plot, character, style, setting and point of view.
Ranah 3 Warna is a second novel in trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara that written by
Ahmad Fuadi who is one of talented novelist in Indonesia. This novel which is
result of the author’s true story describes a lot happening twist of life that
demands Alif, as the main character to always be patient and steadfast in the face
of trials start since he graduated from boarding school, senior high school
equivalence text, exams UMPTN until he finally success enter in International
Relation department of Padjajaran University, Bandung. Some of characters
involved in Alif trip to face the storms of life in this novel are Randai, Raisa,
Ayah, Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado and Rusdi. This paper use the
method is step by step. Reading until finish the main source data that is Ranah 3
Warna novel, then interpret and analyze the intrinsic elements in the novel so that
can conclude the relevant text to make this paper. This paper describes how each
intrinsic element in a literary work is related; because without the absence of
interconnections, it would not perhaps a work of literature will be crafted.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
……………………………………
COPYRIGHT DECLARATION ……………………………………
ABSTRAK ……………………………………………………………
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
……………………………………
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………

i
ii
iii
iv
v
vii

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Scope of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 The Method of Research

1
3
3
3
4

……………………………………
…………………………...……….
……………………………………
……………………………………
……………………………………

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Definition of Novel………………………………………
2.2 The Intrinsic Elements of Novel………………………………
2.2.1 The Theme …………………………………………….
2.2.2 The Plot
…………………………………………….
2.2.3 The Characters
…………………………………….
2.2.4 The Setting
…………………………………….
2.2.5 Point of View
…………………………………….

5
7
8
9
11
12
13

3. THE ANALYSIS OF RANAH 3 WARNA NOVEL
3.1 The Theme
……………………………………….……
3.2 The Plot
…………………………………………….
3.3 The Character
…………………………………….
3.3.1 Main Character
…….………………………………
3.3.2 Peripheral Character
…………….………………
3.4 The Setting
…………………………………………….
3.4.1 Setting of Place
…………………………….
3.4.2 Setting of Time
…………………………….
3.1.5 Point of View
…………………………………….

16
18
20
20
23
28
28
29
29

4. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
4.1 Conclusions
…………………………………………… 31
4.2 Suggestions
…………………………………...………. 32

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

…………………………………………………… 33
…………………………………………………… 34

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ABSTRAK
Novel merupakan salah satu hasil karya sastra manusia yang tidak hanya berisi
cerita yang menarik, tetapi juga mengandung pesan moral bagi pembacanya.
Kertas karya yang berjudul “The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel
Ranah 3 warna” ini membahas tentang unsur-unsur intrinsik dalam suatu karya
sastra yang terdiri dari tema, alur, karakter, gaya, latar dan sudut pandang. Ranah
3 warna merupakan novel lanjutan dari trilogy negeri 5 menara yang ditulis oleh
Ahmad Fuadi, yang merupakan salah satu novelis berbakat Indonesia. Di novel
yang merupakan hasil dari kisah nyata sang penulis ini banyak terjadi lika-liku
kehidupan yang menuntut Alif, sang tokoh utama untuk selalu sabar dan tabah
dalam menghadapi cobaan yang menerpa dalam perantauannya menuntut ilmu.
Novel ini mengisahkan tentang perjalanan alif mulai semenjak dia lulus dari
pesantren, mengikuti ujian kesetaraan SMA, menempuh ujian UMPTN hingga
akhirnya dia berhasil masuk Universitas Padjajaran jurusan Hubungan
Internasional, Bandung. Beberapa tokoh yang terlibat dalam perjalanan alif
menghadapi badai kehidupan dalam novel ini adalah : Randai, Raisa, Ayah,
Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado, serta Rusdi. Kertas karya ini
menggunakan metode tahap demi tahap, yaitu membaca sumber data utama yang
mmerupakan Novel Ranah 3 Warna itu sendiri, lalu menginterpretasikan dan
menganalisis unsur-unsur intrinsiknya sehingga dapat menyimpulkan teks-teks
yang relevan untuk dapat membuat kertas karya ini. Novel ini mendeskripsikan
bagaimana setiap unsur – unsur intrinsik dalam sebuah karya sastra saling
berkaitan satu sama lain, karena tanpa adanya saling keterkaitan itu, tak akan
mungkin sebuah karya sastra akan tercipta.

Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRACT
Novel is one of the literary not only contains an interesting story, but it also
contains a moral message for the readers. The paper entitled “The Intrinsic
Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s novel Ranah 3 Warna” is about the intrinsic elements
in a literary work consist of theme, plot, character, style, setting and point of view.
Ranah 3 Warna is a second novel in trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara that written by
Ahmad Fuadi who is one of talented novelist in Indonesia. This novel which is
result of the author’s true story describes a lot happening twist of life that
demands Alif, as the main character to always be patient and steadfast in the face
of trials start since he graduated from boarding school, senior high school
equivalence text, exams UMPTN until he finally success enter in International
Relation department of Padjajaran University, Bandung. Some of characters
involved in Alif trip to face the storms of life in this novel are Randai, Raisa,
Ayah, Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado and Rusdi. This paper use the
method is step by step. Reading until finish the main source data that is Ranah 3
Warna novel, then interpret and analyze the intrinsic elements in the novel so that
can conclude the relevant text to make this paper. This paper describes how each
intrinsic element in a literary work is related; because without the absence of
interconnections, it would not perhaps a work of literature will be crafted.

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Literature is creative expression of human imagination or wishes that it is
almost impossible to create an exact definition of it. Wellek & Warren (1971:3)
state that literature is the mirror of human life that portrays ‘human feeling,
thought, imagination and perception which can be viewed based on personal
judgment.
Literature can be divided into three genres, such as prose fiction, poetry
and drama. In the sense of literary, prose also called fiction, narrative text, or
narrative discourse. Fiction is a narrative work that tells something that is
imaginary, something that does not exist and happen in the real world. As a work
of imaginary, fiction directs various problems of man and humanity, life and
living. Fiction tells the various problems of human life in the interactions with the
environment and others. Fiction is the result of dialogue, contemplation, and
reactions to the environment and the life of the author.
Novel is fictional prose narrative of considerable length, typically having a
plot that is unfolded by the actions, speech and thoughts of the characters. Novel,
nearly always an extended fictional prose narrative, although some novel are very
short, some are non fictional, some have been written in verse and some not even
tell a story, novel is fictitious kind of writing.
Novel is a world specially made in words by an author. A novel exists in
the way it does because an author has chosen to put it together in that particularly

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way. This means that novels are not real life. Like all works of art poems, plays,
pots or pieces of music – they have been constructed or crafted. (Gill, 1985:77).
There are two important elements in fiction, intrinsic and extrinsic
elements. Extrinsic elements include: religion, education, custom, etc. while
intrinsic elements include: theme, plot, character, setting, and point of view.
Ranah 3 Warna is secondly novel in Negeri 5 Menara trilogy. It has made
by Ahmad Fuadi, one of the young novelists in Indonesia who has a great talent in
literature. The story in Ranah 3 Warna novel is inspired by his life story. This
novel narrates how dreams and ideals must be fought all-out.
I am interested in analyzing the intrinsic elements in Ranah 3 Warna
novel, because it has an attractive theme, plot, character, setting and point of view.
And also I want to understand a work of literature with all the elements that each
other be related, including theme which is underlying the story, the plot is a series
of events that can also lead to conflict, then the character which describes how the
characters play a role in the literature, the setting indicates when and where any
incident took place, until those elements were packed in a view point of the author
is called point of view.
Ranah 3 Warna describes how all the elements of literature created so
beautifully. How does the author give the basic story that rarely made by other
authors, how the author create unexpected conflict occurs in the novel, then how
make the characters that can inspire many people, and expertise of the author in
choosing some of place that well known, such as ITB or Institute of Technology
Bandung which is the most popular college in Indonesia, as well as how the

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author combines all these elements in the point of view so that the novel is more
interesting and useful to the readers.
1.2 Scope of Study
Analyzing literature especially novel is not easy. The scope or limitation
of this analysis is to analyze only five intrinsic elements in Ahmad Fuadi’s novel
Ranah 3 Warna. There are theme, plot, character, setting, and point of view. It is
important to limit the writing in order avoid the readers from confusion.
1.3 Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study to analyze the intrinsic elements in Ranah 3
Warna novel, so that the writer can understand how the elements of literature
works include theme, plot, character, setting, and point of view made. So the story
ideas, conflict in the story, the characters in the story, the setting of place and
setting of time, until the point of view that created by the author can be analyzed
carefully. The writer hopes this analysis could help the readers who want to know
more about the messages in the novel.
1.4 Significance of Study
The significance of this paper is to enrich literary study especially in
literature of novel. The writer hope this analysis could become references for
further study of literary works whatever forms they will be.
1.5 Method of Research
Method of research conducted in this paper is the step by step method. The
first step is reading the main source data until finish; it is Ranah 3 Warna novel.
After reading to the end, the writer select the text, interpret it, and then analyze the

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texts in order to decide which ones of the text are relevant to the elements of
literature contained in the novel so that it can be conclude to this paper. The writer
also searches some data from books and internet that related with elements of
literature as material to support the completeness of this paper.

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2. REVIEW AND RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Definition of Novel
Novel is the name of a literary kind and there is a story to tell about how,
over the centuries, its substance has widened and its conventions changed. Henry
James (Watson,1978: xi) in an excited moment, called the novel ‘independent,
elastic prodigious, and its story is as untidy as some of its masterpieces. If
Aristotle had ever read any novels, he would have needed a far wider canvas than
he allowed to tragedy in that surviving fragment of analysis known as the poetics.
Novella literally means 'a small new item' and then interpreted as 'a short
story in the form of prose' (Abrams,1981: 119). Novels and short stories are two
forms of literature that once called fiction. Differences between the novel and
short stories are a formality in terms of shape, in terms of story length. A long
story, let's say hundreds of pages, clearly can not be called as a short story, but
more appropriately called a novel. Because of its length, the novel can not inherit
the solid unity that belongs to the short story. The novel is also not able to make
the subject stand out like a microcosmic principle of short stories. Instead the
novel is able to present the development of one character, a complicated social
situation, relationships that involve many or few characters, and a variety of
complicated events occurring in greater detail. The novel is able to create a
complete universe at once complicated. This means that the novel is both easy and
more difficult to read when compared with the short story. It is said more easily
because the novel is not burdened with the responsibility to deliver something
quickly or with solid form and said to be more difficult because the novel was

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written in large scale units that contain a larger organization rather than short
stories.
The novel is educating us because novels can inform on some surprising
subjects. Like other kinds of story, a novel is a way of learning about how things
were cognitive instrument and those who distrust stories as evidence should
consider how often in conversation we use them to make points or answer
questions. For one thing, a novel is too untidy an object, often, to be seen as
regulated in its entirety and the patterns offered can be impoverishing the figure in
the carpet is not itself the carpet, or anything like it. A novel is a fund of
knowledge as well as a literary form and any pure and exclusive formalism
whether structuralize or other, flies in the face of much of the ordinary experience
of reading fiction.
Novel can freely express something, to present something more, more
detailed, more detail and more involving many complex problems. This includes
various the story elements that build the novel. (Nurgiyantoro, trans.2005:11).
Novels, however are fictional, that is to say, they have been made up. A
character in a novel can’t be compared to a real person from whom he or she has
been copied, because, for example, there is no Jane Eyre in real life. She, or any
other character in a novel, only exists on the page. If an author tells you that a
character is five foot with blue eyes, you can’t say: ‘no, I think the character is
nearly six foot with brown eyes’.
Novel is one of many possible prose narrative forms. Richard Gill in his
book (1985:78) state that; in the writing, there is a recognition that a novel is

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something specially made by an author so that a reader will respond to it in a
particular way. The good candidate has recognized three things about a novel: the
events of the novel, the author who has created them, and the reader for whom the
novel is written. In any good writing about a novel, these three things should be
mentioned. They are, however not separable. For instance, the events of a novel
are only there because the author has put them there, and they are only recognized
as events when read by a reader.
The author, of course is the most important element; the events of the
novel and the reactions of the reader depend upon what he or she chooses to do.
Because without an author there could be no book at all, but there is also a much
more important reason: a novel is a world specially made in words by an author.
2.2 The Instrinsic Elements of Novel
Element of literature denote the things that are used to make up a work
literature. There are different types and forms of literature. They are novel, drama,
poetry, biography, non-fictional prose, essay, epic and short story. All these types
of literature have some elements. To complete a piece of literature, a writer,
dramatist or novelist needs to use certain elements like theme, plot, character, etc.
However, elements of fiction and elements differ from elements of poetry.
Extrinsic and intrinsic approaches to literature are employed by critics to
evaluate literature according to understandings of the world. Extrinsic and
intrinsic approaches to literature are ways to criticize literature in different terms.
In intrinsic approach, the critic is mainly concerned with the form, language, style,
symbols, images, contrast, structure and development of plot in literary work.

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Intrinsic is also called formalism as the critic’s basic interest is in the form of the
text. In comparison to intrinsic, the extrinsic approach makes the critic to give
more importance to the context of a text. It means that he is mainly interested in
the background, history, social conditions and biography of the author.
Analysis of the intrinsic elements in literary is an analysis of the literary
work itself without looking the related with the data beyond the literary work.
(Sukada, trans.1987:51). In this chapter, the writer analyzes further about intrinsic
elements in Ranah 3 Warna novel. There are five elements to develop the story. It
consists of theme, plot, character, setting, and point of view.
2.2.1 The Theme
Theme is one of the fundamental components of fiction. Theme means
what the novel can be summed up as saying. Another way of putting it would be
to talk of the ‘ideas’ of the book. According to Wikipedia, theme is a broad idea,
message or moral of a story. The message may be about life, society or human
nature. Themes often explore timeless and universal ideas and are almost implied
rather than stated explicitly.
To determine the main meaning in a novel, we should know the definition
of theme itself. Hartoko & Harmanto state that “The theme is the basic common
idea that support of literary work that is contained in the text as a semantic
structure and related equations similarities or differences”. (Nurgiyantoro,
trans.1995.68).
A theme must represent the whole part of the story, because theme is basic
development of story. Like as the important meaning in ourselves experience, the

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theme of a story is individualistic and universal. Theme gives a strong to
explained unity of event that describing and also tells about life in common
context.
Thus, to find the theme of a work of fiction, it must be inferred from the
whole story, not only on the basis of certain parts of the story. Principal themes as
the meaning of a work of fiction are not deliberately hidden because of precisely
this that is offered to readers. However, the overall theme is the meaning of which
supported the story, by itself it will be hidden behind the story that supports it. As
a meaning, in general, the themes not depicted directly or specifically. The
existence or presence of the theme possesses the whole story and this is causes the
small probability for the direct depiction. And this is also the cause not easy
interpretation the themes. The main theme is interpretation of understanding by
the overall story. However, sometimes it can also found any sentences or
paragraphs of certain conversations that can be interpreted as something that
contains the main theme.
2.2.2 Plot
According to Stanton (1965:14), state that the plot is a story that contains
the sequence of events, but each incident was only connected in cause and effect,
the events that caused one and also cause the occurrence of other events.
Appearance of events for events that only based on the order of time is not
necessarily a plot. To be a plot, the events must be processed and made creatively,
so that the results of processing and making itself is something beautiful and
interesting, particularly in relation to the relevant works of fiction as a whole.

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Kenny (1966:14) points out the plot as the events are displayed in a not
simple story, because the author set the events was based on a causal connection.
The plot is basically sequences of events in logical and chronological relations are
interrelated and are caused or experienced by the characters. The plot outline is
divided into three parts, namely early, middle, and end. The first part contains the
exposition that contains instability and conflicts. The middle part contains the
climax which is the height of the conflict. The final section contains
troubleshooting (Wiyatmi, trans.2008:37).
The plot has a number of rules, namely plausibilitas, surprise, suspense,
and unity. The series of events arranged plausibilitasly. A story said is plausible to
remain within the framework of fiction. A story says makes sense if the story has
a truth, which is right for the story itself. In addition, the surprise also serves to
slow down or speed up the climax. Suspense arises when a series of events related
to previous events, arrive - arrived diverted to other events that are not related, so
the continuation of the event was delayed and experience uncertainty. The series
of events contained in a story has to have integrity. The existence of the early,
middle and end in a groove indicates the integrity of these.
In accordance with the composition of the events or its parts, the plot can
be divided into several types. There are the progressive plot and regressive plot. In
a progressive plot, the events arranged: early, middle, end. A novel is called
progressive if the events which are narrated chronologically, the first event
followed by the events that happened later. While the regressive plot also called as

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flash back plot is arranged on the contrary, for example: the middle, beginning,
end or the end, beginning, middle.
On the basis of quantity, there are a single plot and plural plot. Plot is
called a single when the events contain only one primary event, while the plot is
called plural when containing a variety of primary events and other events. When
viewed from its quality, there are dense plot and loose plot. The dense plot is
when the main plot of the story doesn’t have a space to be added another plot.
Conversely, the loose plot is when it has possibility to inserting another plot.
2.2.3 Character
Characters, according to Abrams in Nurgiyantoro (Trans.1995:164) ‘are
the people who featured in a narrative or dramatic works that are interpreted to
have certain moral qualities and tendencies as expressed in speech and what is
done in action’.
Fiction is a form of creative work, so how authors create characters and
develop the story was not separated from the freedom of creativity. Fiction offers
the life model which attitudes and experienced by the characters of story
according to how the author in looking life itself. Because the author is
deliberately created the world in fiction, he has the complete freedom to display
the characters according to his taste, whoever the person, whatever his social
status, however his attitude and whatever the problems faced.
Although the characters are figure just created by the author, they should
be who living fairly as how the man in the real life which contained of blood and
meat also has thoughts and feelings. The life of the character is only in a fictional

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world, so they should be appropriate according to the story and the role that
played. If there are any other actions of characters from stories that have been
described previously, it should be on the responsibility of accountable in terms of
plot, so the story still has a higher plausibility level. Or if the characters act
strange in a reasonable life, they attitudes and actions must remain consistent. In
terms of its role, there is a character in a story that is rated important and is shown
continuously, so it felt to dominate most of the story, it is called the central / main
character. While there are also characters that only appear once or several times in
the story and it were probably in a relatively short portion, namely peripheral
character.
2.2.4 Setting
Setting is the foundation that leads to understanding the place, time
relations, and social environment where the occurrence of the events described. In
fiction, the background can be divided into three kinds, namely the setting place,
time, and social. The setting of place is related to geographical problems, the
location where the incident occurred, in what village, what city, and so forth. The
setting of time is related to matter of time, days, hours, and historical. The setting
of social is related to people’s lives (Wiyatmi,trans.2008:40). A story requires
clarity about where the accident occurred and when it happens to easy imagination
and understanding. That means that a story requires the setting of places, the
setting of time and the setting of social-cultural where the story took place.
According to Gill (1985:106), Setting is a broad word. It covers the places
in which characters are presented; the social context of characters, such as their

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families, friends and class; the customs, beliefs and rules of behavior of their
society; the scenes that are the background or the situation for the events of the
novel; and the total atmosphere, mood or feel that id created by these. All of them
are examples of setting. When we study a novel, we should pay attention to
setting, because it can make a contribution to the book. A successful setting is one
which is appropriate to the section of the novel in which it appears and also,
possibly, to the book as whole.
Setting is important to development the story. Setting provides in a
concrete and clear. It will give a realistic impression for the reader. That is the
story told as if it is happening and earnestly. Provide basic background in concrete
and clear. This will give the reader a realistic impression, that is the story told as if
it happened and in earnest, so that the reader feels much easier to operate a good
imagination power to participate critically in relation to knowledge about the
setting. Readers feel to find something truly become a part of him when read the
story.
2.2.5 Point of View
The point of view can be interpreted as how a story is told. Abrams state
that the point of view is the way of the author used as a means of displaying the
characters, action, background, and various events that make up the story in a
fictional text to the readers. So, the point of view is the way, strategy, or tactic that
is deliberately chosen by the writer to express stories and ideas. Selection of point
of view in fiction, in many cases will affect the freedom, sharpness, and

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objectivity in telling stories, and it will also influence the level of plausibility of
the story.
Point of view distinguished by the form of persona which tells in the story.
Based on the persona, it can be divided into first-person point of view and third
person point of view. Based on two forms of persona, Lukens (2003:168)
distinguishes point of view into four categories, namely first person point of view,
omniscient point of view, limited omniscient point of view, and dramatic point of
view. According to Mitchell (2003:267), first person point of view and third
person point of view is still dominant, but in the writing of contemporary have
been modified in such away as to appear more attractive.
First person point of view displaying the “I” character as the center of
narration and central of story. The “I” character usually be the protagonist
character who tells about what he experienced, though only occurred in the mind
or the real, which is conducted verbally and none verbally. Third person point of
view shows the “He” character as the central of story. The character of “He”
appears with the title name such as he, she or they. The omniscient point of view
describes imagery of the some characters into the other characters concerning the
events that made and placed in the reality, or any event which tells the author's
mind that happened in hearts and minds of the characters and what is done in real,
and also actions and reactions that take place between the character, as the author
became a source of information to know everything. Limited omniscient point of
view does not give the author to tell about the character as told. The author has
limitations in accessing information that can be told, either in relation to the

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number of characters and events because the position that only the start of a
character.

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3. THE ANALYSIS OF RANAH 3 WARNA NOVEL
3.1 The Theme
To look for the theme in a novel, we must read that novel till finish. Or
even we must repeat it to get the real correct theme. In Ranah 3 Warna novel, the
writer finds out the central theme and sub theme. The central theme in this novel
is Struggle for life. Then the sub theme in this novel is about love.
 Struggle for life
The story about struggle for life always appear in this novel, that is why
the writer decides that struggle for life is the central theme in Ranah 3 Warna
novel. The story happens when the main character, which is Alif, has graduated
from boarding school. Alif has a high dream, which want to become successful
person such as Mr. Habibie and study in Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB).
Mr. Habibie is one of the nation’s best people and has served as President
of Indonesia, which even his name is respected in many big countries in the world
for his research on method of aircraft, while ITB is the most popular college in
Indonesia. All of students in Indonesia want to study there. Since Mr. Habibie was
graduated of ITB, Alif be ambitious to studying in that favorite college.
The first struggle of Alif happens when he must be study hard to learning
all the lessons of senior high school that he never learned at boarding school to
follow senior high school equivalence test. Many people underestimated him. Alif
try to borrow the books from his friend or his neighbors that have the books of
senior high school and learn it intensively. He wants to show his ability to
everybody that he capable to enter in his favorite college.

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The next struggle is when his father died. So he must be looking for job
while he still studies in Padjajaran University in order to defraying his life and
give money to his mother and his younger siblings in the village. He received all
the employment offered to him, so he had three different jobs while studying. He
must sell the device need mothers like Mukena, veil, woven garments, etc. He
sold it to some places of social gatherings or family gatherings, he also a seller of
perfume door to door, and he must also teach private lesson in the afternoon.
Consequently, the schedule of his life changed drastically, no more free time. In
the morning he must study, so in the afternoon he teach private lesson, and in the
evening till night he around to sell his wares.
It can be seen from the quotation below:
Apa gunanya masa muda kalau tidak untuk memperjuangkan cita-cita
besar dan membalas budi orang tua? Biarlah tulang mudaku ini remuk dan
badanku susut. Aku ikhlas mengorbankan masa muda yang indah seperti
yang dinikmati kawan-kawanku. Karena itu aku tidak boleh lemah. Aku
harus keras pada diriku sendiri. Pedih harus aku rasai untuk tahu benar
rasanya senang. Harus berjuang melebihi rata-rata orang lain.
(Fuadi, 2011:117)
What is the use of youth if not to fight for the ideals and help parents? Let
my young bones are broken and my body shrinkage. I’m willing to
sacrifice of beautiful who enjoyed by my friends. Therefore I must not be
weak. I have to be hard on myself. The pain should I suppose to know the
true taste delight. Have to fight more than the average of others.
(Fuadi, 2011:117)
 Love
Love is the sub theme in Ranah 3 Warna novel. The love story happens
when Alif always met with a girl who lived in the same area with him, in Dago
area, Bandung city. She is Raisa, a girl who study in the same university with

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Alif. Alif began fall in love with Raisa because they often met on the bus before
and after they study.
Raisa is also elected to the program of students exchange to Canada. This
makes they are increasingly being met, so that Alif become increasingly in love
with Raisa. But Randai, his close friends also loves Raisa. So they are involves in
a triangle love. Alif often feels jealous when he saw Randai trying to seduce
Raisa. But Raisa more pleased to be associated with Randai because Randai could
teach her the traditional arts of Indonesia than Alif.
Jangan – jangan mereka masih saling kontak sampai sekarang. Ada yang
berdenyut keras di jantungku. Aku begitu bodoh selama ini. Aku menekur
memandang sepatuku, si hitam yang seperti mencibir mengejek
kebodohanku. Tapi, hei, kenapa aku harus merasa cemburu? Bukankah
hak Raisa untuk menyebut nama siapa saja, termasuk Randai? Ada apa
denganku?
Olala. Inikah rasanya jatuh hati ?
(Fuadi,2011:422)
Are they still contact each other until now? There is a loud pulsing in my
heart. I am so stupid up till now. I look at my shoes, the black like as
sneering mocking my ignorance. But, hei, why should I feel jealous? Raisa
may name anyone, including of Randai? What’s wrong with me?
Olala. Is this the falling in love?
(Fuadi, 2011:422)

3.2 Plot
In Ranah 3 Warna novel, the author tells the story step by step in a
chronologically manner. Thus, Ranah 3 Warna is using progressive plot. The story
began when Alif has graduated from boarding school, and he want to attends to
Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB) in accordance with his dream to follow his
idol, Mr. Habibie who is former president of Indonesia and graduates of ITB. The
conflict occurs when he wants to follow the senior high school equivalence test

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before he follows UMPTN to enter in his the favorite college. As graduates from
boarding school, he had no certificate of senior high school. And he must be
following the test to get the certificate. However, he also had no matter in
preparing himself to facing the test. He tries to borrow many books from his
friend and his neighbors, so he struggles to learn those books intensively round
the clock.
After passing the exam and be entitled to the certificate of senior high
school. He must study hard again to follows the next exam order to get into his
favorite college, ITB. He must struggle to pass the UMPTN test was only for two
months. He borrows all of senior high school books from his friend and his
neighbors. But hopes to be able to pass to ITB must be dashed, because he only
had a short time. Alif difficult to learning the lessons of senior high school has
never learned during at the boarding school first. So that he could only pursue the
lessons of IPS, while ITB only accept new students from IPA pathway.
The next conflict is when Alif involved in a triangle love. When Alif
secretly loves Raisa, probably his best friend, Randai also loves that girl too. Alif
and Raisa selected in the program of student exchange to Canada, while Randai
not selected. So it makes Alif be getting close to Raisa. But in fact that is told at
the ending of novel, Raisa choose Randai as her boyfriend, because she has a
strong principle in finding a partner. Such as that boy must has graduated from the
college and already working, while Alif not have a job and he lost quickly with
Randai who has graduated from the college earlier than him. However, Alif
remain patient in accepting that fact. He let Raisa and Randai live happily, while

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he still wants to continue his life and still continue to defend his ideals and dreams
to become reality.
Di panggung, Pak Rektor dan Pak Dekan telah menuggu dengan senyum
lebar. Aku menyalami mereka, berterima kasih dengan mengangguk kecil.
Dengan cepat, jari Pak Rektor memindahkan seutas benang di topi hitam
datarku ke sebelah kanan. Lalu giliran Pak Dekan menggenggam tanganku
kuat – kuat sambil menyerahkan sebuah map biru, berisi ijazah sarjanaku.
Inilah detik persaksian penting dalam hidupku, ketika impianku telah
bertukar menjadi kenyataan. Tuhan, Engkau Sungguh Maha Pengabul
Impian.
(Fuadi,2011:453-454)
On the stage, the Rector and the Dean have been waiting with a big smile.
I shook their hands, thanked with a small nod. Quickly, The Rector’s
finger moves a thread in my flat black hat to the right. Then The Dean’s
turn hold my hand strong as he handed a blue folder to me, containing an
undergraduate degree. This is the second important testimony in my life,
when my dreams has come true exchange. God you really almighty
fulfilling dreams.
(Fuadi,2011:453-454)
3.3 Character
There are some characters in Ranah 3 Warna novel. In this chapter, the
writer will describe main characters and peripheral characters. There are three
main characters in this novel and seven peripheral characters.
3.3.1 Main Character


Alif
The first main character in this novel is Alif. Alif born and grow up in a

village near of Maninjau lake. He is very fanatics with Habibie and American
States. He is an eager beaver boy. His hobby is writing. Alif always writes down
his activity and expectation in his diary book. He is biggest from three child of his
mother have. He wants to follow his mother request to enter the boarding school,
although he doesn’t like.

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After finish from boarding school, Alif follow the equivalence test and
scrapping again to pass in UMPTN test. His expectation and drudge work make
him enter to University of Padjajaran, although many people underestimate with
him before.
In that university, Alif start new adventure in his life. He chosen became a
one of ten Indonesian student in students exchange program which held with
Indonesian and Canadian government. He get chance goes abroad to Jordanian
and Canada. So that, Alif can feels three different lands during following that
program. And he succeeds to get one of his dreams to come to American
continent.
Pagi itu, dengan mengepalkan tinjuku, aku bulatkan tekad, aku bulatkan
doa: aku akan lulus ujian persamaan SMA dan berperang menaklukan
UMPTN. Aku ingin membuktikan kalau niat kuat telah dihunus, halangan
apapun akan aku tebas.
(Fuadi,2011:9)
In the morning, by clenching my fist, I rounded a determination, I round it
off prayer: I will pass the high school equivalency test and struggled to
conquer the UMPTN. I wants to prove the strong intentions has been
unsheathed, any obstacle will I slash.
(Fuadi,2011:9)


Raisa
She is a girl which have circular eye with eyelash curved. Raisa is

beautiful and sporty girl. She always using wool hat above her hair. Her rent
house resides in side Alif’s rent house, so that they often meet in a bus transport.
Raisa also study in the same university with Alif, but she is taking communication
majors. She also chosen become one of ten Indonesian students to following the
program of students exchange to Canada, where chosen Alif so.

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Raisa ever live in Paris for years, therefore she is not difficulty to
conversing francophone when they arrived in province of Quebec, Canada. In
fact, Alif has like with Raisa since they meet first, but Alif embarrassed to tell it.
And he hope the opportunity go to Canada together will make he can express his
love to Raisa. Unhappily, Raisa like with the boy who has finished his study and
he has vision of life. Because that’s, finally Raisa choose Randai to became her
fiancé.
“Tipe cowok seperti apa sih yang kamu mau?”
“Dia harus dewasa cara berpikirnya. Punya visi dalam hidupnya, lalu dia
harus bisa jadi tempat aku bersandar dalam hidup dan dalam agama. O ya,
dia harus telah menyelesaikan kuliahnya. Aku tidak ingin nanti hubungan
dijadikan alasan belum selesai kuliah, atau hubungan jadi tidak serius
karena masih sibuk kuliah.”
(Fuadi,2011:442)
“The type of guy like what are you going?”
“He must be an adult way of thinking. Had a vision in life, then he should
be able to be where I learn in life and religion. O yeah, he must has
completed his study. I do not want later relationship as a reason not
finished the study, or a relationship become not serious because is still
busy in college.”
(Fuadi,2011:442)


Randai
The last main character in Ranah 3 Warna novel is Randai. His full name

is Raymond Jeffrey. He is an only child in his family, her parents have convection
store in Bukit Tinggi. He is inclusive of lucky child because all of his wishes, he
always get it. Randai likes a traditional artistic of minang and he like to display
the traditional art in his room. He is Alif’s best friend from child. They always
compete to become the best.

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Randai also register to program of students exchange to Canada, but he is
not chosen. He only is reserve competitor. His goodness relationship with Alif
became not so hot because Alif damages his computer and he can’t finish his
assignment.
“Indak. Tidak. Masa komputer sendiri aku backup terus. Ini kan bukan
rental,” katanya ketus. Aku semakin tidak enak hati.
“maaf, Randai, aden bisa Bantu apa? Mengetik ulang tugas wa’ang?”
“mana mungkin wa’ang bisa Bantu. Ini kan pelajaran Teknik, pasti nggak
ngerti!” suaranya meninggi. “tadi diapakan ini? Bertahun-tahun komputer
ini nggak pernah rusak!” tangannya sekarang membuka kap CPU dengan
kasar, mencabut beberapa kabel sekali renggut dengan keras.
“sekali lagi aden minta maaf, den tidak sengaja.”
(Fuadi,2011:168)
“Indak. No. I own this computer period of backups kept. It’s not a rental,”
he said curtly. I’m increasingly uncomfortable. “
“Sorry, Randai, what aden can help? Retyping wa’ang task?
“What possible wa’ang can help? It’s a technique lessons, definitely don’t
understand!” His voice rising. “What are you doing with this? For years
this computer never broken!” His hands now open the CPU roughly; pull
out some wires ripped out loud once.
“Once again Aden apologize, den accidentally.”
(Fuadi,2011:168)
3.3.2 Peripheral Character


Amak
The first peripheral character in Ranah 3 Warna novel is Amak. She is

Alif’s mother. She is a patient mother. After her husband is die, he must struggle
alone to be a bread winner to can defraying her child’s especially for Alif that
studying in outside town. She always gives the spirit when Alif feel boring or
surrender to fighting with storm of life. Till finally Alif finish his study and she
always prays Alif to be one who is successful.
“Amak sedih sekali belum bisa mencukupi kebutuh

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