An Error Analysis In Using Tenses Made By The Third Year Students Of SMK 7 Medan

Telangkai Bahasa dan Sastra, Juli 2014, 38-53 Copyright ©2014, Program Studi Linguistik FIB USU, ISSN 1978-8266

Tahun ke-8, No 2

AN ERROR ANALYSIS IN USING TENSES MADE BY THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF SMK 7 MEDAN

Idawati Situmorang Idawatisitumorang@ymail.com

Abstract The study which entitles “an Error Analysis in Using Tenses Made by the Third Students of SMK 7 Medan is a research analyzing the errors in using tenses while answering the questioner given by the students of SMK 7 Medan who get the first until fifth rank in their class. This study aims to analyze how the students of SMK 7 Medan use tenses and classify the kinds of errors made by the students by using Rod Ellis’ theory (1997:15-19) such as Omission, Misinformation, Misordering, and Overgeneralization and Jack Richard’s Theory(1974:6) such as Overgeneralization, Ignorance of Rule Restriction, Incomplete Application of Rules, and False Concept Hypothesized. The method used in this study is quantitative method. Data is collected by written method and the tenses tested are the tenses that the students have learned such as Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past, Past Continuous, and Simple Future. The kinds of errors made by the students who get first until fifth of SMK 7 Medan in using tenses is Misinformation 78.87%, Omission 13.73 %, Overgeneralization 3.52 %, and Incomplete Application of Rules 3.87 %. The most dominant error is Misinformation of 78.87 % and the percentage errors of using tenses are Simple Present 8.45 %, Present Continuous 17.60 %, Simple Past 24.12 %, Past Continuous 29.58 % and Simple Present Future 20.25 %.
Key words: Tenses, Error Analysis.

INTRODUCTION
Language is a system of semiotic through oral, written or signal codes in order for human being to express ideas, sense, thoughts or information. Sapir (1921:8) says that language is purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions, and desires by means of system of voluntarily produced symbols, and Wasson (1966:5) says that language is the supreme means of formulating and expressing thought. We usually communicate by producing sounds, graphs or signals to represent the our ideas, thought and emotions.
In order to achieve good communication, we should be using clear pronunciation, graphic and sign so the information will be understood by the listeners and readers. In the process of teaching and learning, language plays an important role. Without a language this process can not be reached successfully.
Language can be acquired and learned. The acquisition of language is to acquire native language or first language, and language learning of other than native is called second language learning. Richards (1985:106) says that first language is a person‟s mother tongue or the language acquired first. The first language may be used to communicate with family members, other people of the same ethnic group or it is the
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language of the country where we are living. We will find problems when we have to speak in the other languages which are different from our first language. Therefore, we need to learn Second language. The word “Second‟ in Second Language Acquisition may refer to any language that is learned subsequently to the mother tongue of first language. Our mother tongue is Indonesian language while other language that we want to learn is called Second Language.
We can find the term “Error Analysis” in second language Acquisition. Brown (1987) says that according to cognitive approach the making of errors is an inevitable and necessary part of language learning. The language of a language learner contains errors. The errors are made by non-native learners in learning a Second Language.
There are many languages in this world such as English, Dutch, Spain, and Japanese. English is one of international languages. It is very important for us to learn English because we know that many countries use this language as their introductory language based on formal or non-formal activities. Furthermore, there are also many books, mass media, reference books and other forms of communication written in English. Because of its importance, Indonesian Government decided English as a formal subject. According to GBPP (Garis-Garis Besar Program Pengajaran) the 2004 Competence-Based Curriculum (Depdiknas:2004) states that all students learn English for communicative purpose both in written and spoken forms. As a consequence, English has been taught as formal subject from primary school to university.
But there is a big problem; Indonesia has Indonesian language as their native language of which structure is different from English. Because of different structure, there might be some errors made by the students when they speak and write.
Agnes in Webster‟s New World Dictionary (1998:222) defines error is the state of believing what is untrue, a wrong belief, and something incorrectly done. Richards in Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics (1985:96) defines error analysis is the study and analysis of errors made by second and foreign language learners. Error analysis may be carried out in order to find out how well someone knows a language, how a person learns language, and to obtain information on common difficulties in language learning, as an aid in teaching or in the preparation of teaching material.
There are probable mistakes and errors in studying second language. Brown (1980:166) cites that learners do make errors and these errors can be observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something of system operating within the learner lead to a surge of study of learner‟s errors called error analysis.
Tense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time that indicates when the situation takes place. Tenses are a part of grammar. Mastering tenses is very important because if we do not use appropriate tenses, it can make misunderstanding especially in written language. Unfortunately, students are often confused with English tenses, even for the University students. They assume tenses as a big burden. There is a fact that the students always make errors in using tenses and it is a phenomenon that the writer finds. The writer finds it after doing pilot study by distributing questionnaire to the students. She makes an English questionnaire for third year students of SMK 7 Medan who get first until fifth rank from three classes (Administration, Marketing and Accommodation of Hospitality class). The writer‟s purpose why she chooses students who get first until fifth rank as her pilot subject because she thinks that those students tend to make fewer errors than others. But the fact is the students also make errors. These are some errors as the findings in the writer‟s
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Telangkai Bahasa dan Sastra, Tahun Ke-8, No 2, April 2014
pilot study as the following: a. I goed to school yesterday. b. She watch TV every night. c. When the head master lose his books?
All those sentences are incorrect grammatical. From those answers that the students make, it is clear that they make errors in using tenses. The errors that the students made are grammatical errors.
Ellis (1985:297) cites that the first way of classifying errors is through grammatical categories. In addition, he says that there are four kinds of errors, they are: omission, misinformation, misordering, and overgeneralization. Strevens (1969) in Richard (1974:4) hypothesizes that errors should not be viewed as problems to be overcome, but rather as normal and inevitable features indicating the strategies that learners use. He conjectured that if a regular pattern of errors could be observed in the performance of all learners in a given situation, and if a learner was seen to progress this pattern, his errors could be taken as evidence of one‟s learning strategies.
Because there is no research about tenses held in SMK 7 Medan that the writer is really interested in doing a research on it. In addition, because the writer is an English teacher in SMK 7 Medan, she wants to find out both the students‟ progress and every students „level in understanding tenses.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Error and Error Analysis
Agnes in Webster‟s New Word Dictionary (1998:222) defines error is the state of believing what is untrue, a wrong belief, something incorrectly done.
Richard (1985:95) states that error (in the speech or writing of second or foreign learner), the use of a linguistic item (e.g. a word, a grammatical word, a speech act, etc) in way which a fluent of native speaker of the language regards as showing or incomplete learning. It results from incomplete knowledge.
While, Richards in Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics (1985:96) defines error analysis is the study and analysis of the errors made by second and foreign language learners. Error analysis may be carried out in order to find out how well some one knows a language, how a person learns language, and to obtain information on common difficulties in language learning, as an aid in teaching or in the preparation of teaching material.
Brown (1980:166) cites the fact that learners do make errors and these errors can be observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something of system operating within the learner to lead a surge of study of learner‟s errors called error analysis.
Corder (1979:167) says that a learner‟s errors are significant in (that) they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learned or acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in the discovery of the language.
Furthermore, Strevens (1969) in Richard (1974:4) hypothesizes that errors should not be viewed as problems to be overcome, but rather as normal and inevitable features indicating the strategies that learners use. He conjectured that if a regular pattern of errors could be observed in the performance of all learners in a given situation, and if a learner was seen to progress this pattern, his errors could be taken as evidence not of
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failure but of success and achievement learning. Errors in this case are not inhibitory, but rather evidence of one‟s learning strategies.
Jack Richard
Jack Richards classifies errors into two kinds: Interlanguage Errors and Intralanguage Errors.
a. Interlanguage Errors
Richards (1974:173) says that interlanguage errors are errors caused by the interference of the learner‟s mother tongue. The interference mentioned above means the interference of native language into foreign learning and it indicates the learning process. Furthermore, he explains that Interlanguage errors as one of the two classifications of errors refer to language of the second language users. The term interlanguage was introduced because learner‟s language studied up to the time has regularly displayed formal features both the target language and some of other language, notably thought not exclusively of mother tongue.
Interlanguage errors may happen when someone wants to learn another language besides his native language, and he will bring his native language into the foreign language situation which is being learnt. In other word, the learners tend to transfer his native language into the second language.
For the Intralingual errors classify the errors become: 1) Overgeneralization Jacobvits (in Richards, 1974) defines overgeneralization is the use of previously available strategies in new situations. In second language learning…some of these strategies will prove helpful in organizing the facts about the second language, but others, perhaps due to superficial similarities, will be misleading and inapplicable. Overgeneralization is associated with redundancy reduction. It may be occurred, for instance, with items which are contrasted in the grammar of the language but which do not carry significant and obvious contrast for the learner. The definition overgeneralization is completed through Richards, overgeneralization happened when the learner creates a deviant structure on the basis of his experience of other structures in the target language. Generally, overgeneralization is generalizing an item because of previous items.
2) Ignorance of Rule Restriction
Both the overgeneralization and the ignorance of rule restrictions are very similar because they both ignore the limitations of the existing structures and apply these structures in contexts where this is impossible.
3) Incomplete Application of Rules
These errors reflect the degree of rule acquisition and the ability correct utterance to be produced. In this respect the production of negative and interrogative sentences reflects most successfully the difficulties in this direction. Usually either an auxiliary verb is omitted or inversion is forgotten.
4) False Concept Hypothesized These errors are sometimes due to poor gradation of teaching items in other words, such mistakes resulted from a poor rule presentation.
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Rod Ellis
Ellis (1985:27) says that error analysis is a procedure used by both researches and teachers classified as the following: a. Identifying Errors
In this step, we have to compare the error sentence (the writer mentions it as “original sentence”) with what seem to be normal or “correct sentence” in target language which correspond with them (the writer mentions it as „reconstruction‟).
b. Describing Errors This next step, the errors are described and classified into kinds. This step can be done by several ways. According to Rod Ellis, there are two ways to classify errors, they are:  The first way is classifying the errors through grammatical categories. It means classifying the errors through their word classes and tenses.  The second way of classifying the errors is try to identify general ways in which the learners‟ utterances differ from the reconstructed-target language utterances. It means the errors are classified into several types: 1) Omission Omission is the error of leaving out an item that is required for an utterance to be considered grammatical.
2) Misinformation Misinformation is the error of using one grammatical form in place of another grammatical form.
3) Misordering Misordering is the error of putting the words in an utterance in the wrong order.
4) Overgeneralization Overgeneralization is the error of using over grammatical form. Generalizing past verbs by adding –ed.
c. Explaining Errors This is the last step of Ellis‟ theory. In this step, a researcher tried to explain how and why a sentence called to be erroneous.
METHODOLOGY
Research Method
In order to carry out this research dealing with the topic, the writer needs to collect both the library and field research. She reads some books related to the topic.
The method of this study used is quantitative method as Arikonto (2006:12) says that quantitative research applies numbers from collecting the data, describing the data, until the result of the research. In addition, the result of the research will be better if it applies table, graph, draft, picture, etc.
The writer designs a questionnaire for the students who get first until fifth rank. She prepared a set of test consisting of 30 items filling the blanks. The test consists of five tenses and each tense has 6 questions. The students are asked to answer the
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questions in 60 minutes.
The research is held in SMK 7 at STM street no 12 E Medan after she gets permission from the headmaster in the school.
Population and Sample
The population of this research is 35 present from the classes who come when the writer does the test.
The writer takes sample by using purposive sample because there are 19 classes of third year class and each class has more than 35 students. Because it is very big the writer prefers choosing the students who get first until fifth rank because the writer thinks that those students tend to make fewer errors than others. Arikonto (2006:150) says that purposive sampling is a sampling technical used by a researcher based on the considerations in collecting the samples. Furthermore, Bailey(1987:94) says that in purposive sampling the investigator does not necessary have a quota to fill from within various strata, as in quota sampling, but neither does he or she just pick the nearest warm bodies, as in convenience sampling. Rather, the research uses his or her judgment about which respondents to chose and picks only those who best the purposes of study.
Data and Collecting Method
In order to collect her data, writer gives a test. The writer prefers choosing the students who get first until fifth rank of third year students of SMK 7 Medan. Data is collected by written method. There are 1050 source data and it is found that there are 568 totals of errors.
Data Analysis
The writer uses the theory of Rod Ellis in analyzing her data and applies grammar structure or theory of English structures which deal with the use of English Tenses. The tenses that they have learnt, they are Simple Present Tense, Present Continuous Tense, Simple Past Tense, Past Continuous Tense, and Future Tenses. The steps of analysis are:
a. Identifying Errors In this step, we have to compare the error sentence (the writer mentions it as “original sentence”) with what seem to be normal or “correct sentence” in target language which correspond with them (the writer mentions it as „reconstruction‟). b. Describing Errors
This next step is the step where the errors are described and classified into kinds such as Omission, Misinformation, Misordering, Overgeneralization, Incomplete Application of Rules, Ignorance of Rule restriction, and False Concept Hypothesized.
c. Explaining Errors
This is last step of error analysis. In this step, the writer tries to explain/analyze how and why a sentence called to be erroneous.
After analyzing the errors sentences, the writer identifies the percentage of errors made by the students. To identify the errors, the writer uses Bungin’s theory (2005:172)
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N = Fx/N x 100% Note: Fx : The amount of each kind of errors N : The total amount of errors

ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS The kinds of Errors in Using Tenses Errors of using Simple Present Tense

Table 1: Omission of Inflectional -es No Original
1 My little brother always cry every afternoon.

Reconstruction
My little brother cries every afternoon.

From the original sentence, we can see that the students do not use inflectional–es in the verb cry. Grammatically, because my little brother is singular subject, the verb must be added by inflectional –s or –es. If a word ends in -y and if there is a consonant (b,c,d,g,…) before –y, we drop –y and add –ies.
Cry cries
The error in this sentence is called Omission because the students omit the inflectional –ies to verb cry.

Table 2: Errors in Adding -es No Origina 2 Her sister never brush her teeth every night.
3 Her sister brushing her teeth every night.
4 Her sister brushs her teeth every night.

Reconstruction
Her sister never brushes her teeth every night.

The original sentences also have the same error as the sentence number one. There are 3 kinds of students‟ answers. The first, It is clear that the students do not use inflectional –es in the verb brush. The second, the student use –ing form after the verb brush. The last, actually, the student has known that this word brush must be added by
inflectional, but he still makes errors since they use inflectional -s in the verb brush.
In order to get correct answer, we use special endings to indicate that singular form
of the simple Present Tense for certain verbs.

After –sh, -ch, -ss, and –x we add –es

Brush

brushes

The error in the first original sentence is called Omission because the students

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omit the inflectional –es to verb brush. The parts‟ errors are misinformation as the students use one grammatical form in place of another grammatical form.

Table 3: Errors of Completing Question Sentence

No Original

Reconstruction

5 Where are she live? Where does she live?

6 Where she live?

It is noticed that there are two types of the students‟ answers in completing question sentence. The first type is the student uses auxiliary are in verbal question sentence. Grammatically, after W+H questions we should use auxiliary verbs. This is verbal sentence (sentence which has verb) and the subject is third singular, as a result we must use does after where. While the second type, the student does not use auxiliary verb after W+H questions.
The error in the first original sentence is called Misinformation because Misinformation is the error of using one grammatical form in place of another, while the error in the second original sentence is Incomplete Application of Rules. In this respect, the production of negative and interrogative sentence reflects most successfully difficult. The difficulties in this direction, usually either an auxiliary verb is omitted of inversion is forgotten.

Errors of Using Present Continuous Tense Table 4: Omission of Auxiliary and V-ing.

No Original

Reconstruction

7 Shhhh, the babies sleeping. 8 Shhhh, the baby are sleep.

Shhhh, the babies are sleeping.

There are two types of original answers. Before explaining it, we shouldknow what tense used in this sentence. The tense used is Present Continuous Tense because it describes actions that happening at the moment of speaking. These original sentences give errors. First types, the students do not use to be are after the subject babies. They just add verb-ing without using to be first. Grammatically, the form of present Continuous is Subject +to be + V-ing. Because the babies is the plural subject, we must use auxiliary are after the subject. Unlike the first type, in the second original answer, the students have used auxiliary are but they leave an item to be considered grammatical. They do not add –Ing after the verb sleep. These sentences‟ errors are Omission.

Table 5: Omission V-ing No Origin 9 They are wait for uasl at the bus station now.

Reconstruction
They are waiting for us at the bus station now.

Similar to the previous original sentence, the students do not apply the correct rule

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in using Present Continuous Tense. They do not add –ing after the verb of wait. The error is Omission.

Table 6: Errors in Using Verb No Original
10 They are waits for us at the bus station now.

Reconstruction
They are waiting for us at the bus station now.

The student does incorrect grammatical form because after auxiliary are they add inflectional s in the verb of wait. In order to have correct grammatical sentence, we are supposed to put are+ waiting after the subject. This sentence‟s error is Misinformation.
Table 7: Errors in Negative Sentence

No Original

Reconstruction

11 The farmer do not cut the tree now. 12 The farmer is cutting the tree now.
13 The farmer not cutting the tree now

The farmer is not cutting the tree now.

If we look at the first original sentence above, the students do the same errors as the previous sentences. They are not capable of distinguishing well toward what tense should be used in a sentence. Grammatically, tense used in this sentence is
Present Continuous Tense too. While, the second mistake is the students fail to understand that this sentence is negative; they do not use inversion not after to be. The third, the student has known that tense used is present continuous tense but he omits auxiliary is.
The first error is Misinformation, while the second and third sentences‟ errors are called incomplete application of Rules. In this respect, the productions of negative and interrogative sentence reflect most successfully difficult. The difficulties in this direction, usually either an auxiliary verb is omitted of inversion is forgotten.

Errors of Using Simple Past Tense
Table 8: Errors in Using Verbs No Original 14 The head master loses his books a
couple weeks ago.

Reconstruction
The head master lost his books a couple weeks ago.

15 The head master losed his book a couple weeks ago.

The table shows that there are two types of original sentences. First, the students use Simple Present Tense instead of using Past Tense. They are not able to recognize the time signal; a couple week ago showing the activity happened in the past time. Meanwhile, the second is incorrect because the students generalize all past verbs by adding –ed. Normally, lose is irregular verb. The correct form is lose-lost- lost.
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So in order to get correct sentence, we have to use lost after subject. The first error is Misinformation while the second is called Overgeneralization of Rules.

Table 9: Errors in Using Verbs
No Original 16 He runs in this garden 2 days ago. 17 He runned in this garden 2 days ago.

Reconstruction He ran in this garden 2 days ago.

18 He was run in this garden 2 days ago.

19 He run in this garden 2 days ago
There are four kinds of students‟ answers. First and second original follow a similar pattern to sentence no 13. The third, the student does complicated error since he uses auxiliary was before the verb run. The last, the student does not use past form of run. Thus, in order to be correct grammatical form, we should put ran after the subject because run is irregular verb, so we can not add –ed to show past tense. The correct irregular form of run is run-ran-run. The second error is called Overgeneralization and the parts‟ are Misinformation.

Table 10: Errors in Using Auxiliary in Question Sentence

No Original

Reconstruction

20 How are you go to Bali yesterday?

How did you go to Bali yesterday?

21 How do you go to Bali Yesterday?

22 How does you go to Bali yesterday?

If we look at previous original answers, we notice that the students are lack of understanding on kinds of tenses. Although it is clear that the sentence uses past tense by looking the time signal, the word yesterday. The students use wrong auxiliary in the original sentences. Therefore, in order to make correct form we should use auxiliary did after subject. The sentences‟ errors are Misinformation. Errors of Using Past Continuous Tense

Table 11: Errors in Using Verbs No Original
23 When a man knocked my door, I am sleep.

Reconstruction When a man knocked my door, I was sleeping.

24 When a man knocked my door, I sleeps.

Both original sentences have complicated errors; they do not have a right rule with correct English rule. We might conclude the students think that tense used in the sentence either present continuous or present tense. In the first original sentence, the students tend to use present continuous while in the second, the students tend to use simple present tense.

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Grammatically, we use past continuous in this sentence because it explains for actions which were progress when something else happened. To get correct form, we should use auxiliary was + v-ing after the subject I. In conclusion, the errors are Misinformation.
Tables 12: Errors in Using Present Verb

No Original
25 You were eating when your friends phones you.

Reconstruction
You were eating when your friends phoned

After checking all the students‟ answers, I find out the mistake made by all the students in this sentence is by using present verb to answer the question. Normally, we use Past Continuous Tense in answering this question because it explains for actions which were in progress when something else happened but we can change the order of clauses. Grammatically, if dependent clause is in Past Continuous, so the independent clause is in Past Tense or otherwise. Therefore, in order to get correct sentence we must use past verb phoned after the subject your friend. In conclusion, the error of this sentence is Misinformation.

Table 13: Errors in Using Verbs No Original
26 I read a short story at 7 o‟clock last night.

Reconstruction
I was reading a short story at 7 o‟clock last night.

27 I reading a short story at 7 o‟clock last night.

28 I am reading a short story at 7 o‟clock last night
29 I red a short story at 7 o‟clock last night.
30 I reads a short story at 7 o‟clock last night.
Tense used in this sentence is Past Continuous because we use past Continuous Tense for temporary actions which continued for some time in the past, but the students make errors in answering the question because they do not use past continuous tense when answering the question. The students use present verb in the first original sentence, meanwhile in second one, they have had idea that this sentence uses continuous tense but they forget to use auxiliary was after subject I. In other words, they leave out an item that is required to be considered grammatical. The third,the student uses present continuous. Next, the student uses past verb red and the last is the student uses present verb by adding inflectional -s. The second error is Omission and the parts‟ are Misinformation.

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Errors of Using Simple Present Future Tense

Table 14: Errors in Using Verbs No Original 31 I don‟t think, it will be rain this evening
32 I don‟t think, it will raining this evening

Reconstruction
I don‟t think, I will rain this evening.

33 I don‟t think, it will rains this evening. 34 I don‟t think, it will be going to rain

According to the test, the students should use rain after auxiliary will because the word rain is considered as verb in the sentence. But the fact, the students make errors in answering this sentence. There are four kinds of students‟ answers. First original, they use be rain become their answers. While, in the parts of originals, the students do different errors. In the second original, the student uses - ing form, while the students use present verb in the third original, and the last one, the student makes complicated error since there is no English rule which is relevant to what he has done. The errors of all sentences are Misinformation.

Table 15: Errors of Using Verbs

No Original 35 We probably will got our salary.

Reconstruction We probably will get our salary.

36 We probably will getting our salary.

37 We probably will gets our salary.

38 We probably will gotten our salary.

39 We probably will getting our salary.

All original sentences also become grammatically incorrect because this sentence normally uses Present Future Tense; we know this by understanding the usage of Present Continuous Tense such as to state a prediction or opinion about something in the future. We use verbs such as think, hope, believe, know, and be sure in the sentence with will. In order to get grammatical correct form, we must use the word get after will because auxiliary will must be followed by infinitive. The errors are called Misinformation.

Table 16: Errors of Using Verbs No Original
40 It is going to be rain.
41 It is going to rains

Reconstruction It is going to rain.

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Grammatically, we use to be going to for making report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control (we can‟t arrange these); so, in this sentence we use Present Future Tense also. But, the students do errors. They use be after going to. On the contrary, in this sentence the word rain is considered to be verb. While the second original, the students use present verb after going to. In order to get correct sentence, we just put the verb rain after going to. The errors are Misinformation.

Table 17: Ignorance of Infinitive No Original
42 Scientist say that the satellite is going to fell.

Reconstruction
Scientist say that the satellite is going to fall

43 Scientist say that the satellite is going to falls.

44 Scientist say that the satellite is going to falling.

45 Scientist say that the satellite is going to fallen.

46 Scientist say that the satellite is going to be fall.
By looking at this table, it can be seen clearly that these original sentences have complicated errors, because to be + going to must be followed by infinitive. While, there are several of students answers. They fail to put correct grammatical form. It might say that the students are still lack of understanding in using correct tenses. In order to get correct sentence, we just use the word fall after going to. The errors are Misinformation.

The Percentage of Errors in Using Tenses.

The percentage of Errors in using Tenses

No Error of Tenses

Frequency

1 Simple Present Tense

48

2 Present Continuous Tense

100

3 Simple Past Tense

137

4 Past Continuous Tense

168

5 Present Future Tense

115

Total

568

Percentage (%) 8.45 % 17.60% 24.12 % 29.58 % 20.25% 100 %

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The table above presents data on the rate of frequency of errors made by the third year students of SMK 7 Medan in using five tenses. It will be noticed that the rate of frequency of errors in using past continuous is considerably higher than the other four tenses – Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Simple Future tense.
Errors in using Past Continuous Tense have nominal of 29.58 % from the total error of 568. So, we can conclude that the students are still lack knowledge dramatically about the grammatical of Past Continuous Tense.

Kinds of Errors

No Kinds of Error 1 Misinformation

Frequency 448

Percentage 78.87 %

2 Omission 3 Overgeneralization

78 13.73 % 20 3.52 %

4 Incomplete Application of Rules Total

22 568

3.87 % 100 %

The table 36 shows that the most kind of error made by the third year students of SMK 7 Medan is the error of Misinformation of which nominal is 78.87 %. In conclusion, the students tend to use one grammatical form in place of another grammatical form.

Kinds of Error, Frequency and Percentage No Kinds of Error

Frequency Percentage

1 Omission of Simple Present Tense

12

2 Omission Present Continuous Tense

45

3 Omission of Simple Past Tense

-

4 Omission of Past Continuous Tense

20

5 Omission of Simple Future Tense

-

6 Misinformation of Simple Present Tense

35

7 Misinformation Present Continuous Tense

47

8 Misinformation of Simple Past Tense

104

9 Misinformation of Past Continuous Tense

147

10 Misinformation of Simple Future Tense

115

11 Overgeneralization of Simple Present Tense

-

12 Overgeneralization Present Continuous Tense

-

13 Overgeneralization of Simple Past Tense

20

14 Overgeneralization of Past Continuous Tense -

2.11 % 7.92 %
3.52 %
6.16 % 8.27 % 18.31 % 25. 88 % 20.25 %
3.52 %

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15 Overgeneralization of Simple Future Tense

-

16 Incomplete Simple

Application of Rules of

1

17 PInrceosemnptlTeteense Application of Rules 8

Present

18 ICnocnotminpuloeutes TenAspeplication of Rules of 13

Simple

19 PInacsotmTpenlestee Application of Rules of -

Past

20 CInocnotminpuloeutes TeAnpspelication of Rules of -

Simple

TFuottualre Tense

568

0.18% 1.41% 2.29%
100 %

From the table above, it can be seen clearly that the most error made by the third year of SMK 7 Medan is the “Misinformation” of Past Continuous Tense of which the nominal is 25.88.%. It means that most of students make error in using grammatical form
of Past Continuous Tense.

CONCLUSIONS Having finished writing the first to the parts, the writer of this thesis comes to
draw some conclusions of the analysis. 1) Kinds of errors Made by the third year students of SMK 7 Medan in using tenses are Misinformation 78.87 % (Misinformation of Simple Present Tense 6.16 %, Misinformation of Present Continuous Tense 8.27 %, Misinformation of Simple Past Tense 18.31 %, Misinformation of Past Continuous Tense 25.88%, and Misinformation of Simple Future Tense 20.25 %), Omission 13.73 % (Omission of Simple Present Tense 2.11 %, Omission of Present Continuous Tense 7.92 %, Omission of Simple Past Tense 0 % , Omission of Past Continuous Tense 3.52 %, and Omission of Simple Future Tense 0 %), Overgeneralization 3.52 % (Overgeneralization of Simple Present Tense 0 %, Overgeneralization of Present Continuous Tense 0% , Overgeneralization of Simple Past Tense 3.52 %, Overgeneralization of Past Continuous Tense 0%, and Overgeneralization of Simple Future Tense) and Incomplete Rule of Application 3.87 % (Incomplete Application of Rules of Present Continuous Tense 1.41 %, Incomplete Application of Rules of Simple Past Tense 2.29 % Incomplete Application of Rules of Past Continuous Tense 0 %, and Incomplete Application of Rules of Simple Future Tense 0 %). 2) The percentage errors of using tenses are Simple Present 8.45 %, Present Continuous 17.60 %, Simple Past 24.12 %, Past Continuous 29.58 % and Simple Present Future 20.25 %. 3) There are some possible reasons why the students make errors in using tenses: a. It is quite difficult for students, Indonesian students, in using correct tenses because there are no tenses in Indonesian language. b. The students are still lack of understanding on the use of tenses, moreover, they are not quite able to differentiate what tense should be used in a sentence. Thereby, the students do not know how to use proper form of using tenses.

52

Idawati Situmorang
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