An Error Analysis Of Using Past Tenses In Narrative Text Made By The Twelfth Graders Of Sma Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa

AN ERROR ANALYSIS OF USING PAST TENSES IN NARRATIVE TEXT MADE BY
THE TWELFTH GRADERS OF SMA NEGERI 1 TANJUNG MORAWA

A THESIS

BY:
INDAH LESTARI SEMBIRING
REG. ID. NO: 070705012

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA
MEDAN
2011

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………..

i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………. ii
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION………………………………………………………… iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………….. iv
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Background of the Analysis………………………………….. 1
1.2 Problem of the Analysis……………………………………… 3
1.3 Scope of the Analysis………………………………………… 3
1.4 Objectives of the Analysis……………………………………. 3
1.5 Significance of the Analysis………………………………….. 4

CHAPTER II

REVIEW LITERATURE………………………………………. 5
2.1 Theoretical Concepts………………………………………… 5
2.2 Description of Error Analysis………………………............

5

2.2.1 Types of Error………………………………………….

7

2.2.2 The Causes of Error…………………………………....

8

2.3 English Tenses……………………………………………….. 9
2.3.1 Simple Past Tense……………………………………… 10
2.3.2 Past Continuous Tense…………………………………

13.

2.3.3 Past Perfect Tense……………………………………… 17
2.4 Explanation of Narrative Text……………………………….. 21
CHAPTER III

METHOD OF RESEARCH……………………………………. 22
3.1 Research Method……………………………………………… 22

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3.2 Population and Sample……………………………………….. 22
3.3 Data Collecting Method………………………………………. 24
3.4 Data Analysis Method………………………………………… 24
CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS…………………………………… 26
4.1 Description of Data…………………………………………… 26
4.2 Data Analysis…………………………………………………. 28
4.2.1 Describing The Errors…………………………………… 28
4.2.2 Types of Error…………………………………………… 29
4.2.3 The Causes of Error …………………………………….. 47

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION………………………….. 50
5.1 Conclusions………………………………………………........ 50
5.2 Suggestions……………………………………………………. 51

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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ABSTRACT

This thesis entitled “An Error Analysis Of Using Past Tenses in Narrative Text Made By The
Twelfth Graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa”. Thesis describes the errors made by
the twelfth graders in using past tenses especially in simple past tense, past continuous tense,
and past perfect tense. One of the purposes of writing thesis is to know the types of error and
the causes of them. The research uses quantitative method. The population are the twelfth
graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa which consist of 7 classes, and totaling the
population are 259 students. The researcher applies randomly technique are taken to get a
representative sample, there are 78 students as the sample. The sample is randomly taken
from the attendace list. The test consists of 15 questions from English book. The students
were asked to complete the questions by choosing the right answer from the choice provided
below the text. The finding of analysis shows that the total of students’ correct answer the test
are 807 numbers or 68.97% and incorrect are 363 numbers or 31.03%. There are 4 types of
errors that for ommision are 93 or 25.62%, for addition are 40 or 11.02%, for misformation
there was 133 or 36.64%, and for misordering are 97 or 26.72%. So the dominant type of
error is misformation. And there are 4 causes of errors that for over-generalization there were
12 or 3.31%, for ignore of rule restriction there were 137 or 37.74%, for incomplete
application of rules there were 93 or 25.62%

and for cause of error false concepts

hypothesized there were 121 or 33.33%. So, the dominant causes of errors was ignorance of
rule restrictions.

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ABSTRACT

This thesis entitled “An Error Analysis Of Using Past Tenses in Narrative Text Made By The
Twelfth Graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa”. Thesis describes the errors made by
the twelfth graders in using past tenses especially in simple past tense, past continuous tense,
and past perfect tense. One of the purposes of writing thesis is to know the types of error and
the causes of them. The research uses quantitative method. The population are the twelfth
graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa which consist of 7 classes, and totaling the
population are 259 students. The researcher applies randomly technique are taken to get a
representative sample, there are 78 students as the sample. The sample is randomly taken
from the attendace list. The test consists of 15 questions from English book. The students
were asked to complete the questions by choosing the right answer from the choice provided
below the text. The finding of analysis shows that the total of students’ correct answer the test
are 807 numbers or 68.97% and incorrect are 363 numbers or 31.03%. There are 4 types of
errors that for ommision are 93 or 25.62%, for addition are 40 or 11.02%, for misformation
there was 133 or 36.64%, and for misordering are 97 or 26.72%. So the dominant type of
error is misformation. And there are 4 causes of errors that for over-generalization there were
12 or 3.31%, for ignore of rule restriction there were 137 or 37.74%, for incomplete
application of rules there were 93 or 25.62%

and for cause of error false concepts

hypothesized there were 121 or 33.33%. So, the dominant causes of errors was ignorance of
rule restrictions.

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Analysis
Every countries has their own language to communicate. By using language, they can
communicate between one another. It means that language is a mean of communication.
Bennet (1968: 4) says that language is the most distinctive of human activities. It is difficult
to disentangel the components because they spill over into human personality itself. As a
starting-point, language may be thought of in broad terms as having many of the
characteristics of a code. As such as it depends on the tacit agreement between speaker (or
writer) and listener (or reader) that a set of signs, more or less systematised, shall have
certain references.
Knapp and Watkins (2005: 29) say that language is always produced, exchanged or
received as text; that is, language as a sytem of communication is organised as cohesive units
we call texts.
Richards (1985:95) says that errors can be classified to vocabulary (lexical error),
pronunciation (phonological error), grammar (syntatic error), misunderstanting of a speaker’s
intention or meaning (interpretive error), production of the wrong communicative effect e.g.
through the faulty use of speech act or one of the rules of speaking (pragmatic error).
Norrish (1983 : 7) explained errors as follows : “Errors is systematic deviation from
the accepted system of the target language. Mistake is non-systematic deviation from the
accepted system of a language being learned and it is usually due to human limitation such as
tiredness, nervousness, and fatigue”. It means that errors may occur because of the limitation
of human being in mastering the target language.

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Errors may occur in all components of language such as grammar. Knapp and
Watkins (2005:33) say that grammar therefore needs to deal with language from three
perspectives: the generic, the textual, and syntactical.
The students sometimes do not realize that they make mistake because of the
ignorance of the grammar. The students sometimes face many difficulties in using tenses.
The researcher realized that the mistakes or errors that students made in using tenses
especially in past tenses need to be analyzed carefully.
Azar (1989: 24) describes that the simple past tense indicates that an activity or
situation began and ended at a particular time in the past.
Azar (1989: 24) describes that past continuous tense is both actions occurred at the
same time, but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred.
Sometimes the past continuous is used in both parts of a sentence when two actions are in
progress simultaneously.
Azar (1989: 39) says that past perfect tense expresses an activity that was completed
before another activity or time in the past.
Tenses are needed in english texts. Sometimes students still confuse how to use tense
in a sentence. As in narrative text, tenses are very important to describe time in the text.
Because a narration tells a story or describes a sequence of events. Smalley and Ruetten
(1986:24) say that narration usually refers to telling of a story, the term is used to described
the relating of an experience. That experience may be in the past (past narration), or it may be
a typical experience (what people usually do), or it may be going on now (present narration).
The writer is interested to choose schools as the location of analysis and research of
the students’ error. The research was conducted at SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa. The
reasons to choose this school as location of the research is terms of accesibility and the same
research is never conducted in there.

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1.2 Formulation of Problems Analysis
The problems of the study which the writer would like to analyze as follows:
1. What kinds of errors are made by the twelfth graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa
in using past tenses in the narrative text?
2. What are the causes of the errors made by the twelfth graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung
Morawa in using past tenses in the narrative text?

1.3 Scope of Analysis
In a research, it is very important to limit the scope of analysis to get the relevant data.
It will be better by limiting the analysis into the errors of using tenses. Tenses are one of the
important parts of grammar in English. In this thesis the writer would like to analyze the
errors in using past tenses, especially in simple past tense, past contiuous tense, and past
perfect tense in narrative text made by twelfth graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa.

1.4 Objectives of Analysis
The objectives of the study are:
• To find out the kinds of errors are made by the twelfth graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung

Morawa in using past tenses in the narrative text.
• To find the percentage of the errors are made by the twelfth graders of SMA Negeri 1

Tanjung Morawa in using past tenses in the narrative text.
• To find out the causes of errors are made by the twelfth graders of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung

Morawa in using past tenses in the narrative text.

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1.5 Significances of the Study
Finding of this study, the writer hopes that this thesis are expected to be useful for
students and teachers. After identifying, analyzing and describing the errors it is expected that
the problem can be solved and the students can improve their errors that they make and
increase their knowledge about tenses, especially about past tenses (simple past tense, past
continuous tense, and past perfect tense). Furthermore, this is useful for English teachers to
creat and find a better strategy in teaching to determine how far they know the ability of their
students’ knowledge. Beside that, this thesis can also be used as a reference for the other
researchers who are interested to research the same topic in the future.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Theoretical Concepts
In learning a second language the students as the learner produce many errors
misformation of foreign language. The word error is commonly used when the students give
the wrong answer or respon. Error may occur in all components of language such as
grammar. The learners sometimes do not realize that they make mistake because of ignorance
of the grammar.

2.2 Description of Error Analysis
We often hear that people make a lot of mistakes in their past time and eventually be
successful in the future. It may be occured in learning a language or a target language. The
definition of error can be seen through the classification of errors. The classification is very
important to explain the errors in error analysis.
Richards (1985: 96) says that errors result from incomplete learning and knowledge of
learners about target language system.
Norrish (1983: 7) says that error is systematic deviation from the accepted system of
the target language. Mistake is non-systematic deviation from the accepted system of a
language being learned and it usually due to human limitation such as tiredness, nervousness,
and fatigue. It means that errors may occure because of human factor in mastering the target
language such as the limitation of memory, psychological problem and do not understand
about the material of subject. In another side, the learners never recognize their errors or they
never know that they have made errors.

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Learning sometimes needs a process in which the success will come by profiting from
their errors. From those opinions above, it can be concluded that error is a deviation that is
made by the learners because they do not understand the rules of the second language and can
not be corrected by themselves while they are learning.
While the diminishing of errors is an important criterion for increasing language
proficiency, the ultimate goals of second language learning is the attainment of
communicative fluency in a language. Error analysis is used to analyze and classify the
learners’ error from which the leaners learning problem can be inferred.
Brown (2000: 218) says that the errors can be observed, analyzed, and classified to
reveal something of the system operating within the learner, led to a surge of study of
learners’ errors, called error analysis.
Corder (1981: 23) says that error analysis is the study analysis of the errors made by
the second of foreign language learners to the predict the errors or the difficulties in learning
foreign language. Error analysis may be carried out in order to:
1)

Find out how well someone learns a language.

2)

Find out how well someone knows language, and

3)

Obtain information on common difficulties in language learning.
Thus, error analysis is the study and the analysis of the errors made by language

learners which function as to give the information on how they learn a language, how well
they know the language and what difficulties faced by them in achieving the objective.

2.2.1 Types of Error
According to Dulay, Burt, and Krashen in James’ book (1998: 106) errors can be
classified into four types, they are :
1. Errors of ommision

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It is a sentence where an element is ommited, actually it should be presented.
Exemple

: I not go to school by bus everyday

It should be

: I do not go to school by bus everyday

2. Errors of addition
It is a phenomenon in which a certain aspect of language rules is added into a correct order
(correct sentence), in order words some elements are presented which should not be
presented.
Example

: We do study English three times in a week

It should be

: We study English three times in a week

3. Misformation
Misformation is the error of using one grammatical form in the place of another grammatical
form.
Example

: I doesn’t know him

It should be

: I don’t know him

4. Misordering
It is a sentence which its order is incorrect. The sentence can be right in presented elements,
but wrongly sequenced.
Example

: She not does come early to school

It should be

: She doesn’t come early to school

2.2.2 The Cause of Error
Brown (2000: 224) says that the cause of errors can be devided into 2 categories, they are :
(1) Interlingual errors, that is error caused by interference of the learner’s mother tongue. A
different class of error is represented by sentences

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(2) Intralingual errors, that is cause of errors resulting from complicated system of the target
language it self.
Richards (1985: 47) says that the intralingual errors are devided into 4 terms, they are:
1. Over-generalization
Over-generalization happens when a learner uses a certain structure that is overgeneralized in the target language. It is caused the learners’ basic experience of certain
structure. Generally, overgeneralization is the creation of one deviant structure in place of
two regular structure, for example: “She can sings”. In this case, there is an over form of a
structure verb “sing” becomes “sings”. It should be “She can sing”. Because “she” usually
use verb + s. For example: She sings.
2. Ignore of rule restriction
Ignore of rule restriction is failure to observe the restriction of existing structures.
That is the application of rules to context where they do not apply.
Example

: the baby crying was

It should be

: the baby was crying

3. Incomplete application of rules
Incomplete application of rules means errors are due to the occurence of structures
whose deviancy represents the degree of development of rules required to produce acceptable
utterence. The learners fail to produce a correct sentence according to the standards rules.
Example

: You student

It should be

: You are student

4. False Concepts Hypothesized
False concepts hypothesized means basically errors are the result from faulty
comprehension of distinction in the target language.
Example

: she is not go to school yesterday

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It should be

: she did not go to school yesterday

2.3 English Tenses
In this thesis, the writer will talk about the understanding of the tenses that the English
language has. Edward (2001: 520) says that tense is a form of a verb that shows the time of
an action or condition. If someone wants to talk about tense, he or she may not escape from
grammar because tense is part of structure. Grammar may be roughly defined as the way a
language manipulates and combines words in order to form longer units of meaning.
As it has been mentioned above that tense is time. English language has sixteen
different tenses. These sixteen tenses are different to one another. The differences happenned
in the forms of the used verbs and the time of verbs action take places. In other words, we
may say that an English verb will be very important to its usages.
2.3.1 Simple Past Tense
Thompson (1986: 162) says that simple past tense is used for an action whose time is
not given but which occupied a period of time now interminated, or occurred at a moment in
a period of time now interminated.
Azar (1989: 24) describes that the simple past tense indicates that an activity or
situation began and ended at a particular time in the past.
FORM
S+ [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
Examples:


You called Debbie.



Did you call Debbie?



You did not call Debbie.

Complete List of Simple Past Forms
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

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Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific
time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they
do have one specific time in mind.
Examples:


I saw a movie yesterday.



I didn't see a play yesterday.



Last year, I traveled to Japan.



Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.



Did you have dinner last night?



She washed her car.



He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
Examples:


I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.



He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others
at 10:00.



Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

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The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A
duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five
minutes, all day, all year, etc.
Examples:


I lived in Brazil for two years.



Shauna studied Japanese for five years.



They sat at the beach all day.



They did not stay at the party the entire time.



We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.

USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can
have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we
often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was
younger, etc.
Examples:


I studied French when I was a child.



He played the violin.



He didn't play the piano.



Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?



She worked at the movie theater after school.



They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

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The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are
no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the
expression "used to."
Examples:


In She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.



He didn't like tomatoes before.



Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?



People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

2.3.2 Past Continuous Tense
Thompson (1986: 163) says that past continuous tense is chiefly used for past actions which
continued for some time but whose exact limits are not known and are not important.

Azar (1989: 24) describes that past continuous tense is both actions occurred at the
same time, but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred.
Sometimes the past continuous is used in both parts of a sentence when two actions are in
progress simultaneously.
We usually use the past continuous to talk about activities that lasted for some time in
the past. The actions can be interruped by something or can be happening at the same time.
USE 1: Duration in the past
We use the Past Continuous to talk about actions or situations that lasted for some
time in the past, and whose duration time is unknown or unimportant.
Examples:


I was watching TV yesterday in the evening.



She was sleeping on the couch.



The dog was barking.

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USE 2: Interrupted actions in progress
The Past Continuous is often used when one action in progress is interruped by
another action in the past. We usually use when or while to link these two sentences.
Sentence in Past Continuous

Sentence in Past Simple

WHEN
+

+

e.g. I was singing

e.g. my wife came home

WHEN/WHILE

Sentence in Past Continuous

Sentence in Past Simple

+

+
e.g. I was singing

e.g. my wife came home

Examples:


I was talking with James when the telephone rang.



While Angelica was playing tennis, the plane crashed .



When Bob was painting windows, it started raining.

USE 3: Actions in progress at the same time
We also use this tense to talk about two or more activities happening at the same.
Sentence in Past Continuous

Sentence in Past Continuous

WHEN/WHILE
+

e.g. I was singing

+
e.g. She was cooking

Sentence in Past Continuous

WHEN/WHILE
+

Sentence in Past Continuous
+

e.g. I was singing

e.g. She was cooking

Examples:


I was watching TV and Barbara was reading a book.



While Barbara was reading a bok was eating the dinner and talking.



The family was eating the dinner and talking.

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When Bob was painting windows, Mary was working in the kitchen.

USE 4: Timid / polite questions
If we want to ask a polite question, we can use the Past Continuous.
Examples:


I was wondering if you could open the window.



I was thinking you might help me with this problem.

Even though the sentences have a past continuous form, they refer to the present moment.
Their meaning is similar to the "could you" sentences, but they are more polite.
USE 5: Irritation
Remember that you can also express irritation over somebody or something in the past.
Examples:
She was always coming late for dinner!
Form
To form a sentence in the Past Continuous, you need:
1. The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to be" in the past form
2. The Present Participle of your verb (verb + ing)
1. Auxiliary verb "to be"
The past form of the auxiliary verb "to be" is:
1. For the first and third person singular: "was"
2. For all others: "were"
Examples:


She was always coming late for dinner!



You were always coming late for dinner!

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2. The Present Participle
The present participle is of a verb is a verb form that appears with the present tenses.
The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the verb.
talk + ing = talking
be + ing = being
There are exceptions.
Positive Sentences
Subject

Auxiliary verb

+
e.g. I/a dog etc. was / were

Verb + ing
+
e.g. swimming/talking etc.

Examples:


At 3 p.m., I was having lunch.



They were talking about her when she walked into the room.



While Kenneth was cleaning the living room, Sam was washing the dishes.



We were all thinking about our holidays.

Questions
Auxiliary verb

Subject
+

was / were

Verb + ing
+

e.g. I/a dog etc.

e.g. swimming/talking etc.

Examples:


Was she going to the theater when it started raining?



What were the defenders doing when Kenneth struck the ball?



Were you painting your house yesterday at 5 p.m.?



Was Mary shopping when the mall was burning?

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Negative Sentences

Subject

Auxiliary verb
+

e.g. I/a dog etc.

Verb + ing
+

was not / were not

e.g. swimming/talking etc.

Examples:


He asked me why I wasn’t having dinner at the hotel.



We weren’t playing football when the earthquake began.

2.2.3 Past Perfect Tense
Thompson (1986: 175) says that past perfect tense can be used similarly for an action
which began before the time of speaking in the past, and was still continuing at that time,
stopped at that time or just before it. But note that the past perfect can also be used for an
action which stopped sometime before the time of speaking.
Azar (1989: 39) describes that past perfect tense expresses an activity that was
completed before another activity or time in the past.
This tense is also used in reported speech, third conditional sentences, or to show
dissatisfaction with the past.
Use
1. Completed action before another action in the past
2. Third conditional sentences
3. Reported speech
4. Dissatisfaction with the past
USE 1: A completed action before another action in the past
The first use of this tense is to emphasize that one action in the past happened before another
action in the past.

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Examples:


I had finished my homework before I went playing football.



John had never been to London before we went there last year.

USE 2: Third conditional
Use the Past Perfect with third conditional sentences.
Examples:


If we had gone by taxi, we wouldn't have been late.



If Mary had studied harder, she would have passed the exam.

USE 3: Reported speech
Use the Past Perfect with sentences in reported speech.
Examples:


Mary said she had already seen this film.



He asked if I had read Harry Potter.

USE 4: Dissatisfaction with the Past
We often use the Past Perfect to show our dissatisfaction with the past. Such sentences
typically start with "I wish ..." or "If only ...".
Examples:


I wish I had taken more food. I'm hungry now.



If only I had taken more food. I'm hungry now.

The Past Perfect is also used with expressions such as: "as if/though":


John looked as if he had done something terrible.



She looked as though she hadn't slept all night.

Form
To form a sentence in the Past Perfect, what you need is:
1. The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have" in the past form.

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2.

The Past Participle of your verb.

1. Auxiliary verb "to have"
The past form of the auxiliary verb "to have" is "had":


Mary had finished her homework before Mike came home.

2. The Past Participle
The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. The past
participle can be either regular or irregular.
The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the verb:
Verb

Past Participle

explain

explained

play

played

talk

talked

walk

walked

use

used

The formation of the irregular verbs doesn’t follow one rule. Therefore they should be
memorized.
Verb

Past Participle

eat

eaten

go

gone

see

seen

sell

sold

wear

worn

Positive Sentences
Subject

+ Auxiliary verb

+ Verb + ing

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e.g. I/a dog etc.

Had

e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.

Examples:
• Before I went to the park, I had finished my work.
• If he had made the right choice, he wouldn't be unhappy now.
• Mary said she had already seen this movie before.
• I wish I had had enough courage to kiss her!

Questions
Auxiliary verb

Subject
+

Had

Past participle
+

e.g. I/a dog etc.

e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.

Example:
• Had she eaten the dinner before she went to the cinema?


Negative Sentences
Subject

Auxiliary verb
+

e.g. I/a dog etc.

Verb + ing
+

had not

e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.

Examples:
• I had not seen this movie , before we went to the cinema yesterday to see it.
• If he hadn't made the mistake, he would be happy now.
• Mary said she had not visited for a long time.
• I wish I hadn't done it!

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2.3 Explanation of Narrative Text
Knapp and Watkins (2005: 29) say that a text is any completed act of communication
such as a greeting between friends in the street, a television advertisement, a novel, or a film
and so on. As far as speech and writing are concerned, a text stands alone as an act of
communication.
Reading a narrative text help we to read dealing with problematic events which lead
to a cricis or turning point, which in turn find a resolution. Smalley and Ruetten (1986:24)
say that narration usually refers to telling of a story, the term is used to described the relating
of an experience. That experience may be in the past (past narration), or it may be a typical
experience (what people usually do), or it may be going on now (present narration).

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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Method
The are three kinds of research based on the location of the research i.e. library,
laboratory, and field research (Bungin, 2005: 40 - 41). In this thesis, the writer took field
research to collect the data and the writer also applied library research to obtain information
to support the analysis. The method of the study that used is quantitative method. It meant
that quantitative research applies numbers from collecting the data, describing the data, until
the result of research. The result of the test was described as they were in term of exiting
condition without any interference of the researcher.
This research was conducted at SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa which is located on
Jl. Batang Kuis, psr VIII Tanjung Morawa. The subject of the research was the twelfth graders
of SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa. They consist of seven classes that devided two programs.

They are IPS and IPA program. The reason to choose SMA Negeri 1 Tanjung Morawa as
location of the research is in terms of accessible time and fund and the same research had
never been conducted in there.

3.2 Population and Sample
The population of this research was the twelfth graders. They consist of seven classes
that devided two programs. They are IPS and IPA program. IPA program which consist of
four classes (III1, III2, III3, III4) and IPS program consist of three classes (III1, III2, III3). The
total amount of the students were 259 as the population. “If the number of population are
more than one hundred, the sample can be taken 10%-50%, if they are less than 100
population, the researcher may take all the students as the sample” (Arikunto, 2002: 108). It
was taken randomly from the attendace list in order to take data without caring about the

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students intelligence (low or high) and to final the average of the students’ ability. In
sampling process, the student’s names from each class was written in peaces of paper and
rolled each peace of paper that put in a box, after that the box was shaken and then the roll
each piece of paper was taken as much as the researcher need as sample namely 30% from
population in each class.
Table 1
The number of Population and Sample
No

Class

Population

Sample 30%

1

XII. IA-1

30

9

2

XII. IA-2

35

11

3

XII. IA-3

35

11

4

XII. IA-4

37

11

5

XII. IS-1

40

12

6

XII. IS-2

41

12

7

XII. IS-3

41

12

Total

259

78

Based on the information from their English teacher, I know that they have learned
about Past Tenses from the first semester at eleventh grade until first semester at twelve
grade. So I presume that they already have good basic about the structure of past tenses.
3.3 Data Collecting Method
The writer gave a test to collecting the data as the data collecting method. The writer
asked the twelfth graders as the respondents who took part in the test to have a test which
contains 15 questions. The writer only gave 60 minutes for the students to answer the
questions. Each correct answer was scored 1 and wrong answer was scored 0, so the highest

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score was 15. The items of the test were taken from book. The aim of this test was to analyze
the student’s errors in using past tenses in the narrative text.
3.4 Data Analysis Method
The data was analyzed to identify the cause of the problems . In analyzing the
students’ errors, the research used some procedures, they were:
1. scoring the students’ answers
The researcher obtained the scoring by applying the following formula by Arikunto (2005
: 176)
S=R
Where :
S : Score
R : Right answer
2. identifying the students’ errors.
3. classifying the errors.
4. finding causes of the errors.
The researcher obtained the percentage errors by applying following formula by Bungin
(2005 : 172)
n=

Where

Fx
× 100%
N

:

n

: The percentage of errors

Fx

: Number of errors for each types

N

: Number of all errors

100%

: Constant numeral

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CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.1 Description of Data
After answering the test, the students’ answers were tabulated. The following table
shows the score of students’ achievement in aswering the test and then calculated to know the
everage scores.

Table 1
The Students’ Scores

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

The Students’ Initial
Name
AAS
AAS
ACD
AP
AS
BPA
BRK
BS
CH
D
DA
DA
DA
DIR
DM
DNS
DNIPL
DPS
DW
E
EF
EP
ESB
FHH
FH
FIS
FMG

Correct

Incorrect

11
10
12
7
12
11
9
14
12
12
10
14
12
12
9
14
12
10
9
8
6
12
6
10
12
13
13

4
5
3
8
3
4
6
1
3
3
5
1
3
3
6
1
3
5
6
7
9
3
9
5
3
2
2

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28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

FR
GM
HS
IK
IN
J
JI
JPU
KA
LL
MA
MF
MFR
MHS
MIL
MN
MS
MT
MTH
MYS
NH
NMS
NP
NR
NS
NS
P
PTD
RAH
RH
RL
RP
RY
SDT
SGSB
SH
SHN
SK
SP
SS
SW
TAK
TDSS
TM
TP
TR
WA
WIN

12
11
8
5
10
10
12
11
10
7
13
7
7
5
14
8
12
6
9
9
13
12
12
11
8
12
11
10
14
9
7
14
9
14
9
5
12
10
11
11
10
5
10
9
15
12
12
12

3
4
7
10
5
5
3
4
5
8
2
8
8
10
1
7
3
9
6
6
2
3
3
4
7
3
4
5
1
6
8
1
6
1
6
10
3
5
4
4
5
10
5
6
0
3
3
3

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76
77
78

WNS
WP
YAW
Total Score

12
12
6
807

3
3
9
363

Average

10.35

4.65

Based on the table above, the total score from the correct answers were 807 and
incorrect answers were 363. Then, the average score from the correct answers were 10.35 and
incorrect answers were 4.65. Average shows that about ten questions are answerable for the
students whereas the remain five are non answerable.
4.2 Data Analysis
4.2.1 Describing the Errors
To find out the students’ errors, the items analysis procedures were used. In this
analysis, the errors were based on the students’ response in aswering the test. If the students
made incorrect respon then it was called that he or she made errors.
The following table shows the items analysis of the students’ response.
Table 2
The Item Analysis
Item number

Correct

Percentage

Incorrect

Percentage

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

61
31
43
40
58
65
37
51
48
67
49
69
66
50

78.21
39.74
55.13
51.28
74.36
83.33
47.44
65.39
61.54
85.90
62.82
88.46
84.62
64.10

17
47
35
38
20
13
41
27
30
11
29
9
12
28

21.80
60.26
44.87
48.79
25.64
16.67
52.56
34.62
38.46
14.10
37.18
11.54
15.39
35.90

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15

72

92.31

6

7.69

Total

807

68.97

363

31.03

Based on the table above, it shows that the total of students’ correct answer was 807
or 68.97% and incorrect 363 or 31.03%.

4.2.2 Types of Errors
To know the types of errors made by the students, we can see it from the table below.
Table 3
Types of Errors
1. I got out of bed and ……………. into the bathroom with a spring in my step.
a. went
b. do went
c. gone
The right answer is: a. went

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Students’
initial
name
AP
BPA
DM
EP
HS
IK
MF
MFR
MHS
MN
MT
NS
RH
SGSB
SHN
TAK
YAW

Wrong
answer
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone
gone

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering



















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Total

17

2. Father ……………. his fishing gear the day before.
a. had already prepare
b. already had prepared
c. had already prepared
The right answer is: c. had already prepared

Students’
No initial
name
1
AAS
2

AAS

3

AP

4

ACD

5

AS

6

BPA

7

CH

8

D

9

DA

10

DM

11

DNIPL

12

DPS

13

E

14

FH

15

FHS

16

FMG

Wrong
answer
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
had already
prepare
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had

Types of errors
Omission

Addition

Misformation

Misordering


















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17

FR

18

HS

19

J

20

JI

21

JPU

22

KA

23

LL

24

MA

25

MFR

26

MS

27

MT

28

NH

29

NMS

30

NP

31

NS

32

RL

33

RY

34

SGSB

35

SH

36

SHN

37

SP

38

SS

39

SW

40

TAK

prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
had already
prepare
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
had already
prepare
already had
prepared
had already
prepare
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
had already
prepare
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
already had
prepared
had already
prepare


























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41
42
43
44
45
46
47

TDSS

had already
prepare
TM
already had
prepared
TR
already had
prepared
WA
already had
prepared
WIN
already had
prepared
WNS
already had
prepared
YAW
had already
prepare
Total








8

39

3. I, too, ………………….. mine, but earlier.
a. has prepared
b. had prepared
c. had been prepared
The right answer is: b. had prepared

Students’
No initial
name
1
AAS
2

AP

3

ACD

4

DM

5

EF

6

EP

7

ESB

8

FHH

9

FR

10

HS

Wrong
answer
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been
prepared
had been

Types of errors
Omission

Addition

Misformation

Misordering












Universitas Sumatera Utara

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

prepared
IK
had been
prepared
J
had been
prepared
JI
had been
prepared
KA
had been
prepared
MF
had been
prepared
MFR
had been
prepared
MHS
had been
prepared
MN
had been
prepared
MT
had been
prepared
NMS
had been
prepared
NR
had been
prepared
NS
has prepared
NS
had been
prepared
P
had been
prepared
PTD
had been
prepared
RH
has prepared
SDT
had been
prepared
SGSB
had been
prepared
SH
has prepared
SW
had been
prepared
TAK
has prepared
TDSS has prepared
WNS
had been
prepared
WP
had been
prepared
YAW has prepared
Total


























29


6

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4. We took out the fishing gear from the car and ……………… to the coast.
a. races
b. race
c. raced
The right answer is: c. raced

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Students’
initial
name
AAS
AP
ACD
DA
DM
E
EF
ESB
FHH
FR
HS
IK
IN
J
JI
KA
LL
MF
MFR
MHS
MT
MYS
NMS
NR
NS
NS
P
PTD
RL
SGSB
SH
SK
SP
SW

Wrong
answer
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
races
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race
race

Types of errors
Omission

Addition

Misformation

Misordering




































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35
36
37
38

TAK
TDSS
WNS
YAW
Total





race
race
race
races


2

36

5. The waves ……………….. calm and the sea was as peaceful as a world without wars.
a. were
b. was
c. did were
The right answer is: a. were
Students’
No initial
name
1
AAS
2
AS
3
CH
4
D
5
DA
6
DM
7
EP
8
HS
9
JPU
10 MHS
11 MN
12 MS
13 MT
14 MTH
15 RH
16 RY
17 SGSB
18 SS
19 TAK
20 WP
Total

Wrong
answer
was
was
was
did were
did were
was
did were
was
was
did were
was
was
did were
was
was
did were
was
Was
did were
did were

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering





















8

12

6. Then, it ……………….. time.
a. waiting was
b. was waiting
c. is waiting

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The right answer is: b. was waiting

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Students’
Wrong
initial
answer
name
DM
is waiting
EF
is waiting
ESB
is waiting
HS
is waiting
IK
is waiting
MF
is waiting
MHS
is waiting
MN
is waiting
MTH
is waiting
RY
is waiting
SH
is waiting
SR
is waiting
TAK
is waiting
Total

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering














13

7. Surprisingly, the fishing line ………………. the water when I felt a bite.

a.

barely

had touched
b. had barely touched
c. had barely touch
The right answer is: b. had barely touched
Students’
Wrong
No initial
answer
name
1
AAS
barely had
touched
2
AAS
barely had
touched
3
AP
had barely
touch
4
AS
barely had
touched
5
CH
barely had
touched
6
D
barely had
touched
7
DA
barely had
touched
8
DNS
barely had

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering










Universitas Sumatera Utara

9

E

10

EF

11

ESB

12

FHH

13

FH

14

FIS

15

FMG

16

HS

17

IK

18

J

19

LL

20

MA

21

MF

22

MFR

23

MHS

24

MS

25

MT

26

NH

27

NR

28

NS

29

P

30

PTD

31

RL

32

RP

touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
had barely
touch
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
had barely
touch
had barely
touch
had barely
touch
barely had
touched
had barely
touch
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
had barely
touch
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched
barely had
touched


























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33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

barely had
touched
SH
had barely
touch
SS
barely had
touched
SW
had barely
touch
TAK
had barely
touch
TR
barely had
touched
WA
barely had
touched
WIN
barely had
touched
YAW
had barely
touch
Total



RY









10

31

8. At the beginning, I ………………….. it was my imagination.
a. were thought
b. thought
c. think
The right answer is: b. thought

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Students’
initial
name
AP
BRK
DA
DPS
DW
E
EF
ESB
GM
IK
IN
LL
MF
MFR

Wrong
answer
think
think
think
think
think
think
think
think
think
think
think
think
think
think

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering
















Universitas Sumatera Utara

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

MHS
MT
MTH
MYS
NS
RH
RL
SH
SK
TAK
TM
WP
YAW

think
think
think
were thought
think
think
think
think
think
think
were thought
think
were thought
Total














3

24

9. but when I asked my father if he ……………….. the cries for help, he told me that he did.
a. had also heard
b. also had heard
c. have also heard
The right answer is: a. had also heard
Students’
Types of errors
Wrong
No initial
answer
Omission Addition Misformation
name
1
AAS
also had heard
2
AAS
also had heard
3
BPA
have also

heard
4
BS
have also

heard
5
DA
have also

heard
6
DNIPL have also

heard
7
DPS
have also

heard
8
E
have also

heard
9
EF
have also

heard
10 ESB
have also

heard

Misordering



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11
12

FH
GM

13

IK

14

IN

15
16
17

J
JPU
LL

18
19
20

MTH
MYS
NP

21
22

RAH
RL

23
24
25

RY
SGSB
SK

26
27
28
29
30
Total

SS
TR
WA
WIN
YAW



also had heard
have also
heard
have also
heard
have also
heard
also had heard
also had heard
have also
heard
also had heard
also had heard
have also
heard
also had heard
have also
heard
also had heard
also had heard
have also
heard
also had heard
also had heard
also had heard
also had heard
also had heard




















15

15

10. The woman ……………….. .
a. was crying
b. crying
c. crying was
The right answer is: a. was crying
Students’
No initial
name
1
DIR
2
E
3
EF
4
ESB

Wrong
answer
crying
crying was
crying was
crying

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering






Universitas Sumatera Utara

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Total

IK
LL
MTH
MYS
RL
SP
TM

crying was
crying was
crying
crying was
crying was
crying
crying was








7

4

11. She ……………………… towards a tree.
a. was pointing
b. is pointing
c. pointing
The right answer is: a. was pointing

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Students’
initial
name
AP
BRK
DA
DIR
DPS
DW
E
EF
ESB
FHH
GM
IN
KA
LL
MF
MFR
MHS
MT
NS
P
PTD
RH
RL
SH

Wrong
answer
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
pointing
is pointing
pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
pointing
pointing
is pointing
is pointing
is pointing

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering


























Universitas Sumatera Utara

25
26
27
28
29

SHN
SK
TAK
TDSS
TM

is pointing
is pointing
is pointing
pointing
pointing
Total






6

23

12. A cat …………………. on the topmost branch.
a. are standing
b. standing
c. was standing
The right answer is: c. was standing
Students’
Wrong
No initial
answer
name
1
BRK
standing
2
DIR
standing
3
DW
standing
4
GM
standing
5
MIL
standing
6
MN
standing
7
MYS
are standing
8
SW
standing
9
YAW
are standing
Total

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering










2

7

13. Unfortunately, I grabbed the branch which the cat …………………… on and it broke.
a. standing was
b. was standing
c. standing
The right answer is: b. was standing
Students’
Wrong
No initial
answer
name
1
BRK
standing

Types of errors
Omission

Addition Misformation

Misordering



Universitas Sumatera Utara

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

DA
DPS
DW
IK
IN
MN
MTH
NR
SH
SK
TM

standing
standing
standing
standing
standing
standing
standing
standing was
standing
standing
standing was
Total












2

10

14. A cat could jump down from that height! Father explained like nothing ……………… .
a. had happen
b. has happened
c. had happened
The right answer is: c. had happened
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Students’
initial
name
AP
BPA
BRK
DA
DNIPL
DW
EF
ESB
FHH
JPU
KA
LL
MF
MFR
MHS
MN
MT
NP
NS
PTD

Wrong
answer
has happened
has happened
had happen
has happen

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PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

97 2728 16

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

35 707 43

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

32 592 23

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

15 392 24

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

23 531 23

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

44 902 14

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

43 815 50

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

13 497 17

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

19 741 30

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

30 887 23