Perpustakaan STAIN Salatiga « ■ii l l l i i O 07TD 3010916.01





Submitted to The Board o f Examiners in Partial

Fulfillment o f The Requirements for the Degree

o f Sarjana Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I)


In the English and Educational Department

B y:



113 99 018








Jl. Tentara Pelajar 02 Telp. (0298)323706, 323433 Fax. 323433 Salatiga 50721

Website:,id E-mail:




  Dengan penuh kejujuran dan tanggung jawab, penulis menyatakan bahwa skripsi ini tidak berisi maten yang pernah ditulis oleb orang lain atau pernah diterbitkan. Demikian juga skripsi ini tidak berisi satupun pikiran pikiran orang lain, kecuali informasi yang terdapat dalam referensi yang dijadikan rujukan.

  Apabila di kemudian hari ternyata terdapat materi atau pikiran-pikiran orang, lain di luar referensi yang penulis cantumkan, maka penulis sanggup mempertanggung jawabkan kembali keaslian skripsi ini di hadapan siding munaqosah sknipsi. .

  Demikian deklarasi ini dibuat oleh penulis untuk dapat dimaklumi.

  Salatiga, 28 Agustus 2006 Penulis


  NIM. 113.99.018

  i Hammam, M.Pd The lecturer of Education Faculty

  State Islamic Studies Institute of Salatiga


  Case : Farida Ariyani’s thesis Salatiga, August 28lh, 2006 Dear

  The Head of State Islamic Studies Institute of Salatiga Assalamu'alaikum Wr. Wb.

  After reading and correcting Farida Ariyani’s thesis entitled "AN ANALYSIS




“CLEOPATRA” " I have decided and would like to propose that it could be

  accepted by the educational faculty, I hope it would be examined as soon as possible: Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.

  Ham in am, M.Pd

  NIP. 150301298


  STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE SALATIGA Jl. Stadion 03 Phone (0298) 323706 Salatiga 50721








NIM. 113 99 018

  Has been brought to the board of examiners in September 6th 2006/Sya’ban 13th 1427 H to completely fulfill the requirement of the Degree of Saijana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) in English and Education Department.

  Sya'ban 13th, 1427 H Salatiga,

  September 6th, 2006 M Board Examiners


NIP. 150 301 298


Go with the flow, cause tomorrow will be gone


  This thesis dedicated to: > My beloved Mother and Father, who always pray for me.

  > My husbie for supporting me. > My little angel and the nany for the time you had. > All of my family who always support me.

  > All of my friends in English Department.



  In the name of Allah, blesses and praises always go to great prophet Muhammad. Alhamdulillahirabbil'alaimin, everlasting thank to of Allah the Lord of the uni verse.

  However, this success would not be achieved without supports, guidance, advices, helps and encouragements from individuals and institutions, therefore, let the writer say thanks to:

  1. Drs. Imam Sutomo M.Ag, the Head of State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga.

  2. Hammam, M.Pd, the consultant of this thesis, thanks for careful guidance and suggestions.

  3. Hanung Triyoko, SS., Drs. Sa'adi, M.Ag, and whole lectures in English Department, thanks for your supports, guidance and helps.

  4. My beloved mother and father, my husbie and my little angel.

  5. All of my friends in English Department.

  Finally, the writer would say thanks to all those people above.

  Salatiga, August 28th 2006 The Writer


































CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Research Background There is a close relationship between language and a society. Language lives in the society. The survival of the language depends on its use by the society and the members of the society as users of the language. Language1, is like other forms of social activities, has to be

  appropriate to the speaker using it. In this case, Trudgill gives an example of different forms of address used by persons of different degrees of status of intimacy. The different forms of address in French forms, such as the familiar pronouns of you: tu (T) and the polite form: vous (v) are used by different members of society. The aristocratic habit led to a situation where, although the upper classes used T to the lower-classes who, on the other hand, received

  V. Another example is a school teacher who called his student Johnny, received Mr. Smith in returns.

  Factors that influence language use are social class, age, sex, geography, situational context, and cultural context. The science studying those factors that influence the language use is called sociolinguistics.

  Sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation to society. This statement shows that there are two terms involved, namely sociology referring to society and linguistics referring to language.

1 Trudgill, Peter,

  Sociolinguistics as an introduction, Great Britain: Hazel Waston &

  2 Sociolinguistics^, then, is the part of linguistics which is concerned

  with language as a social and cultural phenomena . TrudgilFs example is about the word: taboo. According to Trudgill. Taboo can be characterized as being concerned with behavior which is believed to be supematurally with behavior which is prohibited in an apparently irrational manner. For example, Javanese people are usually not allowed to give something to people with left hand. This kind of behaviour is related to Javanese cultural background.

  Through the novel researched, the author (H.R. Haggard) had examined Egyptian society, especially in the nineteenth century which was full of social and cultural phenomenon, and whose English was mostly different from either British or American nowadays particularly in using personal addresses. The researcher, however, focused on speech events used as data found in the novel entitled CLEOPATRA (1886) by H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925). The researcher chooses the novel CLEOPATRA because it contains many speech events using various second-person personal-addresses.

  The novel CLEOPATRA written by H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925) in (1886), consists of 196 pages . Novel, but the researcher took only the speech events using the second-person personal-address:




T h e fo llo w in g sp eech ev en t used as an ex am p le w as tak e n fro m p age 8:

“La! La! La!’’she cried” and there thou art, my bonny lad; more bonny lad; more bonny even than thou went ! La ! what a man ! what shoulders! And what a face and form! ah, it does an old woman credit to have dandled thee! But thou art over-pale; those priests down there at Annu hare starved thee, surely? starve not thyself: The Gods love not a skeleton. Empty stomach makes empty head as they say at Alexandria.. . And as I lighten down she embraced me.


But I thrust her a side,” My father! Where is my father?” I cried,” I see him not!

“Nay, nay, have no fear,’’she answered,”his H oliness is well;he waits thee in his chamber...

  By understanding the example above, the researcher could make an analysis by examining: “who” is speaking “to whom” (both are based on social class, and age), “where” and “when” they are expressed, and “what” topics are being talked about, in accordance with the norms of the speech events.

  From the above phenomena, the researcher has investigated speech events on second person personal address by conducting a piece of research entitled “AN ANALYSIS ON SECOND PERSON PERSONAL ADDRESS


  4 B. Statement of the Problem

  After finding the data existing in the novel CLEOPATRA, the researcher has formulated the problems of the research as follows:

  1. What sociolinguistic factors affect the use of second person personal address in the novel CLEOPATRA?

  2. In what condition is the second person personal address used in the novel


C. Research Limitation

  In this research, the researcher analyzed the speech events taken from the novel CLEOPATRA written by H. R. Haggard by using sociolinguistic approach. There are many kinds of speech events found in the novel, such as speech events using the first person personal address, speech events using the second person personal address, and speech events using the third person personal address. To limit the analysis, the researcher focused only on the speech events using the second person personal address involving the subjective case; thou, you, and ye; the objective case; thee, you, and ye; the possessive case: thy, thine, your, yours to intensify the analysis.

D. Research Objective

  As stated in the problem statement above, the research has been intended:


  /. To describe sociolinguistic factors affecting the use of the second person personal address in the novel CLEOPATRA.

  2. To find out the condition in which the second person personal address used in the novel CLEOPATRA.

E. Research Benefits

  After accomplishing the research, the researcher expects that this research will be beneficial to:

  1. Lecturers The result of the research can be used as additional materials in giving the lectures to the students of State Islamic Studies Institute of Salatiga.

  2. Students The result of the research can stimulate the students in studying sociolinguistics especially about speech event using various second person personal addresses and it can be used as additional knowledge in sociolinguistics.

  3. Other researchers The result of the research can be used as additional reference and information for their further research connecting with the field.

F. Thesis Organization

  This thesis is divided into five chapters, and each chapter consists of further division.

  6 The outline of this research is arranged systematically as follows:

  Chapter I contains Introduction, Consisting of Research Background, Research Benefits, Research Limitation, Research Methodology, and Research Organization. Chapter II explains Literature Review, Consisting of Definition of Language, Sociolinguistic Theory, Terms of Address Theory, Language Variety, Context, Dell Hymes’ Components of Speech Events, and Related Researches. Chapter III explains Research Methodology, Showing the Type of the Research, Data, Source of Data, Research Data Collecting Technique, Technique of Analyzing Data. Chapter IV contains Presentation of Data Analysis, Consisting of Biography the Writer, Synopsis of the story of CLEOPA TRA, presentation of the Speech Events using the second person personal address used in


CLEOPA TRA , presentation of the sociolinguistic factors effecting the use of

the second person personal address in the novel CLEOPATRA, and discussion.

  Chapter V contains Conclusions and Suggestions, BIBLIOGRAPHY




A. Definition of Language

  According to Trudgill4, Language is not simply a means of communicating information, it is also a very important means of establishing and maintaining relationships with other people . Thus, language has a very important role in society: first, the role played by language in conveying information about the speaker, and second, the function of language in establishing and maintaining social relationship . Therefore, it is clear that those aspects are reflections of facts that there is a close relationship between language and society.

  Language is learned and shared by human beings in the same speech community, and therefore, language always develops rapidly from time to time. Recently, sociologists, psychologists, and sociolinguists are interested in studying language from its function perspective. And the science handled by sociolinguists is called Sociolinguistics.

B. Sociolinguistic Theory

  Sociolinguistics is the study of the ways people use language in social life5. The way a student talks to a teacher is likely different in using the

  j 4 Trudgill, Peter, op.cit, page 13 & 14

5 Chaika, Elain,

  Language The Social Mirror, Newburry House Publisher, Inc Rowly, Massachusetts, 1982, Page 2


  address terms from that when he talks to a friend. While state that sociolinguistics is the study of language in its various contexts, especially social context, such as who the addressers and addressees are, what kind of social group the participants come from, what type of social distance or intimacy of participants are involved in a speech events, and so on. Moreover, Wardaugh’s statement6, about sociolinguistics is that this study of the relationship between language and society which is, in fact, very closely related. In any social life, certain people use an appropriate language in order to cany' out their daily activity .

  Sociolinguists have been particularly concerned with the use of language to maintain social relationships. Therefore, the study of the language use in a society is of great importance in sociolinguistics.

  C. Terms of Address Theory According to Fasold7 8 , Address Forms are the words speakers use to designate the person they are talking to while they are talking to them .

  Therefore, Fasold’s statement tends to underline the non-linguistics factors influencing the use of address forms. While Trudgilf states that personal address are terms of expressions used by one person to address another one. The use of personal address depends on the relationship between addresser

  6 Wardaugh, Ronald, An introduction to Sociolinguistics, New York: Basil Blackwell,

  Inc, 1986, Page 12

  7 Fasold, Ralf,

Sociolinguistics o / Language, T g. Press Ltd 1990, P 2


  and addressee of unequal rank including wealth, social stratification, age, are more formal and less relaxed than those between equals. And this brings the different forms of address caused by different degrees of status or intimacy. In this case Trudgill used special terms as found in French, that is tu (T) used by addresser-addressee of equal rank and vous (V) which is used by unequals. It is furthermore said that most European languages, unlike English that has only you, especially in singular, distinguish between a polite form (V) of second person personal address and a familiar second person personal address (T). A person who has higher social status in a society may call someone who has lower social status by using (T) although he receives (V) back. This can be interpreted that where a difference of power is involved in a conversation between two individuals, then the address used is non-reciprocal (V) and it means that another feature of the social relationship have some influence on personal address selection. On the other hand, the familiar second person personal address (T) is used when the degree of solidarity, intimacy, and


similarity among speakers is felt to be quite large. Those factors constitute two

  major dimensions that condition the choice in Trudgill; In this case, power indicates social status while solidarity, intimacy, similarity indicates social distance.

  However, later find out that T-usage becomes more probable when the degree of intimacy, similarity or solidarity between speakers is more dominant than the degree of power because of the gradual rise of democratic egalitarian 9


  ideology. They found the exception, on the other hand, among Egyptian speakers who did make several non-reciprocal that signified a Mess developed egalitarian ethic'.

  Further complications found out in other linguistic communities are that not only personal address involved but also the context of the person addressed that could produce lexical variations, depending on the relationship and the relative status between the addresser and the addressee. A good example of this kind of restrictions on linguistic forms is several distinct speech Mevels’ or varieties which are used in different situations existed in Javanese language which involve not only minor differences of pronouns and suffixes but also numerous lexical differences. These differences belong to linguistic factors. Three different levels of the ‘same’ sentence described by

  Clifford Geertz was quoted by Trudgill10 as follows:

  “Are you going to eat rice and cassava now? ”

(1) . Menapa panjenengan badhe dhahar sekul kahyan kaspe samenika?

(2) . Napa sampeyan ajeng nedha sekul lan kaspe saniki? (3) . Apa kowe arep mangan sega lan tela saiki?

  Sentence (1) is in high level, sentence (2) is in middle level, and sentence (3) is in low level. The three sentences show three different vocabulary usage of second person personal address and this is mostly influenced by non linguistic factors such as: situation, relation, age and social stratification as shown in the novel CLEOPATRA. The address form of i


  sentence (1): panjenengcm and (2): sampeyan is the same as thou in English usage found in the novel CLEOPATRA while the address form of sentence (3):

  kowe is the same as you. This short of linguistic variety can be referred to as

  different styles characterized by different vocabulary which indicates familiarity, role-relationship, formality, intimacy, and social stratification.

  The significance in the novel CLEOPATRA lies, however, the use of the second person personal address between the addresser and the addressee is in the same form although they come from different social status.

D. Language Variety

  In talking about language variety, it is found that there are many language varieties in societies of nations. The varieties differ from one society to another. According to Suwito11 variation is a kind of language whose usage relates to its function and situation. The use of language is much influenced by the surrounding factors, whether those are linguistic factors or non-linguistic ones, such as age, geography, education, social status, and so forth. Those linguistic and non-linguistic factors are different from one society to another.

  Besides, the use of language is also influenced by situational factors, namely, who is speaking, to whom, when, where, how, by using what language, and about what matter. That statement is relevant is ‘who speaks (or writes) what language (or what language variety) to whom and when and to what end’.

  n Suwito, Pengantar Awal Sociolinguistik Teori dan Problem, Surakarta : Henry, 1983,

  12 From those quotations above the researcher could underline that there were many kinds of language varieties in society.

E. Context

  Context plays an important role in understanding meaning of utterances. Leech’s statement1" Emphasized the theory by stating that context is relevant aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. Context is a background knowledge which is shared by speaker and hearer in understanding their utterances.

  Furthermore, Halliday and Hasan1' states that there are two notions of context, that is the context of situation and context of culture which plays important part in the interpretation of meaning.

  Context of situation is the environment, including verbal environment and the situation in which the text is uttered. In the novel CLEOPATRA, Charmion uttered different second person personal address to Harmachis because of the different situation. In some data the second person personal address Thou is used for the speech event takes place in the Queen’s residence the situation is formal, while in some data Harmachis uses You because the speech event takes place outside the palace (the situation is informal).

  Context of culture is the cultural background or history behind the participants. Social stratification has a very special meaning among the

  • j

  12 Leech, Geoffrey, The Principle o f Pragmatics, New York : Lang Man Grove Ltd, 1983,

  P 13

  13 Halliday, M.A K & Hasan, R, Language Context and Text: Aspects o f language in a

  13 Egyptian people. Therefore, the Queen required the guests to creep before her

  when they wanted to see her having the meaning that the Queen is considered to have a higher social stratification than that of the guests.

  Firth in Halliday and Hasan1" describes context of situation that consists of:

  1. The participants in the situation referred to as persons and personalities or the statuses and roles of the participants.

  2. The section of the participants referred to what they are doing, including their verbal action and non-verbal action.

  3. The relevant situation referred to ihe surrounding object and events.

  4. The effects of the verbal action referred to the changes were brought by the participants.

  In spoken language, the function of context is to help speaker and hearer in delivering and receiving meanings of utterances. It has an important role in determining the meaning of language. For example, the utterance: oh dear! has various meanings. It can be interpreted as an utterance for pity (the same as oh, my God!) or an exclamation pointed to a person being laved. It is quite important to see its context to determine what is meant be the utterance.

F. Speech Event

  Speech event is often described as moment in which people interact and communicate in certain time, certain place and certain situation. For 1



  example in markets, people meet each other and do bargaining through communication.

  In written language, such as words, stories, scripts etc, speech event occurs among the characters through certain context. For example in the novel

  CLEOPATRA , when Harmachis is talking to the under world, denotes the speech event although by monologue (because the other people can not see it).

  Speech event rather differs from speech act, which according to Ibrahim refers to the utterance that imply actions1' . However, both speech event and speech act cover the important of sociolinguistics as the approach to indicate the language variation. Through this method, language is examined to discover how it is adopted, what is the forms and functions and how it can be changed as the different culture and different social context. The purpose of the study is finding the systematic patterning within language variation.

  G. Dell Hymes’ components of speech events Hymes1 5 16 identifies complete components of speech events, which consist of two major factors, namely language factors and social factors.

  There are eight components of speech events in the form of the letters S P E A K I N G . The components can be grouped together in relation to the eight letters without great difficulty. To make the set of component mnemonically convenient, the letters of the term S P E A K I N G can be used.


  (S): SETTING OR SCENE: setting refers to the time and place of a speech event and, in general, to the physical circumstances. It is one of the most important social factors that affect the choice of words such as the use of use of personal address.

  (P): PARTICIPANTS: it refers to the addresser/speaker and addressee/listener/audience (hearer, or receiver). Participants play an important role in affecting language use. The language use is different between student-teacher, king/queen-his/her subject and so forth. Role - relationship.

  (E): ENDS: it refers to the goal, or purpose of the conversation, whether it is to persuade, to discuss, to inform, or to chit-chat, etc. the purpose of speaking in which a conversation is held, has an essential part in affecting one’s choice of language. Cleopatra (the Queen of Amahagger people), in the novel CLEOPATRA chose the word ye instead of you to express her anger when Cleopatra spoke to her men .

  • » (A): ART CHARATERISTICS: The form and the content of what is said or the topics of a conversation. It deals with what the characters talk about.

  (K): KEY: the tone or manner in which an act is done. It refers to the feeling, atmosphere, and attitude in which the conversation occurs. Tone refers to the general spirit of the scene. Such as brave, fearful, and fierce. Manner refers to participant’s way of behavior towards other, whether it is polite, impolite, intimate, distant, formal, informal, relaxed, serious, etc. feeling


  refers to emotions indicating happiness, terror, anxiety, shock, desperation, anger, irony, uncertainty, frustration, etc. Atmosphere refers to the feeling that affects the mind in a place or condition, such, as good, evil, etc. Attitude refers to the participation refers to the participant’s way of thinking and behaving towards a situation whether it is sympathetic, optimistic, pessimistic, serious, bitter, etc.

  (1): INSTRUMENTALITY: it is the form of speech, such as dialects, turn taking, sequencing, behaviors that accompany speech events etc.

  (N): NORM: it is a rule of interaction, such as adjacency pairs, turn taking, sequencing, behaviors that accompany speech events etc.

  (G): GENRE: it is types of speech events or speech categories, such as lecture, language game, prayer, tale, daily language, novel, letters, myth, proverb, riddle, poetry, advertisement, oration, etc.

  In this research, the researcher will only cover certain components that are suitable for the data researched namely setting (S), participant (P), end (E), art form (A), and keys (K). The setting (S) will show when and where the speech events take place. The participant (P) will show who are the speaker and hearer involved in a conversation. The ends (E) will show the participants’ goal or purpose of their conversation, and the art form (A) will show what is being talked about. Moreover, the keys (K) will show the participants’ mood when they take part in a conversation.

  17 H. Related Research

  This research does not stand by itself. The researcher also used other resources as references. Therefore, there are some researches which relate to this research. The other researches explored were intended to get more knowledge on Dell Hymes’ Ethnography of Speaking Factors and Terms of Address Theory. Both related researches use Sociolinguistic approach. Those related researches are as follows:

  1. Ambar Pujiyanto, entitled “The Use of English Commands in a Drama Entitled “The Crucible by Arthur Miller”.

  2. Sri Mumi Endrawati, entitled “A Study of the Main Characters’ Address Terms toward Each Other and Their social Factors in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House”.

  The differences between those researches above and this one lie on the research focus.

  Ambar Pujiyanto’s research focuses on the English commands based

  • « on the constructions namely the English commands without subject, the English command with subject, the English commands with vocative, the English commands with will and the English commands with let. Those English commands then are analyzed according to sociolinguistic aspects.

  While Sri Mumi Endrawati’s research focuses on the address terms used by the main characters towards each other, the types of terms of address used by the main characters, and the social factors influencing the use of the address terms. On the other hand, the researcher’s focus lies on the use of the second


  person personal address, in what situations the second person personal address are used, and then tries to find out what sociolinguistic factors affect the use of that address based on Dell Hymes’ Ethnography Speaking Factors.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Type of Research In this research, the researcher used library research and followed the

  procedure as stated by Sutnsno Hadi1', the researcher collects the data, then classifies them, analyzes them, and finally draws a conclusion about the data..

  In relevance to Sutrisno Hadrs statement, Moleong states1 17, that qualitative

  6 research will produce either written or oral data description from the objects researched.

B. Data

  Based on statement18 1 about characteristic, namely; characteristic is all

  9 of dialogues to whom the facts obtained will be generalized, the researcher took 58 speech events using the second person personal address as characters found in the novel CLEOPATRA. Those characters constitute the data. From those data the researcher took 9 samples to be analyzed in accordance with certain purposes. Therefore, the proper sampling technique for this research was purposive sampling technique as stated by Sunamo1' that it is used to reach certain purpose as the final target.

  16 Hadi, Sutrino, j op.cit, Page 3


17 Moleong, Lexy J., Metodologi Penelitian Kwalitatif Jakarta:Depdjkbud, 1998

  18 Hadi, sutrino, op. cit, Page 70

  19 Sunarto, Gatot, Metode Penelitian, BPK Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, 1997,

  20 C. Source of Data

  The data source of this research was taken from a novel entitled written by H. Rider Haggard in 1886, which was first published

  CLEOPATRA by the Penguin Popular Classics Group, England in 1887.

  The novel consists of 196 pages with 58 speech events using the second person personal address you, thou, ye (subjective case); you, thee, ye (objective case); and yowr, thy, thine (possessive case).

D. Technique of Collecting Data

  The following were the steps done by the researcher in collecting the data.

  1. Reading the novel entitled CLEOPATRA by Ryder Haggard and then trying to understand it thoroughly. Next, looking for all of the speech events using the second person personal address which consisting of the subjective case, the objective case, and the possessive case, and then entering those data into the data card. Then, each card consisted of one datum only. The next step was classifying the data accordingly.

  2. Giving code to the data according to the number of the data, the case, the page and the chapter.

  For example, the data card; 01/015-017/1/II/ S-O-P.

  21 The explanation: 01 represents the number of the data.

  015-017 represents the page in which the speech event exists.

  1 represents the book of the novel I represents the chapter of the novel S-O-P represents Subject-Object-Possessive included in the speech event.

E. Technique of Analyzing the Data

  After collecting the data, the researcher analvzed them by way of seeing (a), ‘who’, (b). to whom’ based on social class and age. After that, the researcher analyzed (c). ‘what’, (d). ‘how’, (e). ‘why’, (f) ‘when’, (g). ‘where’, and see, in what kind of situation the conversations were taking place. Clark20 2 ,

  1 who developed method of collecting information, 5W+1H, said that this method which is usually employed in communication covers all needed main information for constructing the context.

  Furthermore, Trudgill claimed that language is not simply a means of communicating information, it is also a very important means of establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. Thus, language has a very important role in society: first, the role played by language in conveying information about the speaker, and second, the function of language in establishing and maintaining social relationship. In short, the data were analyzed according to the sociolinguistic approach.

  a. Who Who is the one who is talking to someone else. It could be male or female.

  It could be the one who came from low, middle, or high-class of society. It could be the younger person to the older or vice verso.

  b. To Whom It has to do with the one who is being talked to. It could be male or female.

  It could be the one who came from high, middle, or low class society. It could be the younger person to the older or vice versa.

  c. What What is concerned with the topic of the conversation.

  d. How How shows the way the interlocutors in the speech events express the feeling or emotion.

  e. Why It is about the reason of making the conversation

  f. When When expresses the time or situation the speech events are made

  g. Where It is the place the speech events take place

  At last, in order to get the answer of the research objectives, the researcher drew conclusions based on the data analyzed.

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS In this chapter, the researcher will firstly presents a synopsis of story

  of Cleopatra in order to make the reader understand about the analysis much clearer. Secondly, the researcher will explore the analysis found in the novel.

  And the last, there will be a brief discussion in relation to which situation and what kind of relationship that affect the type of communication.

A. Biography of the Author

  Henry Rider Haggard22 was bom in West Bradenham Hall, Norfolk, as the eight son of William Haggard, a barrister and a country squire, and Ella (Doventon) Haggard, an amateur writer. In his childhood, the young Henry

  Rider was seen as the family dunce by his father. Haggard was not sent to a good public school like his brothers, but he was educated at a London day- school, although privately, and Ipswich Grammar School. After failing the army entrance, Haggard went in 1875 to Natal as a secretary to Sir Henry

  Bulwer, Governor of Natal colony. In 1877 he joined the staff of the special commissioner. Next year he became Master and Registrar of the High Court in the Transvaal.

  During his years in Africa, Haggard had an affair with an African woman and got acquainted with the Zulu culture. Especially he admired the individual prowess of their warriors: "When death comes, he meets it without fear, and goes to the spirits of his fathers boldly, as a warrior should." Although Haggard himself had been brought up to believe in the superiority of European culture and the Christian religion, he did not condemn the polygamic system of the Zulus, writing that "the Zulu women are much attached to the custom, nor would they as a general rule consent to marry a man who only proposed taking one wife."

  After Haggard returned to England, he married in 1880 a Norfolk heiress, Mariana Louisa Margitson. They moved to Transvaal to Haggard's ostrich farm. When Transvaal had to be ceded to the Dutch, they went back to

  England, where Haggard continued his law studies. The death of his son in 1891 was a deep blow for him. Haggard was admitted to the bar in 1884, but showed little interest in practicing his profession - he had other plans.

  After retiring to a Norfolk country house, Haggard devoted himself into writing. He had earlier published a study of contemporary African history.

  His first books, DAWN (1884) and THE WITCH'S TALE (1884), were undistinguished. At the age of thirty-four, Haggard had become a household name. He published one to three books a year, in which the setting ranged from Iceland to the South Seas. Haggard also tried his hand in several forms of the novel: psychological such as MR. MEESON'S WILL, historical such as

CLEOPATRA (first of series) and fantastic such as STELLA FREGEL1US.

  During his career, he wrote over 40 books, many of which have been made into films including CLEOPATRA.

  Between 1912 and 1917 he traveled extensively as a member of the Dominions Royal Commission. Haggard was an expert on agricultural and social conditions in England and on colonial migration. In 1912 he was knighted for his government services and was later appointed Knight Commander of the British Empire. Haggard died in London, on May 14, 1925.

B. Synopsis of the Story

  This begins with an unnamed European doctor visiting a tomb at Aydos, with a band of Arabs led by Ali. Ali had told the doctor about the tomb

  (which he had robbed), and that were was a coffin yet untouched. They discover the coffin, and observe that the body looks as though it has moved after being placed in the coffin. The doctor partially unwrapped it, and this reinforces his impression. He discovers the papyrus of which rest of the story is the translation - completed subsequently in London by a qualified archaeologist.

  Harmachis, son of Amenemhat, hereditary high priest of Temple of Sethi was bom at Abouthis, later Abydos (where Osiris was buried), on the same day as Cleopatra, in reign of Pharaoh Ptolemy Auletes (the Piper). His

  (unnamed) mother, who died the same day, prophesised that Harmachis would become pharaoh, and sweep the Macedeonian line from the throne. the oath that cannot be broken that they will not reveal what has been prophesized. However, Atoua, who had been nurse to his mother and now assumed that role for her son, has difficulty keeping quiet. She tells her daughter, whose husband tells a friend - who is a spy of pharaoh’s.

  Greek guards are sent to kill Harmachis, lest the prophecy be fulfilled. Their boat runs aground, and before they come ashore a local farmer and overseer of canals runs to the Temple of Sethi to warn them. Amanemhat is away, visiting the Valley of the Kings. The overseer sees a child, of approximately the same age as Harmachis, asking whose it is. It is Atoua’s grandson. The overseer simply says to her, “woman, thou knowest thy duty, do it!”, and Atoua swaps children. The guards kill her grandson. The parents return and are not very please, but Amenemhat, who now also returns, arranges for them to be seized in the night and convey to the secret chambers of the temple, and they are never heard from again.

  It is now put about that Harmachis is the grandson of Atoua, adopted by Amenemhat in place of his own son. He is taught the usual priestly knowledge - though he does also go out and kill a lion at at 17, against the wishes of his father. His father who now tells him that he is indeed his own son, and that it is foreseen that he will pharaoh - but not yet will the plan be put into effect, since he cannot be trusted yet (though Ptolemy is just recently deceased). Amenemhat and Harmachis are the only descendants of the pre -

  Ptolemy pharaohs (specifically from Pharaoh Nekt - nebf, driven out by

  27 Ochus the Persian), and throughout Egypt (or Khem as it is generally called) people were already swearing allegiance to him who would be revealed.

  Harmachis prays to Isis, for he is to be dedicated to the service if her in particular, and a lotus blossom floats into his hand. He takes this as an omen.

  Harmachis is sent to his uncle Sepa, high priest of the Temple of Ra at On (Helipolis, or Annu el Ra), for further education. On the way, he stopped at Memfi, where he say Apis, the Ptah in the form of a bull, who bowed down to him in front of a select group of high priests and nobles.

  He spends 5 years at On, studying religion, astronomy, magic, dreams, Greek and Latin languages, history, politics, etc. Cleopatra is now queen.