There are 3 Basic Design you need to know
PRODUCT DESIGN ANTHROPOMETRY
Terminologically, anthropometry comes from the word “anthropos” which means human and “metron” which means measurement (Bridger,1995). According to Sanders & Mc Cormick (1987); Pheasant (1988), and Pulat (1992), anthropometry is body dimension measurement or other physical body characteristics that relevant with the design of something that used by people. Every product design, whether simple or complex design, should be oriented to the
THERE ARE 3 BASIC DESIGN YOU NEED TO KNOW1. Product design for individual with extreme dimension.
Example: determining the minimum width and height of emergencydoor.
2. Product design for the average measurement.
Example: public facility design, such as restroom, waiting chair, etc.
3. Product design that can be operated in certain range measurement.
Example: car chair design that can be slided forward or backward, and the angle of the back rest also can be changed. APLICATION :
- Work station design (work station, car interior,etc)
- Work equipments design (tools, helmet, machine, dll).
- Consumptive products design (clothes, chair, desk, etc).
- Physical work environment design.
BASED ON HOW TO MEASURE,
ANTHROPOMETRY IS DIVIDED INTOTWO; (1) ANTHROPOMETRY STATICS (2) ANTHROPOMETRY DYNAMICS
Anthropometry statics, where the measurements are taken to human body in static position. The measured dimension are taken linearly and in the body surface.
Anthropometry dynamics, where the measurements are taken in various body position while moving, so it will be more complex and difficult to measure.
FACTORS THAT CAUSE
VARIATION OF BODY DIMENSION
Human body dimension will be grown since born until around 20 years old for man and 17 years old for woman. And then it will decrease in age 60 years old.
b) Gender Generally, man has bigger body dimension except for chest and hip.
c) Ethnic Dimension variation will be emerged, because of ethnic influence.
Daily work activities also causing the differences in human body dimension.
BODY POSITION WHILE WORKING
Pulat (1992) gave several considerations about the best type of work that can be done in sitting position :
1. A work that needs an accurate control on feet;
2. The main work is writing or needs an accuration on hands;
3. Do not need large force;
4. Do not need hands to work on more than 15 cm height work base while holding the object;
5. Need high level of body stability; 6. The work takes long time to be done.
7. All the objects that being done or supplied are still within reachin sitting position.
THE GUIDANCE TO ARRANGE THE HEIGHT OF
1. If it is possible, provide a table that can be adjusted upward and downward;
2. The work base should be possible for arm to hang in
relax position from shoulder, with forearm approach
to horizontal position or sloping down slightly; and
3. The height of work base does not need excessive flexion of backbone.
SEVERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE BESTTYPE OF WORK THAT CAN BE DONE IN STANDING POSITION :
1. No space for feet or knee rest;
2. Should hold object with more than 4,5 kg weight;
3. Often to reach upward, downward and sideward;
4. Often to work with pressing downward motion; high mobility required.
WORK STATION DESIGN AND DYNAMICSWORK POSTURE
While Das (1991) and Pulat (1992) stated that the combination of sitting and standing position is the best position than only standing or sitting. This is because the possibility of workers to change the work position to reduce muscle fatigue because unnatural or static posture in a work position.
CHOOSING WORK POSTURE TOWARD VARIOUS TYPE OF WORK nd
2 Choice PERCENTILE
Percentile is a value that shows certain percentage ofpeople that have the size in the percentage or below the percentage. th
For example, (95 percentile shows that 95% peopleare in or below the value and can use the product).
To determine the anthropometry data in normal distribution, it can be formulated from mean and standard deviation of the data. From the value, it can be determined the percentile value according to the probability tabel of normal
DESIGN METHOD USING ANTHROPOMETRY The steps of work system design by considering the anthropometry factor generally are as follows (Roevuck, 1995):
1. Determine the design needs (establish requirements) 2. Define and describe the users’ population.
3. Sample selection that will be taken the data.
4. Determine the required data (body dimension that will be used)
5. Determine the source of data (body dimension that will be measured) and percentile that will be used.
6. Prepare the measurement tools that will be used
7. Data acquisition
8. Processing DataNormality Test Data
Uniformity Test Data, Sufficiency Test Data, Percentile Calculation Data
9. Design Visualization by consider:
- Normal body position
- - Allowance (Clothes and clearance) - Motion variation
10. Design result analysis NORMALITY PROCESSING DATA AND PERCENTILE USING SPSS:
1. Input data of dimension value in data view
2. Enter to variable view, change the collumn with dimension name.
3. Data Processing :
a. Click analyze, choose descriptive statistics, then explore.
b. Input all variables as dependent variables.
c. Checklist both to toolbox display.
d. Choose statistic: checklist descriptive, percentiles, then continue.
e. Choose plots: checklist none to box plots, stem and leaf to descriptive.
f. Checklist normality plots with test, then continue.
g. Choose options: checklist exclude cases listwise, then continue. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURING TOOLS Anthropomete Tape r Medical
scalee rg la : rs e lip a ll a
C g g m in s in r d d e a lid n
BIOMETRICS the automatic identification of a person based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics Forensics: criminal identification and prison security Prevention of unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks Automobiles: replace keys with key-less entry and key-less ignition Border control and national ID cards
- Fingerprint Identification •Hand Geometry: geometric shape of the hand for authenticating a user's identity
- Face Location: an arbitrary black and white, still image, find the location and size of every human face
- Multibiometrics: integrates face recognition, fingerprint verification, and speaker verification in making a personal identification
BIOMETRICS IN USE
BenGurion Airport: Hand Geometry
FacePass: FaceHeathrow Airport- Verifcation Iris
Also known as Craniometry measurement of the skull and face 3 ways to categorize the skull
- dolichocephalic: long and thin
- brachycephalic: short and broad
- mesocephalic: intermediate length and breadth
4. ft (frontotemporale) 9. op
5. fz (frontozygomaticus) 10. po (porion) CRANIAL ANTHROPOMETRY: 16 FACIAL ZONES (CONT.) 11. n (nasion) 12. sn (subnasale) 13. t (tragion) 14. tr (trichion) 15. v (vertex)
CRANIAL ANTHROPOMETRY FACIAL ZONES Maximal cranial breadth
Maximal cranial length
3- D ANTHROPOMETRY
3D anthropometry, the measure of humans, can be greatly aided by the use of accurate digital humans. We'll take a look at how to create these types of accurate digital humans and how they can be used for the measurement of entire populations Programs:
- Ear Impression 3-D Scanner
: 3D measurement system, a body scanner feeding data into measurement extraction software.
generate a database of human physical dimensions for
men and women of various weights, between the ages of 18 and 65 FUTURE ENDEAVORS OF ANTHROPOMETRY?
1. Study of the structure of the human body (anatomy = to cut apart, to dissect)
2. Biomechanically, one can describe the human body as a basic skeleton whose parts are linked in joints; the members have volumes and mass properties and are moved by muscles.
3. Understanding the properties, capabilities, and limitations of the body allow us to design equipment and tools that use and enhance human strengths.
1. Study of the functions of the human body, of all activities characteristic of living matter (physi-o-logy = study of nature).
2. Living organisms made up of cells; Cell is composed of protoplasm, the physical basis of our life.
Group of organs acting together to accomplish some overall bodily function: • Skeletal system • Muscular • Nervous • Circulatory • Respiratory • Digestive • Excretory • Reproductive • Endocrine
Body measurements are usually defined by the two endpoints of the distance measured. Example starts at the floor on which the subject stands and extends to the highest point on the skull.
1. Height: Vertical point-to-point, straight-line
2. Breadth: Horizontal point-to-point, straight-line
3. Distance: Straight-line, point-to-point measurement between landmarks on the body
4. Curvature: Point-to-point measurement following a contour
STANDARDIZATION OF BODY MEASUREMENT:
- ISO began to standardize anthropometric measures and
measuring •technique in the 1980s.
- ISO/DIS 7250-1,2,3 (www.iso.org)
- ISO/DIS 7250-1 Basic human body measurements for
technological design -- Part 1: Body measurement definitions and landmarks
- ISO/NP 7250-2 Basic human body measurements for
technological design -- Part 2: Statistical summaries of body measurements from individual ISO populations
- ISO/NP 7250-3 Basic human body measurements for
technological design -- Part 3: Worldwide and regional MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE:
1. Classical technique: Shortcoming: Simple but time consuming;
1. Many bony landmarks cannot be projected easily onto grids
2. Contact measurements cannot be made on certain sensitive parts
3. Body dimensions unrelated to each other, not a 3-D picture
2. New technique:
Photograph, video, laser-based anthropometry Laser: distance-measuring device to determine the shape of irregularbodies.
Markers: be placed on points of surface so that the laser can recognize them.
- * V-scope analysis
Tool for measurement and recording the motion of bodies in 1-D,2-D, and 3-D Tracking technology: Emit infrared signal → trigger ultrasonic Response signal Components: Towers, Buttons, Micro computer The principle of measurement: each tower sends an infrared signal, a button activated the button beeps; Given the speed of sound, the time it takes for the “beep” can be converted into distance.
- • Standing /sitting (static) posture • Reaches – “functional” data
Body postures at work Such data are used for engineering design (e.g., workstation, equipment design…)
FUNCTIONAL / DYNAMIC ANTHROPOMETRY Body data at work or to achieve a desired posture
ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA VARIABILITY
Sources of variability: • Measurement(e.g., population samples selected) • Intra-individual (e.g., longitudinal study on statue from young to old) • Inter-individual (e.g., cross-sectional study, people of different ages, sizes… included in the sample set) • Secular: (e.g., statue, weight increases, contemporizes bigger than ancestors)
INSTRUMENTS for SOMATOLOGIES and OESTEOLOGY
Finger Circumference Gauge DIGITAL WEIGHING and MEASURING STATION
INSTRUMENTS HARPENDEN SITTING HEIGHT TABLE HARPENDEN SKINFOLD CALIPER LAFAYETTE ANTHROPOMETER SET
LAFAYETTE SKIN FOLD CALIPER