An Analysis Of Multiple Personality On Leading Character As Portrayed In Daniel Keyes’s The Minds Of Billy Milligan

AN ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY ON LEADING CHARACTER AS PORTRAYED IN DANIEL KEYES’S THE MINDS OF
BILLY MILLIGAN A THESIS BY
FATIH AMALIA NASUTION REG. NO. 100705105
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA
MEDAN 2015
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AN ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY ON LEADING CHARACTER AS PORTRAYED IN DANIEL KEYES’S THE MINDS OF
BILLY MILLIGAN

SUPERVISOR

A THESIS
BY FATIH AMALIA NASUTION
REG. NO. 100705105
CO-SUPERVISOR

Dr. Martha Pardede, M.S.

Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis, M.Hum.

Submitted to Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara Medan in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from Department of English

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA
MEDAN 2015

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Approved by the Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara (USU) Medan as thesis for The Sarjana Sastra Examination.

Head,

Secretary,

Dr. H. Muhizar Muchtar, MS.

Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, M.A., Ph.D.

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Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from the Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara,Medan.
The examination is held in Department of English Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara on Wednesday February 11, 2015
Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara

Dr.H.Syahron Lubis, MA NIP.19511013 197603 1 001

Board of Examiners
Dr. H. Muhizar Muchtar, MS. Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, M.A., Ph.D. Dr. Martha Pardede, M.S. Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M.Hum.

…………………………….. …………………………….. …………………………….. ……………………………..

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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
I, FATIH AMALIA NASUTION DECLARE THAT I AM THE SOLE AUTHOR OF THIS THESIS EXCEPT WHERE REFERENCE IS MADE IN THE TEXT OF THIS THESIS. THIS THESIS CONTAINS NO MATERIAL PUBLISHED ELSEWHERE OR EXTRACTED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FROM A THESIS BY WHICH I HAVE QUALIFIED FOR OR AWARDED ANOTHER DEGREE. NO OTHER PERSON’S WORK HAS BEEN USED WITHOUT DUE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS IN THE MAIN TEXT OF THIS THESIS. THIS THESIS HAS NOT BEEN SUBMITTED FOR THE AWARD OF ANOTHER DEGREE IN ANY TERTIARY EDUCATION.

Signed Date

: : February 20, 2015

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COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

NAME TITLE OF THESIS
QUALIFICATION DEPARTMENT

: FATIH AMALIA NASUTION : AN ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY ON LEADING CHARACTER AS POTRAYED IN DANIEL KEYE’S THE MINDS OF BILLY MILLIGAN : S-1/SARJANA SASTRA : ENGLISH

I AM WILLING THAT MY THESIS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR REPRODUCTION AT THE DISRECTION OF THE LIBRARIAN OF DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH, FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA ON THE UNDERSTANDING THAT USERS ARE MADE AWARE OF THEIR OBLIGATION UNDER THE LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA.

Signed Date

: : February 20, 2015

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Bissmillahirrahmanirrahim, First of all, I would like to thank and praise to the Almighty God, Allah SWT
who gives strength, health, and patience for me as finishing this thesis, entitled An Analysis of Multiple Personality on Leading Character as Portrayed in Daniel Keyes’s The Minds of Billy Milligan. Thanks for blessing me in order to get a S1 Degree in English from Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of Sumatera Utara.
I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to the Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of Sumatera Utara, Dr. H. Syahron Lubis, M.A. Dr. H. Muhizar Muchtar,M.S, as the Head of English Department, and Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, M.A., Ph.D, as the Secretary of English Department, for supporting my academic study. I would also like to give thanks to all lectures in English Department for giving me valuable knowledge, advices, times, and facilities during my academic years. I would also like to express my special thanks to my supervisor Dr. Martha Pardede, M.S. and Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis, M.Hum as co-supervisor for helping me finishing this thesis.
My deepest gratitude is dedicated to my beloved family, to my parents, Ir. H. Bachri Syamsul Nasution my beloved father, Dra. Hj. Christina Winarsih my beloved mother who are always give me supports and love. I would also like to say thanks to
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my dearest sister Annisa Rosa Nasution for the support and help me resolved the problem of this thesis, honestly I can’t do it without you. Least but not last, thanks to my lovely Brothers, Togar Rio Nasution and Bima Adiguna Nasution, you guys are rock!
I also thank to all my friends in English literature especially class of 2010, Yuni Erika, Annisa Musa, Nadia Marcelina, Uswatun Nisa, Balqis Astarini, Khairunisa Aziz, Chaesa Ria, and Mak Kiki for the amazing school times, can’t never forget how crazy we were, I love you all! To my best classmates, best friends, Mentari, Ozafizah Landau, Depika Shaela, I don’t know how much I have to say thanks to them, you guys are diamond. To my special friends, Febby Priscilla & Romi Sandy, thank you so much. Also, to my beloved senior high best friends, Maya Wulandari, Agung Nugraha, Yudo Utomo, Ahmad Suraya, Yati Sarfina, and Rana Safira who are the best for me, and can’t never be replaced.
May God Almighty bless them all, Amin.
Medan, February 2015
Fatih Amalia Nasution
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ABSTRACT
In discussing a literary work, there are many elements that can be made as the object of problems, one of them is psychology. The Minds of Billy Milligan is a literary work that discusses the psychological element, is multiple personality. A novel by Daniel Keyes revealed the disorder in leading character, Billy Milligan. Billy suffers from multiple personality where there are several completely different person in one body. This condition is also known as dissociative identity disorder. This condition occurs due to childhood trauma. To understand more about multiple personalities experienced by Billy, it would be require a discussion of the character, which is one important element in understanding literature. This thesis analyzes the characteristics of which is found in multiple personality through psychological theories, and what impact of abuse is that happen to the victim. The conclusion of this thesis is to find out and to know about multiple personality that may happens to the people around us. Keywords: Psychology, Multiple Personality Disorder, Dissociative Identity
Disorder, Abuse.
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ABSTRAK
Dalam membahas sebuah karya sastra, terdapat banyak unsur yang dapat dijadikan objek permasalahan, salah satunya adalah psikologi. The Minds of Billy Milligan merupakan sebuah karya sastra yang membahas tentang unsur psikologi, yaitu kepribadian majemuk. Novel karya Daniel Keyes ini membuka tabir kekacauan yang terjadi pada tokoh utama yaitu, Billy Milligan. Billy mengalami kepribadian ganda dimana terdapat beberapa pribadi yang sepenuhnya berbeda dalam satu tubuh. Kondisi ini juga dikenal sebagai penyimpangan disosiasi identitas. Kondisi ini terjadi disebabkan adanya trauma semasa kecil. Untuk lebih memahami tentang kepribadian ganda yang dialami oleh Billy, maka diperlukan pembahasan tentang karakter yang merupakan salah satu unsur penting dalam memahami karya sastra. Skripsi ini menganalisis tentang karakteristik apa saja yang terdapat pada kepribadian majemuk melalui teori-teori psikologi, dan apa akibat dan/dari kekerasan yang terjadi pada si penderita. Kesimpulan dari tesis ini adalah untuk mengenal kepribadian majemuk pada seseorang, yang mungkin ada disekitar kita. Kata Kunci: Psikologi, Kepribadian Ganda, Penyimpangan Disosiasi Identitas, Kekerasan
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION …………………………………………………..v COPYRIGHT DECLARATION ………………………………………………..vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………... vii ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………….ix TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………... xi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Background of the Study ……………………………………..1 1.2 Problems of the Study ………………………………………...5 1.3 Objective of the Study ………………………………………...6 1.4 Scope of the Study …………………………………………….6 1.5 Significance of the Study ……………………………………...7 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ………………………………….8 2.1 Psychology and Literature ……………………………………8 2.2 Character ……………………………………………………...11 2.3 Child Abuse …………………………………………………...14 2.4 Multiple Personality Disorder or DID ………………………16 2.4.1 The Characteristic of DID ………………………………… 19 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ……………………………...21 3.1 Research Design ……………………………………………….21 3.2 Data Collecting ………………………………………………...23 3.3 Data Analysis …………………………………………………..23
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CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS AND FINDING …………………………………..25 4.1 Multiple Personality Pictured in the Novel The Minds of Billy Milligan ………………………………………………………...25 4.1.1 Characteristics of Multiple Personality Disorders ………...25 4.1.2 Leading Character Has Two or More Distinct Personalities ………………………………………………….25 4.1.3 Leading Character’s Personalities: Own Name, Gender, History, Behavior, and Social Relationship ……...30 4.1.4 Leading Character Experience a Form of Amnesia or Gaps of Time ……………………………………………...36 4.2 The Cause of Multiple Personality Portrayed in the Novel The Minds of Billy Milligan …………………………………...38 4.2.1 The Causes of Multiple Personality ………………………...39 4.2.1.1 Emotional Abuse …………………………………………..39 4.2.1.2 Verbal Abuse and Physical Abuse ………………………..41 4.2.1.3 Sexual Abuse ………………………………………………44
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ………………………...48 5.1 Conclusion ……………………………………………………..48 5.2 Suggestions …………………………………………………….49 xii

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………50 APPENDICES …………………………………………………………………….xiv APPENDIX I: DANIEL KEYE’S BIOGRAPHY AND WORKS ……………..xiv APPENDIX II: SUMMARY OF THE MINDS OF BILLY MILLIGAN ………xvi APPENDIX III: WILLIAM STANLEY MILLIGAN BIOGRAPHY ………..xxi
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ABSTRACT
In discussing a literary work, there are many elements that can be made as the object of problems, one of them is psychology. The Minds of Billy Milligan is a literary work that discusses the psychological element, is multiple personality. A novel by Daniel Keyes revealed the disorder in leading character, Billy Milligan. Billy suffers from multiple personality where there are several completely different person in one body. This condition is also known as dissociative identity disorder. This condition occurs due to childhood trauma. To understand more about multiple personalities experienced by Billy, it would be require a discussion of the character, which is one important element in understanding literature. This thesis analyzes the characteristics of which is found in multiple personality through psychological theories, and what impact of abuse is that happen to the victim. The conclusion of this thesis is to find out and to know about multiple personality that may happens to the people around us. Keywords: Psychology, Multiple Personality Disorder, Dissociative Identity
Disorder, Abuse.
ix

ABSTRAK
Dalam membahas sebuah karya sastra, terdapat banyak unsur yang dapat dijadikan objek permasalahan, salah satunya adalah psikologi. The Minds of Billy Milligan merupakan sebuah karya sastra yang membahas tentang unsur psikologi, yaitu kepribadian majemuk. Novel karya Daniel Keyes ini membuka tabir kekacauan yang terjadi pada tokoh utama yaitu, Billy Milligan. Billy mengalami kepribadian ganda dimana terdapat beberapa pribadi yang sepenuhnya berbeda dalam satu tubuh. Kondisi ini juga dikenal sebagai penyimpangan disosiasi identitas. Kondisi ini terjadi disebabkan adanya trauma semasa kecil. Untuk lebih memahami tentang kepribadian ganda yang dialami oleh Billy, maka diperlukan pembahasan tentang karakter yang merupakan salah satu unsur penting dalam memahami karya sastra. Skripsi ini menganalisis tentang karakteristik apa saja yang terdapat pada kepribadian majemuk melalui teori-teori psikologi, dan apa akibat dan/dari kekerasan yang terjadi pada si penderita. Kesimpulan dari tesis ini adalah untuk mengenal kepribadian majemuk pada seseorang, yang mungkin ada disekitar kita. Kata Kunci: Psikologi, Kepribadian Ganda, Penyimpangan Disosiasi Identitas, Kekerasan
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of The Study
Violence against children has become a hot topic in the news and social media these past few years. Violence can be done by anyone, but ironically that violence done by our own parents as our closest family members. As an example, many children in the United States suffer from maltreatment, it is estimated that every year between 1 and 3 million children are physically or psychologically abused and that the majority of these children are abused by family members. Children are subjected to verbal abuse; they are starved, beaten, burned out, chained, isolated, left to lie filthy and in their own excrement, or sexually molested, and not a small number are murdered. In 2005, in the United States, more than 1.300 children died as a result of child abuse almost four children every day.
The same case happened in Indonesia, like Seto Mulyadi, the National Commission on Child Protection, said that child abuse cases in Indonesia had increased by around 40 to 50 percent per year over the last few years. Last year, the number of reported cases reached 2,300. This year, however, there were 2,000 cases reported in the first six months of the year. Another example of this case was last year, 12-year-old Riri was sent from her village in Central Java to live with her uncle and aunt in Jakarta, the capital. Over a period of four months, she was repeatedly raped by her uncle, who threatened to kill her and possess her with evil spirits if she reported the abuse. He then forced her to become a sex worker. According to the
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head of the shelter, for two weeks Riri was forced to charge US$21 per sexual encounter in East Jakarta, where she is now recovering. After fleeing from her uncle’s house, she happened to rest mid-escape near the home of a local community leader, who brought her to the government-run shelter.
Based on the issues above, then there are some negative effects on violence against children. The correlation of childhood trauma and later health concerns has been the subject of a number of studies. Research has found that childhood experiences of abuse contribute to the likelihood of depression, anxiety disorders, addictions, personality disorders, eating disorders, sexual disorders and suicidal behavior. A study by Palmer, Brown, Rae-Grant, & Loughin (2001) with 384 survivors of childhood abuse found that survivors of child abuse tended to be depressed, have low-self esteem, and to have problems with family functioning. A recent study found that almost 76% of adults reporting child physical abuse and neglect have at least one psychiatric disorder in their lifetime and nearly 50% have three or more psychiatric disorder. Adults with abuse histories also present with physical problems more frequently than those who have not experienced abuse.
Psychology is a scientific discipline that fully struggling with the problems of man and humanity. Psychology is also the science that tries to explain, predict, and control the behavior of human mental. The particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual is called personality. Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual’s culture.
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Gleaves, Hernandez, & Warner, in Professional Psychology: Research & Practice (1999) said Dissociative Identity Disorder, formerly Multiple Personality Disorder remains a highly controversial disorder. The disease theory of Multiple Personality Disorder is that unhappiness in adulthood from trauma in childhood and Spanos in his book Psychological Bulletin (1994) also said the trauma is so severe that the individual creates multiple identities to cope with it. The severe trauma is thought to be a result of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The diagnostic criteria for this disorder as cited in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), states that an individual displaying at least two personality states in which these personality states take control of the persons behavior can be diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID). The individual diagnosed with this disorder tends to be depressed, passive, and often displays feelings of guilt. An individual’s personality is apparently split into two or more distinct sub-personalities, each of which may become dominant at different times. People with multiple personality disorder suffer from internal chaos, roller-coaster emotions and terrible memories. They also present confusing and contradictory images to their family and friends. But in spite of all this, multiple personality disorder is a treatable disorder.
Talking about disorder, it is often become the high rates of sexual and physical abuse. After Pope, Olivia, Hudson, Bodkin, and Gruber (1999) surveyed a group of 301 board certified American psychiatrists their results indicated that only 1/3 of those surveyed felt that Multiple Personality Disorder should be included in the DSM – IV (1994) without hesitation, while the remaining felt that it should only be a proposed diagnosis.
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I chose this topic as my thesis because abuses on children happened in the novel that I want to discuss. Multiple personality disorder becomes the theme of The Minds of Billy Milligan by Daniel Keyes which is based on true story.
William Stanley Milligan or much known as Billy Milligan was born and raised in a family that struggled submarginal survive the economic pressures and cultural liberalism. He was 26 years, didn’t finish high school. He was the main personality of the other 24 personalities. He has became complex personality because his stepfather treated him rudely. What his stepfather had done, it was never known by Billy’s biological mother, Dorothy. Violence which his stepfather did, has made him became afraid of men, especially his stepfather, Chalmer Milligan. William Stanley Milligan 4 years old when he, for the first time, "creating a" figure of Christene, 3-year-old girl who became friends playing Kathy, brother Billy, William’s nickname. Starting from loneliness due to did not have a friend to play at home: Jim, his brother did not like playing with him, while Kathy was still too small, so he then created Christene earlier figures. Furthermore, as the painful events in his life, the other characters begin to be present. Until Billy adulthood. The novel also tell about conflicts that resulted from his other personalities Adalana, who raped three girls from Ohio State University (OSU) which made Milligan fell injail.
Novel and other literary works are no longer discussing about social life, romance, or just entertainment only. Now, novels discuss more serious topic, such as psychology. Therefore, the reader does not need to buy psychology books. Through the novel, the reader can learn and understand the cases of psychology in the easiest way.
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Done Dinkmeyer in Child Development (1965) said that psychologists, educators, and sociologists all agree that the family is the most significant single influence on the development of the child. The family is the major environmental influence and remains throughout life the most persuasive of all influences. It is in the family that the child either learns to trust people or to be fearful and uncertain of others. The family has a most significant role to play in the development of personality. Most of early social learning is experienced within the family.
Grace Craig in Human Development Fourth Edition (1986) said that instead of encouraging and reinforcing the unique, intimate bond between parent and child, the child abuser destroys the expectations of love, trust, and dependence so essential to the young child. What constitutes child abuse may depend on the social milieu and community standards of a particular family. Although much of the damage suffered by children is due to carelessness or look supervision, the results can be just as tragic as those of intentional abuse.
There is some opinion by The Washington Post Book World shows that novel has the meaning and the purpose of the novel, from book itself: “Daniel Keyes has been carrying out this novel brilliantly, by making this novel not only clear and accurate, but also exudes a special warmth and empathy for the victims mental state and failure.”
1.2 Problem of The Study
In order to simplify and to know the subject matter of the story, I make formulation of problems which are going to be analyzed. The problems are:
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1. How is multiple personality pictured in the novel The Minds of Billy Milligan?
2. What are the causes of multiple personality portrayed in the novel The Minds of Billy Milligan?
1.3 Objective of the Study The objective of the study tends to answer the questions or the problems of the
study and it would be useless if a study does not have its aim to be achieved. The aim or the purpose of this thesis is:
1. To find out how is multiple personality pictured in the novel The Minds of Billy Milligan.
2. To explain the causes of multiple personality as portrayed in the novel The Minds of Billy Milligan.
1.4 Scope of The Study To avoid overlapping explanation, I make a clear scope and delimitation, so
that the analysis will be focusable. There are many aspects which can be analyzed in this novel. But I deliberated discuss into more detail about child abuse in leading character which could have a negative impact on child’s psychological or personality. Therefore beyond the scope of this, I would not describe it extensively.
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1.5 Significance of The Study
The study gives some advantages to the reader about the novel The Minds of Billy Milligan. This thesis can be an afterthought and can be an inspiration to us, especially parents who have children, so as not commit acts of violence beyond human conscience. This thesis tells parents that their children are not haphazardly entrusted on others. Teach parents not to use any violence to their children. Because it was in fact a lot of violence against children occurs at the hands of their own parents. Also as the science of good parenting, or maybe can be used in teaching for teachers so they will more understand about their students as well. This thesis will be useful for the readers or people who need this thesis as a reference.

CHAPTER II

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Psychology and Literature Psychology and literature are two different things, but through literature we can
learn about psychology. Literary work has become a more serious discussion leads to psychology. Psychology entered literary works because the writer uses his emotions in writing literary works.
Wellek and Warren (1977: 139) in their book “Theory of Literature” explains that psychology can enter to literature by studying the psychology of the writer, psychology of the character, and also psychology of the reader. Psychology can enter literature because the author uses his feeling and emotion in creating work as happens in novel.
Literature is a place for expressing our thoughts, and shed in a letter. Literature also has an attractive language style, so the reader does not feel bored to keep reading. Human usually become the object of a literary work, because of many things that can be discussed in human life, one of which is a person’s psychology.
Terry Eagleton in Literary Theory An Introduction (2008: 4) says, “literature is a ‘special’ kind of language, in contrast to the ‘ordinary’ language we commonly use. But to spot a deviation implies being able to identify the norm from which it swerves.” Thus, literature is a language that uses special way to delivering something, and it has meaning, and the meaning of its own.
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Richard Taylor in Understanding The Elements Of Literature (1981: 1) said that literature is a place of writing which the writer can expresses their imagination, emotion, feeling through life experience. Human are the basic objects in literary work. The events that happen in one’s life is the target, of literary work.
“Literature, like other arts, is essentially an imaginative act, that is, an act of the writer’s imagination in selecting, ordering, and interpreting life-experience. In the case of literature, words are the medium of expression and it makes little difference whether those words are recorded in the living memory of a people or by some mechanical means such as writing, sound recording, etc.” (Taylor (1981: 1)
John Peck and Martin Coyle in Literary Terms and Criticism (1984: 1, 102) said that literature has genre. Genre means a type or class of literature. Today, it is known as poetry, drama and the novel, different from earlier times the major genre recognized as epic, tragedy, lyric, comedy and satire. Novels are all about human condition or people in society. Writers have always been interested in term of human life, the development of the novel reflects a view of life towards a new interest in the complexities of everyday experience. Most novels are concerned with ordinary people and the problems in societies in which they find themselves.
A novel usually begins with a description of a place or a character. A characters introduced at the beginning of a novel will usually come into collision with society. Along the story, the characters will be faced with conflict, confrontation, and problematic situation, which usually come from their own family or society (John Peck and Martin Coyle, 1984: 110).
In character, of course it has emotion, feeling, and behavior which support the idea of the story. Novel presents the psychology and psychology itself presents as a
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knowledge that discusses about human mind in human personality as a character because character is build by using psychological principles.
Orgel Moskowitz in his book entitled General Psychology (1969: 4) said that psychology is the study of mental process, based on human behavior, predict, and control human mind. The process itself included structure and function, stimulus and sensation, learning, perception, and motivation.
“Psychology is an empirical science based on objective observation and experimental investigation. Its focus is on behavior; its purpose is to provide an understanding of the mechanisms of human activity and adaptation so that man might improve himself.” The functions of learning psychology are to understand human mind, and behavior. So, we can easily anticipate an undesirable state, such as its term of mental disorders. Mental disorders can be happen to anyone, such as, stress, depression, and more.
Richard Gill in his book entitled Mastering English Literature: Third Edition (1985: 90) said that character is a reflection of personality on society. Of course there is a connection between psychology and literature. As we know that psychology is a study of human mind, the literature itself learning about human aspect in society. So both of psychology and literature have relevance. How the character is like, the character speaks, dresses, or maybe the physical appearance of the character, those are in terms of psychological aspects. If psychology, learn directly from a person, literature learn attitude, or behavior from a person through literary works.
Guerin, L. Wilfred et. al. in his book entitled A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature: Second Edition (1979: 122) states that human mind in human personality as a character can be approach by using psychoanalytic theory by
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Sigmund Freud which explains about difference of personality. Personality refers to those characteristics of the person that account for consistent pattern of feeling, thinking, and behavior.
According to Freud’s theory, personality has three concepts, id, ego, and superego. Id has always resided in an individual, in other words it exists from birth. The Id contains everything that is inherited, that is present at birth, is laid down in the constitution, the very deep human desire without caring reality. The Ego comprises organized structure of one’s personality. In other words, the great majority of the Ego’s operative duties are at conscious level, defensive, perceptual, intellectual-cognitive, and executive functions. The role of the Ego is to sift through what is real and what isn’t via organization of our thoughts to make sense of them and how they relate to the world we live in. The Super-Ego, in its role of moral authoritarian, is the opposite of the Id. Regulates our sense of right and wrong. It helps assimilate into the social structure around us via making us act in socially acceptable ways.
So, psychology of literature is a literature study that reviewing psychology of behavior, attitude, mental, and mind of human through literature. It can be psychology of the writer, reader, or the character on a literary work.
2.2 Character Character is the most important part in writing literary works. Without
character, then it will not be an interesting to discuss. Character can be defined as
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any person, animal, or figure represented in a literary work. There are many types of characters that exist in literature, each with its own development and function.
Gill in his book entitled Mastering English Literature: Third Edition (1985: 94) character have some terms, there are round character which usually full, complex, and rich, well it is the opposite with flat character which usually much simple. There are other characters such as open and, closed characters. An open character can grow and develop, whereas a closed one is fixed and unchanging.
E.M Foster (1990: 73-80) in his book entitled Aspects of Novel said there are two kinds of characters. There are round character and flat character. Round character is complex, unpredictable, and usually full of surprise while flat character is predictable, easy to understand, from the beginning of the story until the end, there is nothing change.
Roberts and Jacobs (1993: 136) in his book entitled Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing said that character should be true to real life. Their action, statements, and thoughts must all be what human beings are likely to do, say, and think under the conditions presented in the story. But, there may be persons in life who perform tasks or exhibit characteristics that are difficult or seemingly imposible, such as always getting A+’s on every test, always being cheerful and helpful, or always understanding the needs of others. Some of these characters are usually appear in fiction novel.
Novel is not always fiction. Many novels based on the true story as well. The character in the novel is an original character, not written by the author, the character
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is real. The novel is based on the true story of the author, or the true stories of other people.
John Peck and Martin Coyle in Literary Terms and Criticism (1984: 109) explained that the realistic novelist offers a subtle analysis of his character, but the fiction novelist takes a simpler view that man’s lusts and desires disrupt life, it might be a less subtle view, but it is disturbing one, as it emphasizes the irrational impulses that motivate people.
Characters also distinguish into three subdivisions such as main character, minor character, and also leading character. Main character is the character whose appearance is the most frequently appear in the story and dominant of the story. Minor character can be defined as the supporting character of the main character and the appearance of minor character is usually infrequently while leading character is the centered individual who is very dominant. Leading character is focused personally and it is different with main character which can involve more than one character.
Billy Milligan is a leading character because he is the center of the whole story. His appearances construct every event of the novel ‘The Minds of Billy Milligan’. He has round character. It is reflected by his action, behavior, and also thought causing by his other personalities. Although Billy, as the host of the body, doesn’t know what is going on about his life, until he find out by himself.
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2.3 Child Abuse
There are many kinds of abuse. They are physical abuse, mental abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, etc. Child abuse and neglect occurs in a range of situations, for a range of reasons. For example are, the disharmony in the household, the low income of the family, or other supporting factors that can be trigger violence.
Phillip L Rice (1987) Stress and Health, Principles and Practice for Coping and Wellness says “Abused children tend to suffer a damaged self-imaged, poorer emotional adjustment if not mental disturbance, more disturbed family relationship, lower impulse control, and interior coping skills. Parents who maltreat their children have gad a development history that predisposes them to do so. This does not mean that all abusive parents were themselves abused as children. Parental rejection also may be a key factor.” This book gives more explanation about what makes parents abuse their children and any adverse factors that can occur of abuse. Moreover, this book tells more about mental health in human, adults, teens, and children. Also informs us, that abuse against children which caused by their own parents, evidently have similar memories or events that ever happened since they were a child.
Parents are the most influential in the development of children. In a family, usually parents who are teach, educate, and keep their children. The relationship between parent and children is so intimate, where children learn, act, behave, and spoken, all of it comes from their parents. Childhood is a special period of development, because it has a psychological need, education, as well as the physical condition of a typical and different from adults.
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Dinkmeyer in his book entitled Child Development the Emerging Self (1965) says, “The family is the major environmental influence and remains throughout life the most persuasive of all influences. It is in the family that the child either learns to trust people or to be fearful and uncertain of others. The family has a most significant role to play in the development of personality. Most of early social learning is experienced within the family.” It gives explanation about the role of the family in life, and children development. This book explains more in detail about what is the responsibility of parents in raising children. Teach interact with others, to trust others, to anxiety others, and those are should be taught by parents. Parents should not be cited or doing a bad thing, because children are very easy to imitate. Moreover for parents who are abuse children, then it can affect physical health, and also child’s mental.
Grace Craig in Human Development (1986) says, “What constitutes child abuse may depend on the social milieu and community standards of a particular family. Although much of the damage suffered by children is due to carelessness or look supervision, the results can be just as tragic as those of intentional abuse.” This book gives explanation about parents who are intimately bond with children. How parents should give preferential treatment to their children, and not abuse children. Because abusing children can be destroy the hope of love, trust, and mentality of them. The drawback affection, attention from parents, also may be an important factor in child development.
Children have often been the target of abusing. The characteristics of children who have often been the target of abuse, they usually are afraid of getting close to someone, and even afraid to socialize to families and communities. The worst of
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abusing children, it causes a very deep trauma, and imprint in his mind. Mental become incoherent, and can provoke the splitting of personality.
2.4 Multiple Personality disorder or Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
In literature, a lot of things that can be used as a literary work, one of which is psychology. Many aspects of psychology that can be used in the manufacture of a novel, multiple personality disorder or dissociative identity disorder as one of the example which often appears on novel.
Ann M. Kring and Sheri L. Johnson in Abnormal Psychology; Eleventh Edition (2010: 161) said that a diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID) requires that a person have at least two separate personalities, or alters different modes of being, thinking, feeling, and acting that exist independently of each other and that come forth at different times. Each determines the person’s nature and activities when it is in command.
Lauren B. Alloy and John H. Riskind in their book Abnormal Psychology; Current Perspectives Ninth Edition (2005: 184) said that dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this pattern, the personality breaks up into 2 or more distinct identities or personalities states, each well integrated and well developed, which then take turns controlling the person’s behavior.
Richard P. Halgin and Susan Krauss Whitbourne in Abnormal Psychology; Clinical Perspectives on Psychology Disorders (2009: 193) said that in dissociative identity disorder, the assumption is that a person develops more than one self or
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personality. These personalities are referred to as alters, in contrast to the core personality, the host. This condition was formerly called multiple personality disorder (MPD), a term that continues to be used by some lay authors and even a few health professionals. In dissociative identity disorder, each alter is understood to be a consistent and enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and the self.
Multiple personality disorder (MPD) or dissociative identity disorder (DID) is appear with many events, and the events that normally happen is very bad, and imprint on the memory of the person. For example, things that we cannot forget in our mind, and it could become trauma are abuses. There are many kinds of abuses, such as physical abuse, mental abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and verbal abuse. The effect of these abuses, may cause a very deep trauma that can make someone, cannot control his/her own mind. They inadvertently leave their own mind, and they don’t realize that they have another personality. Usually this trauma begins when they are in childhood phase, and continue until adulthood.
Ann M. Kring and Sheri L. Johnson in Abnormal Psychology; Eleventh Edition (2010: 162) said that DID usually begins in childhood, but it is rarely diagnosed until adulthood. It is more severe and extensive than the other dissociative disorders, and recovery may be less complete. Other diagnoses in particular, post traumatic disorder, major depressive disorder, substance abuse, phobias, borderline personality disorder, sexual dysfunction, and somatization disorder. DID commonly accompanied by other symptoms such as headaches, hallucinations, suicide attemps, and self-abuse behavior, as well as by other dissociative symptoms such as amnesia and depersonalization.
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Richard P. Halgin and Susan Krauss Whitbourne in Abnormal Psychology;
Clinical Perspectives on Psychology Disorders (2009: 195) said that traditionally,
dissociative identity disorder has been attributed to the experience of abuse during
childhood. According to this view, traumatized children fail to develop an integrated
and continuous sense of self. In one of the largest studies of psychiatric outpatients,
interviews revealed high prevalence rates for both physical and sexual abuse in
childhood among those with dissociative symptoms (Foote et al.,2006).
Richard P. Kluft in Childhood Antecedents of Multiple Personality (1987: 24)
explains about the cause of multiple personality disorder:
We would like to believe most sexual abuse of children is done by strangers (most often drifters and “perverts’), or occasionally by individuals who insinuate themselves into settings in which children are vulnerable and easily accessible (that is, schools, daycare centers, clubs, camps, and so forth). Most sexual abuse, however, occurs within the family or the neighborhood. Both male and female infants and youngster may be sexually abused by both parents and other relatives of both sexes. Female children have been subject both to rape and to other forms of abuse as sexual objects by their fathers, brothers, male neighbors, or the paramours of their mothers, sisters, or the caretakers. Male children can be abused by comparable female figures.
DID or multiple personality disorder reflects a failure to integrate various
aspects of identity, memory and consciousness in a single multidimensional self.
Usually, a primary identity carries the individual's given name and is passive,
dependent, guilty and depressed. When in control, each personality state, or alter,
may be experienced as if it has a distinct history, self-image and identity. The alters'
characteristics—including name, reported age and gender, vocabulary, general
knowledge, and predominant mood—contrast with those of the primary identity.
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Certain circumstances or stressors can cause a particular alter to emerge. The various identities may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another or appear to be in open conflict.
2.4.1 The Characteristic of Dissociative Identity Disorder or Multiple Personality Disorder
Multiple personality disorder would have some criteria that indicate to the person who has the symptoms of multiple personality disorder. Here are described some of the characteristics of multiple personality disorder.
Richard P. Halgin and Susan Krauss Whitbourne in Abnormal Psychology; Clinical Perspectives on Psychology Disorders (2009: 193-194) said that the characteristics of DID, has at least two distinct identities or personality states, each with its own pattern of perceiving, thinking, and relating, as well as its own style of behavior, personal history, and self-image. People with dissociative identity disorder also experience a form of amnesia, in which they have gaps in their memory about some aspects of their personal history. Some individuals have gaps that span years, or even a decade or more. Sometimes only when other people tell them about events do they become aware of something they have done or said.
Barlow and Durand in Abnormal Psychology; An Integrative Approach, Seventh Edition (2012: 201) said that the diagnostic criteria for DID are:
A. Disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality states.
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B. Recurrent gaps in the recall of everyday events, important personal information, and/ or traumatic events that are inconsistent with ordinary forgetting.
C. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
D. The disturbance is not a normal part of a broadly accepted cultural or religious practice. In children, the symptoms are not attributable to imaginary play mates or other fantasy play.
E. The symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance, or another medical condition.
Richard P. Kluft in Childhood Antecedents of Multiple Personality (1987: 40) explains that there are three diagnostic criteria for multiple personality disorder in DSM-III: 1) the existence within an individual of two (or more) distinct personalities, each of which is in control of the body at different times; 2) the personality that is dominant determines ongoing behavior; and 3) each personality is complex and has its own unique history, behavior patterns, and social relationships.
Moreover, multiple personality disorder or dissociative identity disorder come from depression, and a very deep trauma that cause several mental disorder which the effect of this disorder is the outbreak of multiple personalities. Usually the typical of the sufferer from this disease usually experience some sort of symptoms, such as, amnesia.
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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design In analyzing the thesis, I use descriptive qualitative method. Bogdan and
Taylor (1975: 5) explains that qualitative method is a research procedure that descriptive data such as written word or verbal expression from the people and their behavior that have been observed. Through this method, I use qualitative method by analyzing the and sentences which are related to the topic of this study about multiple personality disorder or dissociative identity disorder found in leading character of novel The Minds of Billy Milligan.
There are three kinds of research methods, library research, field research, and laboratory research. By analyzing The Minds of Billy Milligan I use library research by using some books which are related to the topic of this thesis. Library research is research you do from books. First step, the writer read the novel ‘The Minds of Billy Milligan’ as the source of data of multiple personality in leading character and, then used some psychology textbooks to understand the principles of psychology which is applied by the author of that novel. Data will be collected and selected before it is analyzed by the writer of this thesis to infer the conclusion of the research.
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Collecting
Reducing
Analyzing theory and literature
Conclusion & Suggestion

Documents
Reading/Selecting
Processing Data
• Data Collecting, collect and underline the important things from the novel and related books and references.
• Data Selecting, select all the information that has been collected and only the significant data are used in the process of doing this thesis.
• Data Analyzing, all the selected data are being analyzed to achieve what has been planned in the objective of this thesis.
Interpreting • Data displays using text. • Examining comparing, discussing data and information. • Identifying the problem. • Using some theories of Multiple Personality Disorder.
Analyzing • Factors affecting multiple personality disorder. • Assessing and revising. • Qualitative descriptive method
Conclusion & Suggestion • Summarizing all problems • Providing feedback

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3.2 Data Collecting Library research is applied to support the topic which is being discussed in this
thesis by using some related books as references. The writer also got some information from the internet and used that as the supporting reference of this thesis.
The primary source of data is acquired from the novel which being analyzed in this thesis entitled The Minds of Billy Milligan by Daniel Keyes. The secondary source of data is obtained from other books as the references which are most concerned about multiple personality disorder or dissociative identity disorder as the cause of abused child and theory of personality.
The writer of this thesis applied some steps in collecting data. Firstly, the writer read the novel The Minds of Billy Milligan and tried to recognize what the story about. The writer read both the English and Indonesian version of the novel. Secondly, the writer underlined the important things from the leading character. Thirdly, the data from some books which are focused on multiple personality and abused child are collected. Finally, the writer selected some best quotations which are appropriate to support the idea of multiple personality through the leading character.
3.3 Data Analysis
In analyzing the writer uses descriptive approach. There are some steps of descriptive analytical method. First, data is identified from dialogues or statements which lead to the certain characteristics of multiple personality. Then, the writer will get some certain characteristics through some quotations of novel ‘The Minds of Billy
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Milligan’. Second, those quotations will be analyzed to give interpretation about multiple personality through the leading character of the novel. The interpretation will be supported by quotations from some other books about multiple personality, encyclopedias, and some documents from the internet. Finall

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