A STUDY OF SPEECH STYLE USED BY THE HOST IN �Oprah Winfrey� TALK SHOW PROGRAM ON �METRO TV�]

A STUDY OF SPEECH STYLE USED BY THE
HOST IN “Oprah Winfrey” TALK SHOW
PROGRAM ON
“METRO TV” 
THESIS

By:
Mar’atus Sholichati
07360252

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
2012

This thesis written by Mar’atus Sholichati was approved on August 8, 2012


 

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Alhamdulilah, the Almighty, Beneficient, and Merciful Allah SWT for the guidence and
blessing, so the writer could to finish this thesis. The writer also wants to send sholawat and
greeting to her beloved prophet, Muhammad SAW.
The writer owes deep gratitude and thankful to Fardini Sabilah, M.Pd and Nura Inayati,
SE,SS who give the advises, suggestions, additional ideas, and patience in completing this thesis.
Finally, the writer is also grateful to her beloved parents, sister, brother, and husband
(Eden Alfi) who have given encouragement motivation, financial, pray and love in finishing this
thesis and thanks to all friends (Intan, Lila, Anang, Triana, and Baqiq).

Malang, August 8th, 2012

The writer

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MOTTO AND DEDICATION
MOTTO

“Barang siapa yang memenuhi kebutuhan sesamanya, maka Allah
akan memenuhi kebutuhan dirinya (Al-Hadist)”
“The best human is useful for the others”

DEDICATION

I dedicated this thesis to :
My Beloved Parents (Drs. Tahmid, MPd.I. and St. Nur Jannah)
My sisters (Ika and Puja) and brothers (Alm.Gunawan and Alif Arrasy) My husband (Eden Alfi)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL ............................................................................................................................ i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................................. ....iii
MOTTO AND DEDICATION ............................................................................................... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS......................................................................................................... v
ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................... vii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 1

1.1. Background of the Study .......................................................................... 1
1.2. Statements of the Problems ...................................................................... 5
1.3. Purposes of the Study .............................................................................. 5
1.4. Significance of the Study ......................................................................... 5
1.5. Scope and Limitation of the Study ............................................................. 5
1.6. Definition of Key Terms .......................................................................... 6
CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .............................................. 8
2.1 Theorical Framework ............................................................................................ 8
2.1.1 Sociolingustics ............................................................................................. 8
2.1.2 Styles ........................................................................................................... 9
2.1.3 Speech Styles .............................................................................................10
2.1.4 Theory by Chaer and Agustina .................................................................. 11
2.2. Language Variation ............................................................................................18
2.3. Regional and Social Dialects .............................................................................. 18
2.4. Review of Previous Studies ................................................................................ 19

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD ..........................................................................22
3.1 Type of Research ................................................................................................22
3.2 Data Sources .......................................................................................................23
3.3 Instrument of the Study ....................................................................................... 23
3.4 Data Collection Technique..................................................................................24
3.5 Data Analysis ......................................................................................................24
v

CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS....................................................................................27
4.1. Research Findings ...............................................................................................27
4.1.1 Types of Speech Style .............................................................................. 27
4.1.2 The Dominant of Speech Style ................................................................. 36
4.2. Discussion ........................................................................................................... 38
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION...........................................................................................40
5.1. Conclusion ..........................................................................................................40
5.2. Suggestion........................................................................................................... 41
REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 42
APPENDIXES

vi

REFERENCES
Ary, Donald., et.al. 2002. Introduction to Research in Education. (6th edition). United States
of America: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.
Ary, Donald., et.al. 2010. Introduction to Research in Education. (8th edition). California:
Wadswort Cengage Learning.
Chaer, Abdul., & Agustina, Leonie. 2004. Sosiolinguistik Perkenalan Awal. Jakarta: PT.
Rineksa Cipta.
Chandra, A.P.G. 2005. A Study Of Speech Style Related To The Types Of Speech Used In
Presentation Of Multi Level Marketing. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Surabaya :
Petra Christian University.
Coupland, Nikolas. 2007. Style: Language Variation and Identity. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Depdikbud. 1992. Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Herlina, L. 2003. The Speech Style Used In Selamat Datang Pagi Dialog Program In Rcti.
Unpublished S1 Thesis. Surabaya: Petra Christian University.
Holmes, Janet. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London UK: Longman Group.
Holmes, Janet. 2001. An Introduction to Sociolingustics. New York: Longman.
Hudson, R.A. 1996. Sociolinguistics. (2nd edition).. London: Cambridge University Press.
Iragiliati, Emalia and Refnaldi. 2007. Sociolingustics. (2nd
University Terbuka.

edition). Jakarta: Penerbit

Keraf, Gorys 2007. Argumentasi Dan Narasi. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama
Kushartanti, Yuwono., & Lauder, M. RMT. 2009. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal
Memahami Linguistik. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Levinson, Stephen C. 1993. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mesthrie, Rajend., et.al. 2002. Introducing Sociolingistics. Germany : Edinburg University
Press.
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis. (2nd edition.). Thousand
Oaks: SAGE publications, Inc.
Missikova, Gabriela. 2003. Linguistic Stylistics. Nitra: Univerita Konstanta Filozofa.
Nababan, P.W.L. 1991. Sosiolinguistik Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka
Utama.
42

Stranzy, Philipp. 2005. Encyclopedia of Linguistics. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.

Wardhaugh. 2006. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics.(5th Edition). Australia:
Publishing

Blackwell

Wardhaugh. 2002. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics.(4th Edition). Australia:
Publishing

Blackwell

Yule, George. 2010. The Study of Language. (4th Edition). New York: Cambridge
University Press.

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter explains about background of the study, statement of problems,
scope and limitation, significance of the study, purposes of the study, and definition
of key term.
1.1 Background of the Study
Language plays an important role in society. The main function of language is
the instrument for communicating or interacting to other people. Language is the best
instrument for communication. According to Holmes (1992: 12), people usually use
language to ask for and give information to other people. Moreover, language is used
for expressing feeling of indignation, annoyance, happiness, sadness, admiration,
respect, etc. So, language simultaneously expresses both information and feeling.
In daily life, no one can be separated from other people. They interact each
other in a community to do something that they cannot do alone. They need to
communicate to each other by using a language to convey information and utter their
ideas, feelings, needs, desires, and expectations. Indeed, they do it in different ways.
There are differences in the style used by people, such as style in speaking
and writing. The different styles in speaking are known as speech style. According to
Holmes (2001:246), speech style is the style people used by the speaker to face
language variation which reflects changes in situational factors such as addressee,
setting, social status, task or topic. The speaker here means someone is talking to
whom, while the setting means the location where an event happens. Furthermore, the

 

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topic and function deal with what the conversation is about. There is no person who
speaks precisely alike at all times (Wardhaugh, 2006). In addition, language style
used to talk to others is not the same at all times although they use the same language.
For example, the speech style used by a lecturer is different from that used by vendor.
From that statement, it shows that one’s speech style can indicate the status of the
addressor or addressee.
Besides, no one converses the same style, and it is very important to know the
speech style of the person we are talking to, so that we can use the appropriate style
concerning with the situation, function and social context. Moreover, the speech style
is very important to apply in communication because it can be chosen by a speaker as
strategy to get attention from other people. For example, a lecturer in delivering
lesson uses formal style to her students during the class. Here, the lecturer uses
strategy in getting students’ attention by using formal style because she wants to be
respected by her students during the class. Furthermore, the lecturer in any occasion
may use another style; it depends on the listeners and situation surrounding. Iragiliati
and Refnaldi(2007:4.21) define speech style as the style of speaking according to the
social situation. While, according to Wardhaugh (2006:130), people are separated to
one another by fine gradations of social class, regional origin, and occupation; by
factor such as religion, gender and nationality; by psychological differences such as
particular kinds of linguistic skills, e.g., verbality and literacy; and by personality
characteristics.
On the other hand, English becomes the language of global communication. It
is read and spoken by so many people in the world from different cultures and

 

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nationalities. “More than 300 million people in the world speak English” (Bryson,
1990 : 11 ). English is considered as a symbol of modernization, a key to expend
functional roles, an extra arm for success, mobility in culturally, linguistically
complex and pluralistic societies. In comparison with other languages of wider
communication, knowing English is like possesing the fabled Alladin’s lamp, which
permits one to open, as it were, the linguistic gates to international business,
technology, science, and travel. In short, English provides language of power. As
medium of power, English has acquired intranational and internationally most
important roles.
Then, this study focuses on the speech styles used by the host in “Oprah
Winfrey” talk show program on “METRO TV”. “Oprah Winfrey” is a talk show
program on “METRO TV” that is hosted by Oprah Winfrey. She was born on
January. 29, 1954 (age 57) Kosciusko, Mississippi, United States. She is a celebrity
and entrepreneur in the United States. Oprah is soared after she is being a host on
Oprah Winfrey program.
The writer expects that this thesis will be useful and give beneficial
contribution to the society’s knowledge about language phenomena that happen
around them, especially the use of speech style which is found in daily life.
Furthermore, this study is expected to add knowledge of the students of English
Study Program, who take linguistics major, because it can be a reference for their
additional background of sociolinguistics, mainly about speech style. Moreover, this
study can hopefully contribute some findings for other researchers who are interested

 

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in making further studies of speech style used in the conversation. This talk show
program is chosen by the writer for a number of reasons, there are:
First, the host’s speech styles are depend on the degree of formality and
situation. Holmes (1992) says that the different speaker, different setting and different
topic might express different styles. The host will use high style when they speak to a
government official and use lower style to her/his friends.
Second reason why the writer chooses “Oprah Winfrey” talk show is because
the host, “Oprah Winfrey” can use various expressions. For example, she said: I
meant that was one of the wonderful things in this world, etc. She often uses casual
style to make the guest more being comfortable and relax during the program show.
Third, that talk show program is enjoyable. Actually, the attractiveness of a
talk show is the host. In every episode, she can cheer the guests and the audience up
through her mimics, gestures, sometimes her words that make people laughing, so
that the atmosphere will be relaxed and excited. Thus, this program gets the top rank
among other talk show programs for several times.
Based the above reasons, the writer is interested in investigating “Oprah
Winsfrey” talk show program on “METRO TV”. The writer also wants to classify
and investigate the host of “Oprah Winfrey” speech style.
The writer takes the data from the conversations that are spoken by the host.
The writer investigates every utterance that is spoken by the host. Besides, she tries to
make the readers understand about every category of speech style by explaining and
giving the readers some examples from the conversation in the “Oprah Winsfrey”
program.

 

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1.2 Statement of the Problems
Based on the background of the study, the statement of the problems are:
1. What types of speech style are used by the host in “Oprah Winfrey” talk show
program on METRO TV?
2. What is the most type frequently used by the host in “Oprah Winfrey” talk show
program on METRO TV?
1.3 Purposes of the Study
Based on the statement of the problems, the purposes of the study are:
1. To identify the speech styles used by the host in “Oprah Winfrey” talk show
program.
2. To find out the most of speech style that is used by the host in “Oprah Winfrey”
talk show program.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Hopefully through the findings of the study, the writer hopes the result of
this thesis can make readers understand more clearly about speech style. Moreover,
the writer hopes that her thesis will help the readers in order to compare the use of
speech styles in daily life and those in the talk show program. The study can also be
used as the basis for the other researchers who are interested in making further studies
in speech styles.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research is a sociolinguistics study, which focuses on speech styles that
differentiate to the five kinds of language: frozen style, formal style, consultative
style, casual style, and intimate style. The writer limits the subject of the study only

 

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on the speech styles used by the host in “Oprah Winfrey” talk show program on
“METRO TV”. “Oprah Winfrey” is a talk show program on “METRO TV” that
hosted Oprah Winfrey. The data were broadcasted on March 6th (appendix 1) , 2012
at 10.00 a.m. until 12.00 a.m. The data are sentences in the form of conversation
uttered by the host.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms
Talk Show is a television show on which a person or a group of people discuss
various topics and talk about their lives. It is guided by a host or co-host
who usually asks some questions to the guest stars (Longman,
2001:1484).
Language Style is the characteristics of a person when expressing ideas through a
language. It usually shows the personality of the writer (Keraf, 2007:113)
Presenter is a person who is known for introducing or hosting television programs
(Rahmawati : 2010)
Metro TV is the name of television station which programs “Oprah Winfrey” as an
entertainment talk show program.
Oprah Winfrey is one of entertainment talk show program which shows kinds of
information.
Style

: “how people choose to code what they want to say on a particular
occasion”(Wardhaugh, 2006:8)

Speech style : “what an individual speaker does with a language in relation to other
people”(Coupland, 2007:15)

 

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Sociolinguistic is “an attempt to find correlations between social structure and
linguistic structure and to observe any changes that occur”. Gumperz (in
Wardhaugh, 2003:6)

 

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