A Psychoanalysis Of The Schizophrenic Character In “A Beautiful Mind” Movie











Dr. Siti Norma Nasution,M.Hum. Mahmud Arief Albar,SS. M.A

Submitted to Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara Medan in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from

Department of English



Approved by the Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara (USU) Medan as thesis for The Sarjana Sastra Examination.

Head, Secretary,


Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from the Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara,Medan.

The examination is held in Department of English Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara on Thursday April 16, 2015

Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatra Utara

Dr.H.Syahron Lubis, MA NIP.19511013 197603 1 001

Board of Examiners

Dr. H. Muhizar Muchtar, MS. ………..

Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, M.A., Ph.D. ……….. Dr. Siti Norma Nasution, M.Hum. ………..

Dr. Martha Pardede, M.S. ………..



Assalamualaikum Warrahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

First of all I would like to give my biggest gratitude to Almighty Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala for blessing and endownments in my life, especially during the

process of finishing this thesis. Nothing is impossible to happen without his permission.

I am also grateful to the Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of Sumatra Utara, Dr. H. Syahron Lubis, MA, for giving all students facilities to support their study. The gratitude is also expressed to the Head of English Department Dr. H. Muhizar Muchtar, M.S and the Secretary of English Department Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, M.A., Ph.D. for the easiness and the facilities given to me during my study. I am proud to be a student of this Department.

I also would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Siti Norma Nasution, M.Hum. and Mahmud Arief Albar, SS. M.A as my supervisor and my Co-Supervisor respectively. I am thankful for helps, guidance, and contributions in my thesis.

My lovely thanks are due to my beloved family, Marten Ramaya and Zahara for giving me the good times and hard times too, so I can stand here as myself today. Next, I would like to thank to my beloved brother Willy Marza, Tommy Mahendra, and Teddy Marza.


Big thanks to those friends who has been giving me the helps, joy, laughter and many other things, Aida Caroline, Raja Guntar, Renatha Olivia, Faishal Hafizh, Rizky Indah Soraya, Cristine Falentina, Elysabeth Nababan, Herta Gultom, Fatih Amalia, Mentari, Siti Nurhafizah, Sheila Depika, Anggie. Thank you for sticking with me for all these years. Hope our friendship can last for many more years. Next, thank you for every person whom I cannot mention one by one in this limited space, who has given and contributed their ideas and excellent knowledge, before, during and after writing on this thesis.

May Allah SWT compensate whatever you have given to me.

Medan, April 2015

Febby Priscilla




Signed :

Date : 16 April 2015







Signed :

Date : 16 April 2015



This thesis entitled A Psychoanalysis of the Schizophrenic Character in "A

Beautiful Mind" movie. This thesis discussed about the analysis of the psychology of

the main character in the movie script "A Beautiful Mind" which is divided into

intrinsic elements and extrinsic elements. Intrinsic elements discuss about character, conflict and plot. While extrinsic elements discuss about the abnormal behavior of the main character, the causes of schizophrenia of the main character and the main character treatment in the process of recovery. This movie script is written by Akiva Goldsman. It is adapted from the true story of John Forbes Nash, Jr. which is made into a biography by Sylvia Nasar. In this thesis, the writer would like to explain how the characteristics of the main character who suffered from schizophrenia and how the recovering based on the psychology of literature. The method used by the writer in analyzing the psychological element of the main character in the movie script is descriptive qualitative method.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Mental Disorder, Psychoanalysis



Skripsi ini berjudul A Psychoanalysis of the Schizophrenic Character in “A

Beautiful Mind” movie. Skripsi ini mengenai analisis psikologi terhadap karakter

utama dalam skrip film “A Beautiful Mind” yang dibagi menjadi unsur intrinsik dan

unsur ekstrinsik. Unsur-unsur intrinsik yang dibahas yakni karakter, konflik, dan plot. Sedangkan unsur-unsur ekstrinsik yang dibahas yakni bentuk perilaku abnormal dari karakter utama, penyebab karakter utama mengidap skizofrenia dan proses penyembuhan yang dialami karakter utama. Skrip film ini ditulis oleh Akiva Goldsman. Ini diadaptasi dari kisah nyata John Forbes Nash, Jr. yang dibuat kedalam sebuah biografi oleh Sylvia Nasar. Di dalam skripsi ini, penulis ingin memaparkan bagaimana ciri dari karakter utama yang mengidap skizofrenia dan bagaimana penyembuhannya berdasarkan psikologi sastra. Adapun metode yang digunakan penulis dalam menganalisis unsur psikologis dari tokoh utama pada skrip film ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif.

Kata Kunci: Skizofrenia, Mental Disorder, Psikoanalisis









1.1 Background of the Study... 1

1.2 Problems of the Study... 6

1.3 Objectives of the Study... 6

1.4 Scope of the Study... 7

1.5 Significance of the Study... 7


2.1 Psychology of Literature... 8

2.2 Mental Disorder... 11

2.2.1 Classification of Mental Disorder... 11

2.2.2 Types of Mental Illness... 12

2.2.3 Causes of Mental Disorder... 12

2.3 Kinds of Mental Disorder... 12


2.4.1 The Id... 19

2.4.2 The Ego... 20

2.4.3 The Superego... 21


3.1 Research Design... 23

3.2 Source of Data... 24

3.2.1 Subject Research... 24

3.2.2 Object Research... 24

3.3 Data Collection... 25

3.4 Data Analysis... 25

3.4.1 Steps of Analysis... 25

3.4.2 Step of Work... 26


4.1 Intrinsic Elements... 28

4.1.1 Character... 28

a) John Nash... 28

b) Alicia Larde... 29

4.1.2 Conflict... 29

4.1.3 Plot... 30

4.2 Extrinsic Elements... 30


a) Positive Symptomps... 31

b) Negative Symptomps... 35

4.2.2 The Causes of Schizophrenia of John Nash... 37

a) Id... 38

b) Super Ego... 39

c) Ego... 39

d) Compulsive Obsession... 40

e) Anxiety... 41

f) Depression... 42

4.2.3 John Nash’s Treatments in The Process of Recovery from Schizophrenia... 42

4.3 Findings... 46


5.1 Conclusion... 47

5.2 Suggestion... 49


Appendix A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr. Appendix B Summary of “A Beautiful Mind” Movie Appendix C “A Beautiful Mind” Movie Script



This thesis entitled A Psychoanalysis of the Schizophrenic Character in "A

Beautiful Mind" movie. This thesis discussed about the analysis of the psychology of

the main character in the movie script "A Beautiful Mind" which is divided into

intrinsic elements and extrinsic elements. Intrinsic elements discuss about character, conflict and plot. While extrinsic elements discuss about the abnormal behavior of the main character, the causes of schizophrenia of the main character and the main character treatment in the process of recovery. This movie script is written by Akiva Goldsman. It is adapted from the true story of John Forbes Nash, Jr. which is made into a biography by Sylvia Nasar. In this thesis, the writer would like to explain how the characteristics of the main character who suffered from schizophrenia and how the recovering based on the psychology of literature. The method used by the writer in analyzing the psychological element of the main character in the movie script is descriptive qualitative method.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Mental Disorder, Psychoanalysis



Skripsi ini berjudul A Psychoanalysis of the Schizophrenic Character in “A

Beautiful Mind” movie. Skripsi ini mengenai analisis psikologi terhadap karakter

utama dalam skrip film “A Beautiful Mind” yang dibagi menjadi unsur intrinsik dan

unsur ekstrinsik. Unsur-unsur intrinsik yang dibahas yakni karakter, konflik, dan plot. Sedangkan unsur-unsur ekstrinsik yang dibahas yakni bentuk perilaku abnormal dari karakter utama, penyebab karakter utama mengidap skizofrenia dan proses penyembuhan yang dialami karakter utama. Skrip film ini ditulis oleh Akiva Goldsman. Ini diadaptasi dari kisah nyata John Forbes Nash, Jr. yang dibuat kedalam sebuah biografi oleh Sylvia Nasar. Di dalam skripsi ini, penulis ingin memaparkan bagaimana ciri dari karakter utama yang mengidap skizofrenia dan bagaimana penyembuhannya berdasarkan psikologi sastra. Adapun metode yang digunakan penulis dalam menganalisis unsur psikologis dari tokoh utama pada skrip film ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif.

Kata Kunci: Skizofrenia, Mental Disorder, Psikoanalisis



1.1 Background of the Study

“A Beautiful Mind” is one of the movies that discusses the issues of mental

disorder; schizophrenia. The movie is directed by Ron Howard in 2001, and the movie script is written by Akiva Goldsman in 2000. This movie is adapted from the true story of John Forbes Nash, Jr. which is made into a biography by Sylvia Nassar. The story depicts about the struggle of a genius mathematician named John Forbes Nash, Jr., who succeeded in creating an economic concept that is used as the basis of contemporary economic theory. During the Cold War, Nash got a mental disorder;schizophrenia, which made him live in hallucinations and always be overshadowed by fears that he had to fight hard to recover. At the end of the story, he won the Nobel prize in 1994, as he entered his old age.

The story starts with young Nash who started the first days of lectures at prestigious university, Princeton University in 1947. Since the beginning, Nash described as a loner, shy, humble, introvert and strange person. Despite of all its shortcomings, Nash also described as an arrogant man who was proud of his cleverness. It was showed when he refused to follow the class because he thought that the class just wasted his time and made his brain became dull. He chose to spend his time outside the classroom to get his original ideas and increased his creativity in order to receive his doctoral degree and accepted at the prestigious research center, Wheeler Defense Lab in MIT.

In the middle of his competition with his friend, Nash got a roommate, Charles Herman who has a niece named, Marcee. Nash was very obsessed with mathematics,


that he wrote formulas in the glass window of his room and the library school. He accidentally found a new concept that was contrary to the theory proposed by the father of the modern world economy, Adam Smith. The theory of equilibrium by Nash drove him earning his doctoral degree. Nash's dream came true. Not only he get a doctoral degree, he was also accepted as a researcher and lecturer in MIT.

Nash life began to change when the Pentagon asked him to decode the secret messages sent by Soviet troops. Where, he met a secret agent named, William Parcher. Who later gave him a job as a spy. He was obsessed with his new job that he lost the time and lives in his own world. It is until he met Alicia Larde, a beautiful female student, he realized that he also needed love. After they got married, his disorder became more severe. He kept feeling that his job as secret agent put him in danger. He kept becoming weird and scared for no reason. It was Dr. Rosen, a psyhiatrist whom he met at a seminar in Harvard, who took him to a mental hospital. From there it was revealed, Nash suffered schizophrenia. Some events experienced by Nash were just hallucination. The figure of Charles Herman, his roommate, his adorable nephew, Marcee or the secret agent, William Parcher, actually never existed. Fortunately, Alicia was a devoted wife who never tired of encouraging her husband. With the encouragement and love that never runs out from Alicia, Nash got up and fought against the disease.

All the explanations above show that the main character has mental

disorder;schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a

abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize the reality. People with schizophrenia usually can not live like other normal people. They love being alone and afraid to dealing with others. They often live in their own world because they have delusion, they also often hallucinate the things that can not be seen by other


normal people. People with schizophrenia have difficulties in distinguishing reality and the imaginary, so it can have a negative impact for them and the people around them. Like in this story, the main character almost killed his baby due to his hallucination. The causes of schizophrenia is still a mistery. Some sources said that the structure and brain activity of patients are abnormal. However, in addition to genetic causes (biological), it is possible that schizophrenia is caused by social and psychological factors. Schizophrenia is also often related with a split personality. Split personalities is a condition in which an individual's personality split into another personality. That other personality is usually an expression of the main personality emerged because the real personality can not realize the things it wants to do. Sometimes the patient does not know that they have a split personality. The two personalities that exist in one body do not even know each other, the worse part is that these two personalities has a conflicting personal nature. Split personality is different to schizophrenia. It is one of the characteristics of some patient with schizophrenia.

Another example of schizophrenia is also found in the novel “Genesis” by

Ratih Kumala. This novel tells a story of a child, Pawestri who has a forbidden love. She ended up getting pregnant and later evicted from the house by her father. Her mother is a woman who scared of her husband in which she could only hide her pain away. She was unable to do anything againts her strong husband. She felt more lonely after her daughter was gone. The pain of losses and pressures from her husband made Pawestri mother mental health became worst. She became insane and acted strangely everyday, as if Pawestri was there. Eventually she was taken to the mental hospital. The mental disorders experienced by the lead character's mother are depression and schizophrenia. As shown in lines below:

”Pergi! pergi! pergi!” ibu mulai histeris. teriak-teriak. Dia mulai menggeleng-geleng kepala keras-keras lalu menjambak-jambak


rambutnya sendiri. Perawat datang, membawanya dengan paksa. “Pergi! sekarang adalah saatnya makan siang bersama dengan anakku! pergi! jangan ganggu aku lagi! pergi! pergi!” (kumala. 2005: 6)

The deviations of behavior of the lead character’s mother caused by her depression after losing her daughter and mental pressure that she had. Another example is a true story about William Tennese sister named, Rose. She also had schizophrenia caused by threats and violence from her father. Rose often had wild hallucinations, and she could not control her anger. So from the explanation above, it can be concluded that each sufferer showed different characteristic. This thesis discusses about what are the abnormal behavior of John Nash and what the efforts done in order to recover his mental disorder. The writer assesses that this problem is important to discuss because it can provide information to the reader about what are the characteristics of people with mental disorders, particularly schizophrenia and the way to cure them. Therefore, when we meet someone with this kind of disorder we can minimize the risks that could possibly happen. Because there is no medicine to cure disorder that has been

found yet. But “A Beautiful Mind” gives new hope that the schizophrenic can live like

other normal people and get a successful life such as winning nobel prize. The movie teaches the reader that if we want to succeed, we must have deep intention and struggle started from ourselves.

In doing the analysis, the writer will use library research method. Some related references, such as books and thesis are used to support the theory. The data’s are

obtained from “A Beautiful Mind” movie script and the other book that related with

the problem. This analysis deals with descriptive qualitative method. It refers to a research which explain the analysis of a research.

In order to answer the problems above, the writer will apply psychological approach and the theory of psychoanalysis. Psychological approach can focuses on the


author, the characters, the audience and the text. For author, the theory is used to analyze the author and his/her life, and the literary work is used to supply evidence for this analysis. This is often called "psychobiography." For the characters, the theory is used to analyze one or more characters; the psychological theory becomes a tool to explain the character’s behavior and motivations. The closer the theory applied to the characters, the more realistic the work appears. For the audience, the theory is used to explain the appeal of the work for those who read it; the work is considered embodying universal human psychological processes and motivations, to which the readers respond more or less unconsciously, and for the text, the theory is used to analyze the role of language and symbolism in the work.

Psychoanalysis is a theory related to the function and development of human’s mental. It is a comprehensive system in psychology which is developed to handle the people who have neuroses and the other mental problems. Psychoanalysis is a theory proposed by Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Freiburg, Moravia. The early emersion of the psychoanalysis theory is due to the efforts of Freud in analyzing the world of unconsciousness. As explained by Brenner:

“Psychoanalysis is a scientific dicipline which was begun some sixty years ago by Sigmund Freud. What we call psychoanalyctic theory, therefore, is a body of hypotheses concerning mental functioning and development in a man. It is a part of general psychology and it is comprises what are by far the most important contributions that have been made to human psychology today” (Brenner, 1969:11)

The writer uses this theory because, the purpose of psychoanalysis theory is to treat mental aberration and nerve, to describe how the personality of human’s development, work, and to serve the theory about the way individu can function in personal relationship and community. By applying Freud's theory as a basis of analysis, solving the problem of mental disorder of the main character can be bridged gradually.


So from that explanation the writer interested to choose this title because to increase the knowledge of the readers about the characteristic of the schizophrenia sufferer and the efforts that he did until he gained success.

1.2 Problems of the Study

Followings are the problems of analysis in the thesis:

1. What are the abnormal behaviour of John Nash in “A Beautiful Mind”?

2. What are the causes of schizophrenia of John Nash as found in “A Beautiful


3. What are John Nash’s treatments in the process of recovery from

schizophrenia as found in “A Beautiful Mind”?

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1. To describe the abnormal behaviour of John Nash in “A Beautiful Mind”?

2. To describe the causes of schizophrenia of John Nash as found in “A Beautiful


3. To describe John Nash’s treatments in the process of recovery from

schizophrenia as found in “A Beautiful Mind”?

1.4 Scope of the Study

In order to avoid an excessive discussion, based on the identification of the problem, the scope of the study is to analyze the abnormal behaviour, the causes of the mental disorder, and the solution to recover the mental disorder of the main character in “A Beautiful Mind” movie script, according to the psychology of literature. Scope


of the study is necessary in order to make a research become specific and well managed.

1.5 Significance of the Study

1. For writer

Expected to generate information that can be used as references for developing literature and additional knowledge for English Department of Universitas Sumatra Utara

2. For readers

To get information about the characteristic of mental disorder, particularly schizophrenia

3. For further research

This research is expected to increase knowledge about mental disorders for people who are interested in studying about schizophrenia




This chapter discusses about the related literature of this thesis. The writer has chosen some important books related to the psychology of literature and mental disorder. Some of the books are explain about the theory in analyzing a psychological factors in literary works, kinds of mental disorder, the causes of the mental disorder, the impact of the mental disorder to social life and the solution to recover the mental disorder. Those aspects are important for the purpose of this research. In order to produce an interesting discussion to be studied in this thesis, the library material chosen should be relevant to the problems which are being analyzed, while the information should originally support the analysis of the problem.

2.1.Psychology of Literature

Psychology of Literature is the text analyzed by considering the relevance and role of psychological studies. Psychology also plays an important role in analyzing a literary work by focusing on the point of the psychology of literature both the elements of the author, the characters, and readers, by focusing on the figures and an

inner conflict contained in literature that is going to be analyzed.So, in general, it can

be concluded that the relationship between literature and psychology is very close that they blend and lead to the birth of a new study called "Psychology of Literature". According to Endraswara:

“Psychology literature is a study that looked at the literature as a mental activity. In a broad sense that literature can not be separated from life depicting various series of human personality”(2003: 97)


Psychology of literature is not intended to solve psychological problems. But through the definition above, the goal of the psychology of literature is to understand psychological aspects contained in a literary work. Psychology was born to learn the human psyche, it is human that becomes the object of the study of psychology. Literature is born from society, the author lives in the middle of society and the author also creates a literary work that includes figures in it. Psychology of literature is a literary studies that sees literary work as a mental activity. The author uses an idea, sense and creation in the work. Projection by own experience or the experience other people around the author, will be projected into the imaginary of literary texts.

Drama or movie is a work consisting of literary aspects and aspects of staging. Literary aspects of the drama is a play, while the literary aspects of the movie is the scenarios. According to Rosary (2009), the movie is a medium of communication that is formed from the merger of the two senses, sight and hearing, which has a core or theme of a story that reveals many social realities that occur around the neighborhood in which the film itself grows. JThorneBOT in (wikipedia,2015) states that the screenplay is one of the literary works that have a common structure with the drama. A movie script also has a background, plot, characterization and theme.

Jatman in (Kinayati, 1985:165) states that literary work and psychology does have a close relationship, indirectly and functionally. Indirectly, both literary and psychology have the same object, which is human’s life. Functionally psychology and literature study the mental of the people. The difference is in psychology, the symptoms is real, whereas in the literature it is imaginative. According to Rene Wellek and Austin Warren (1995: 90) the psychology approach of literature is related to the author, the creativity process, literary works, and readers. Nevertheless, the psychological approach is essentially related to the three main symptoms, the authors,


literary works, and the reader, with the consideration that the psychological approach is closer to author and literary works. If the researcher’s attention is dominantly directed to the author, so the model of the research is expressive approach, but if the research’s attention is focused on the literary works, so the model of the research is closer to the objective approach. The psychological research literature, began to show its brilliance in the study of literature. This was due to dissatisfaction of the previous research; the research of sociology of literature or any other literature that gave less attention to the psychological aspect.

The term of Psychology derived from two words, psyche which means soul,

and logos that refers to science. Terminologically, psychology is a science that directs

attention to the human where the object of research focuses on the psyche and human’s behavior. According to Hilgard in (Prihastuti, 2002: 18)"Psychology may be defined as the science that studies the behavior of man". The definition clearly shows that the psychology learsn about the human’s behavior. Bourne Jr. said in (Siswantoro, 2005: 26)"Psychology is the study of behavior sciencitific principles". It explains that psychology is the scientific study of the fundamentals of behavior. So if we look in concrete terms, human’s behaviour is very diverse, but it has a unique pattern if it is observed carefully. Study of psychology learns psychological of someone. There are some people in this world that experience some kind of mental disorder. It does not mean that they are insane because not all mental disorders fall into insanity. All of it depends on the causes, symptomps, and effects.


Gangguan jiwa atau mental disorder merupakan sindrom atau pola perilaku, atau psikologi seseorang yang secara klinik cukup bermakna, dan secara khas berkaitan dengan suatu gejala penderitaan atau gangguan didalam satu atau lebih fungsi yang penting dari manusia. Sebagai tambahan, disimpulkan bahwa disfungsi itu adalah disfungsi dalam segi perilaku, psikologi atau biologi, dan gangguan itu tidak semata-mata terletak didalam hubungan antara orang dengan masyarakat. (Mental disorder is behavioral pattern/someone’s psychology which is clinically meaningful and typically related with a symptom distress or disorder in one or more of the essential functions of human. In addition, it was concluded that the dysfunction is dysfunction in terms of behavior, psychology or biology, and the disorder is not solely life in the relationship between the community) (Rusdi Maslim,1998)

According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 1994), mental disorders is a symptom or a pattern of behavior of someone’s psychology that is clinically apparent that happens to a person related to a state of distress (painful symptoms) or inability (disruption in one or more areas of important functions) which increases the risk of death, pain, disability or loss of the important freedom and often the response is acceptable in certain circumstance.

2.2.1.Classification of Mental Disorder

Classification of mental disorder involves the differentiation from normal and abnormal behavior. In this case, the normal and abnormal can be mean healthy and sick, but it can also be used in another sense. Some of the symptoms differ sharply from normal and almost always indicate disease(Ingram et al., 1993): Mental disorders are divided into two major types, mental illness and mental disabilities. Mental disability includes a state of intellectual deficit that has been developed since born or at an early age. Mental illness implies that previous health, developing abnormalities or abnormalities that manifest later in someone’s life.


2.2.2.Types of Mental Illness

1. Mental illness in general is divided into psychoneurosis and psychosis. This

category in accordance with the lay of the anxiety and madness. Psychoneurosis is a common situation that the symptoms can be understood and can be empathy. Psychosis is a disease whose symptoms can not be understood and can not be empathy and the patients often loses contact with reality.

2. The term functional and organic shows the etiology of the disease and are used to

divide psychosis. Functional Psychosis means there is dysfunction, without demonstrable pathology disorders.

2.2.3.Causes of Mental Disorder

The main symptom or symptoms of mental disorders are prevalent in the psychological element, but probably the main cause is inside of the body (somatogenic), in the social environment (sosiogenic) or psychological (psychogenic),(Maramis, 1994). Usually there is not only one cause, some causes from various elements that influence each other or occur together by chance, then arise bodily or mental disorders.

2.3.Kinds of Mental Disorder

Rusdi Maslim in(Maramis,1994) states that mental disorder is the dominant psychological symptoms of psychic elements. He divided the mental disorders into several kinds:Organic and symptomatic mental disorders, schizophrenia, and delution and skizotipal disorders, neurotic disorders, somatoform disorders, behavioral syndromes that related to physiological disturbances and physical factors, personality disorders and behavior in adulthood, mental retardation, disorders of psychological


development, behavioral and emotional disorders with onset during childhood and adolescence.

 Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is form of the most severe functional psychosis which causes disorganization of the personalities. Schizophrenia often encounteres everywhere since a long time ago. Yet our knowledge of the causes and patogenisa is very little (Maramis, 1994). In severe cases, the patient will has no contact with reality, so that the way the think and behave is abnormal. The course of the disease will gradually move towards chronicity, but occasionally may arise to schizophrenic attacus. Rarely can occur the perfect recovery with spontaneously and if not treated usually end up with a damaged personality "disabled" (Ingram et al., 1995). The causes of schizophrenia are not fully known. However, it appears that schizophrenia usually results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Schizophrenia has a strong hereditary component. Individuals with a first-degree relative (parent or sibling) who has schizophrenia have a 10 percent chance of developing the disorder, as opposed to the 1 percent chance of the general population.But schizophrenia is only influenced by genetics, not determined by it.

While schizophrenia runs in families, about 60% of schizophrenics have no family members with the disorder. Furthermore, individuals who are genetically predisposed to schizophrenia don’t always develop the disease, which shows that biology is not destiny. Twin and adoption studies suggest that inherited genes make a person vulnerable to schizophrenia and then environmental factors act on this vulnerability to trigger the disorder. As for the environmental factors involved, more and more research is pointing to stress, either during pregnancy or at a later stage of


development. High levels of stress are believed to trigger schizophrenia by increasing the body’s production of the hormone cortisol. Research points to several stress-inducing environmental factors that may be involved in schizophrenia, including:

• Prenatal exposure to a viral infection

• Low oxygen levels during birth (from prolonged labor or premature birth)

• Exposure to a virus during infancy

• Early parental loss or separation

• Physical or sexual abuse in childhood

In addition to abnormal brain chemistry, abnormalities in brain structure may also play a role in schizophrenia. Enlarged brain ventricles are seen in some schizophrenics, indicating a deficit in the volume of brain tissue. There is also evidence of abnormally low activity in the frontal lobe, the area of the brain responsible for planning, reasoning, and decision-making. Some studies also suggest that abnormalities in the temporal lobes, hippocampus, and amygdala are connected to schizophrenia’s positive symptoms. But despite the evidence of brain abnormalities, it is highly unlikely that schizophrenia is the result of any one problem in any one region of the brain.

Antipsychotic drugs aren’t the only treatment people with schizophrenia need. Psychotherapy and support are also key. With proper treatment, some individuals with schizophrenia can recover. About a quarter of young people with schizophrenia who get treatment get better within six months to two years, research has found. Another 35 to 40 percent see significant improvements in their symptoms after longer-term treatment—enough to let them live relatively normal lives outside hospitals with only minor symptoms. Antipsychotic drugs play a crucial role in treatment. These drugs


don’t cure schizophrenia. Instead, they reduce symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations.

The drugs can have side effects, such as physical agitation and muscle spasms. In addition, their long-term use causes permanent neurological damage. Reduced symptoms don’t necessarily mean individuals are able to function effectively outside a hospital, however. Psychosocial support can help make that possible. Psychotherapy can help individuals learn how to function in appropriate, effective and satisfying ways. By teaching individuals how to cope, psychotherapy can help people overcome dysfunction and regain their lives. Individuals may also need training in social skills or vocational counseling.

 Depression

Depression is a period of the disturbance in the human function that related to the natural feelings of sadness which accompanied with symptoms, including changes in sleep patterns, appetite, psychomotor, concentration, fatigue, despair and helplessness, and suicidal ideas (Kaplan, 1998). Depression can also be interpreted as a form of psychiatric disorders in the natural feelings marked by melancholy, flexibility, lack of interest in life, feeling useless, hopeless, and etc.(Hawari, 1997). Depression is a feeling of sadness that related to the suffer. It can be directed an attack directed at himself or deep anger (Nugroho, 2000). Depression is a pathological disorder of mood that has various characteristic of feelings, attitudes and understanding that someone is lonely, pessimism, despair, hopelessness, low self esteem, guilt, negative expectations and fear on the impending danger. Depression is a sadness that resembles a normal feeling that arises as a result of certain situations such as death of someone beloved. Instead of going to lose one's sense of ignorance will refuse to lose and show sadness


with signs of depression (Rawlins et al., 1993). Someone who suffers a feeling(mood) that depression will usually lose interest and excitement, and reduce energy towards a situation easily tired and reduce activity (Depkes, 1993).

 Anxiety

Anxiety as an usual psychic experience and reasonable, experienced by every people in order to spur the individual to overcome the problems encountered as well as possible,(Maslim,1991). A statein which a person to feels worried and scared as a form of reaction to specific threats (Rawlins 1993). The cause and source are usually unknown or unrecognized. The intensity of the anxiety level is distinguished from anxiety mild to severe levels. According to Sundeen (1995):”Identified a range of anxiety responses into four stages which include, anxiety mild, moderate, severe anxiety and panic”.

 Personality Disorders

Clinic shows that the symptoms of personality disorders (psikopatia) and nerosa symptoms are shaped almost the same in people with high or low intelligence. So, arguably the personality disorders, nerosa and most of intelligence disorder do not depend on one and another or are not correlated. Classification of personality disorders: paranoid personality, affective or siklotemik personality, schizoid personality, personality axplosif, personality anankastik or obsessive-konpulsif, histrionic personality, personality astenik, antisocial personality, Personality pasifagresif, personality inadequat, Maslim (1998).


 Organic Mental Disorders

This is a psychotic or nonpsychotic mental disorder caused by dysfunction of brain system(Maramis, 1994). Impaired function of this brain system can be caused by a physical disease which primarily affects the brain or mainly outside the brain. When the affected brain turn large, the basic disturbance of mental function is the same, does not depend on the disease caused when only part of the brain with specific functions are disrupted, so the location is what determines the symptoms and syndrome, not a disease that causes it. The division became psychotic and no psychotic more show severe brain disorder in a particular disease than the division of acute and chronic.

 Psychosomatic disorders

This is a psychological component that followed by bodily dysfunction (Maramis, 1994) . The neurotic developments which show mostly or solely due to malfunctioning organs are often controlled by the vegetative nervous system. Psychosomatic disorders can be equated with what is called neurosa organs. Because usually only the faaliah function is impaired, it is often referred to a psychophisiological disorders.

 Mental retardation

Mental retardation is a state of mental development stalled or incomplete, which is mainly characterized by the occurrence of low skills during development, so it will be influence on the overall level of intelligence, such as cognitive ability, language, motor and social (Maslim, 1998).


 Behavior Disorders

Children with behaviour disorder showed the behavior that does not comply with the request, customs or norms of society (Maramis, 1994). Children with behavioral disorders can lead to difficulties in the care and education. Behavioral disorders may stem from a themselves or the environment, but eventually both of these factors affect each other. It is known that the characteristics and shape of the body as well as a general personality trait can be inherited from parents to their children. In brain disorders such as head trauma, encephalitis, neoplasm may lead to personality changes. Environmental factors can also affect children's behavior, and often more decisive because the environment can be changed, that is why the behavioral disorder can be influenced or prevented.

2.4. Psychoanalysis Theory

Sigmund Freud introduced a three part structural model during the 1920s. This division of the mind into three provinces did not supplant the topographic model, but it helped explain mental images according to their functions or purposes. The most primitive part of the mind is the id, the ego, and the superego. These provinces have no territorial existence, of course, but are merely hypothetical constructs. They interact with the three levels of mental life so that the ego cut across the various topographic levels and has conscious, preconscious, and unconscious components, whereas the superego is both preconscious and unconscious and the id is competely unconscious.

The power of the id expresses the true purposes of the individual organism’s life. This consists in the satisfaction of its innate needs. No such purpose as that of keeping itself alive or of protecting itself from dangers by means of anxiety can be attributed to the id. That is the task of ego, whose business it also to discover the most favourable and least perilous method of


obtaining satisfaction, taking the external world into account. The superego may bring fresh needs to the fore, but its main function remains the limitation of satisfaction. (Clark, 1997:135-136)

2.4.1. The Id.

Psychology does not only learn about human’s behaviour but also problem solving. Psychology also attemps to understand human as the complex consciousness. So by learning psychology, we know how the personality of someone and how the problem of someone is solve.

As the core of personality and completely unconscious to the individual is the psychical region called the id, a term derived from the impersonal pronoun meaning “the it”, or the not-yet-owned component of personality. The id has no contact with reality, yet it strives constantly to reduce tension by satisfying instinctual desires.

Because its sole function is to seek pleasure we say the id serves the pleasure


Besides being unrealistic and pleasure seeking, the id is illogical and can simultaneously entertain incompatible ideas. Another characteristic of the id is lack of morality. Because it cannot make value judgement or distinguish between good and evil, the id not immoral, merely amoral. All of the id’s energy is spent for one purpose-to seek pleasure without regard for what is proper or just (Freud, 1923/1961a, 1993/1964).

The id is primitive, chaotic, inaccessible to consciousness, unchangeable, amoral, illogical, unorganized, and filled with energy received from the instincts and discharged for the satisfaction of the pleasure principle.

As the subdivision that occupies the instincts (primary motivations), the id


principle, its survival is depends on the development of a secondary process to bring it into contact with the external world. This secondary process functions through the ego.

2.4.2. The Ego

The ego, or I, is the region of the mind in contact with reality. It grows out of the id during infancy and becomes a person’s only sources of communication with the external world. It is controlled by the reality principle, in which it tries to subtitute for the pleasure principle of the id. As the sole region of the mind in contact with the external world, the ego becomes the decision-making or executive branch of personality. However, because it is partly conscious, partly preconscious, and partly unconscious, the ego can make decisions on each of these levels.

When performing its cognitive and intellectual functions, the ego must take into consideration the incompatible but equally unrealistic demands of the id and the superego. In addition to these two tyrants, the ego must serve a third master-the external world. Thus, the ego constantly tries to reconcile the blind, irrational claims of the id and the super ego with the realistic demands of the external world. Finding itself surrounded on three sides by divergent and hostile forces, the ego reacts in a predictable manner-it becomes anxious. It then uses repression and other defense mechanisms to defend itself againts this anxiety (Freud, 1926/1959a).

According to Freud (1933/1964), the ego becomes differentiated from the id when a baby learns to distinguish himself or herself from the outer world. While the id remains unchanged, the ego continous to develop; while the id insist on unrealistic and unrelenting demands for pleasure, the ego must furnish the control. Similarly, the ego checks and inhibits id impulses, but it is more or less constantly at the mercy of the


stronger but more poorly organized id. The ego has no strength of its own but borrows energy from the id. In spite of this dependence on the id, the ego sometimes comes close to gaining complete control, for instance, during the prime of life of a psychologically mature person.

2.4.3. The Superego

In Freudian psychology , the superego, or above-I, represents the moral an ideal aspects of personality and is guided by the moralistic and idealistic principles as opposed to the pleasure principle of the id and the realistic principle of the ego. The superego grows out of the ego, and like the ego, it has no energy of its own. However, the superego differs from the ego in one important respect- it has no contact with the outside world and therefore is unrealistic in its demands for perfection (Freud, 1923/1961a).

The superego has no subsystems, the conscience and the ego-ideal. Freud did not clearl distinguish between these two functions, but in general, the conscience results from experiences with punishments for improper behaviour and tells us what we should not do.

A well-develop superego acts to control sexual and aggressive impulses through the process of repression. It cannot produce repressions by itself, but it can order the ego to do so. The superego watches closely over the ego judging its actions and intentions. Guilt is the result when the ego acts-or even intends to ct-contrary to the moral standards of the superego. Feelings or inferiority arise when the ego is unable to meet the superego’s standarts of perfection. Guilt, then, is a function of the conscience, whereas inferiority feelings stem from the ego-ideal( Freud, 1933/1964).


The superego is not concerned with the happiness of the ego. It strives blindly and unrealistically toward perfection. It is unrealistic in the sense that it does not take into consideration the difficulties or impossibilities faced by the ego in carrying out its orders. Not all its demands, of course, are impossible to fulfill, just as not all demands of parents and other authority figures are impossible to fulfill. The superego, however, is like the id in that is completely ignorant of, and unconcerned with, the practicability of its requirements.

The ego and superego may take turns controlling personality, which results in extreme fluctuations of mood and alternating cycles of confidence and self-deprecation. In the healthy individual, the id and the superego are integrated into a smooth functioning ego and operate in harmony and with a minimum of conflict.

The three provinces of the mind are continously interacting one into another. The ego is formed by the id and the superego is formed by the ego. Human behaviour is determined by their dynamics. If the biggest part of energy is controlled by the superego, so the behaviour will be realistic but if restrained by the id, the beahviour will be impulsive. If the id is dominant, the individual will have a disorder dominated by fantasies of wish fulfillment and illogical primary process thinking. In contrast, if the superego is dominant, the individual is over inhibited and unable to experience sensual pleasure without feelings guilty.




The important part of a research in analyzing the data is a method of research. By using method of research it will be easier for the writer easier in understanding the concerns expressed in a work that is going to be analyzed, to solve the problem and find a solution for the problems. In this study, the writer also uses method to analyze the object of the study, to understand all the data and finally transform it into a complete study. The writer tries to analyze the characteristic of the schizophrenic

character in“A Beautiful Mind” movie script as the main object of the analysis.

3.1 Research Design

The method that is used to collect and analyze the data of this research is descriptive qualitative method. Nazir (1998:75) describes “Descriptive method is a method of research that makes the description of the situation of the events or occurrences, so that the method has an intention to accumulate the basic data”. According to Azwar (2004:126):

Analisis deskriptif bertujuan untuk memberikan deskripsi mengenai subjek penelitian berdasarkan data dari variabel yang diperoleh dari kelompok subjek yang diteliti dan tidak dimaksudkan untuk pengujian hipotesis”. (Descriptive analysis is aimed to give a description about a research subject which is based on the data taken from some variables which are obtained from the group of subject and is not aimed to examine a hypothesis).

Therefore, the writer will explain the data by using words or sentences instead of using statistic. Qualitative methods are developed in the social sciences to enabled research to study social and cultural phenomena (Myers, 1977). According to Sukmadinata (2005) the primary thing about qualitative research is constructivism


which assumes that reality is multi- dimensional, interactive and an exchange of social experience is interpreted by each individual. Qualitative research is an inductive approach, and its goal is to gain a deeper understanding of person’s or group experiences.

3.2Source of data

3.2.1. Subject Research

The subject of research of this thesis is the script of “A Beautiful Mind” movie

which is adapted from the biography of the lead character entitled “A Beautiful

Mind:The Life of Mathematical Genius and Nobel Laureate John Nash” by Sylvia

Nassar. The script was written by Akiva Goldsman in 8 November 2000 with 125

pages. The secondary data areother reference books used by the writer to support the

subject of research, which are book about the psychology of literature theory, the human personality, and other books that support this research, which are used by using psychology of literature approach.

3.2.2. Object Research

The object of study in this thesis is the character's personality and the factors

that influence the personality of the main character psychologically from the script “A

Beautiful Mind” movie. The material object that is investigated or discussed is the

main character itself.

Formal objects refer to specific aspects of the material object are the behaviour, human culture, social life, and so on. Within this study, the formal object is experienced by the main character's personality, factors that affect the personality of


the main character and inner conflict and the factors that influence the inner conflict experienced by the main character.

3.3. Data Collection

Data collecting method is steps applied by the researcher to get the data that are needed in particular research (Arikunto, 2006: 160). The data collecting method in this study is conducted by using read note and literature methods. The methods are performed as follows:

1. Methods read note is the method used to collect the data by reading the

script over and over again and then recorded to obtain accurate data.

2. The literature method is the method used to collect the data by finding an

appropriate reference related to the problem of study.

3.4.Data Analysis

3.4.1. Steps of Analysis

The analysis is conducted by using descriptive qualitative method. According to Miles and Huberman (1992: 16), "Qualitative descriptive method consists of a flow of activities that occur simultaneously and coherence, which include: data reduction activities (grouping), presentation of data, drawing conclusions, and verification." Here below the steps of analysis conducted by the writer:

1. Data Reduction

Data reduction refers to the grouping of data. Grouping the data starts from sorting out the data related to mental disorders experienced by the main character of the story, for example: the presence of hallucinations or delusions experienced by the main character.


2. Presentation of Data

Presentation of data is presenting the data that have been gathered. The presentation of data is related with several examples of events / that occur as a result of mental disorders experienced by John Nash

3. Drawing Conclusion

Conclusion is drawn by some abnormal behaviors experienced by the main character and relate it with the theory of personality psychology according to what have been explained by related experts.

4. Verification

After drawing conclusion, the last step is verivication. It refers to check the precision of the primary data, which is gathered based on the results of reading the script.

3.4.2. Step of Work

The step of work conducted in this thesis are:

1. Preparation Phase

• Conduct literature

• Develop a research design

2. Phase Analysis of Data

• Reading the script "A Beautiful Mind" movie by Akiva Goldsmann

• Identifying the abnormal behaviors of the lead character, John Nash

• Finding the causes of mental disorders, schizophrenia

• Selecting and classifying mental disorders of the main character


3. Describing data

4. Summarizing

5. Reporting Stage

• Prepare interim report

• Revise the interim manuscript

6. A final report

Data Collection (Reading “A Beautiful Mind”

movie script)

Display Data

Data Reduction




In this chapter the writer will discuss the abnormal behavior experienced by the main character, John Nash, and analyze the causes and the treatment’s process of

the main character who got mental disorder, schizophrenia, in the script “A Beautiful

Mind” movie. In the analysis phase, the discussion will be arranged into several

sections in which each section will be attached quotations in accordance to the theory as well as the elaboration of these quotations.

4.1Intrinsic Elements 4.1.1. Character

Sudjiman in (Lukman, 1995:30) states that “Tokoh adalah individu yang

mengalami peristiwa atau pelaku cerita, sedangkan penokohan adalah penciptaan

antara tokoh”(The character is a person who takes a part in the story, while the

characterization is creation of the figures). The figures can be divided into two types, which is the main character and the additional character. The main character is a character who experiences many events in the story while the additional character is a

character who takes a few part in the story. The main character in the script “A

Beautiful Mind” is John Nash.

a) John Nash

John Nash is described as an arrogant man who is proud of his cleverness. It is showed when he refuses to follow the class because he thinks that the class just wasted his time and makes his brain dull.


Van neumann: “Good day, Mr.Nash. Care to join?” Nash looks up, apparently startled by their presence.

Nash: “Classes dull the mind and destroy aunthentic creativity. No offense.”(Goldsman, 2000:9)

Nash also is described as a loner and shy. It is showed when he is embarrassed to socialize with people, because he feels that people does not like him. He becomes a loner. He chose to be alone in his room or in the library to study, rather than hanging out with his friends.

Nash: “I do not make friends. Van Neumann: “Why not?”

Nash: “Apparently I am an asshole.” (Goldsman, 2000:17)

b) Alicia Larde

She is described as a patient and faithful wife. It is showed when she always gives support to her husband. Even though she is injured and his son almost died because of her husband, she is still faithful to accompany her husband.

Alicia(over): “Rosen said to call if you try to kill me or anything.” Nash: “Alicia”

Alicia: “Do not. I am scared and I need you to tell me everything’s okay and you are awful with words so just do not.”

What he does, he reaches out and takes her in his arms, holding fast, holding on to her for dear life. (Goldsman, 2000:102)

4.1.2. Conflict

Conflict is a problem that arises from the character of the story. Whether it is

between itself or a group of people. In the script “A Beautiful Mind” movie is

described about the beginning of the conflict is the psychological experience of the main character. John Nash as the main character in this movie has a mental disorder; schizophrenia. It makes John nash has a several abnormal behavior, such as hallucinations and delusions. His abnormal behavior gives the impact for his life. It is


showed when he cannot express his emotions, he almost kills his baby, and he cannot sosialize with other people.

4.1.3. Plot

The plot which includes in the movie script “A Beautiful Mind” is progressive

plot. The story starts with young Nash who started the first days of lectures at prestigious university, Princeton University in 1947 and ended when he was receipt the nobel prize in 1994.

4.2Extrinsic Elements

4.2.1. The Abnormal Behavior of John Nash

Schizophrenia is a social behavior and failure to recognize the reality. This disease makes the sufferers difficult to express their emotion. The patients with this disease become people who are isolated, detached, apathetic and hallucinatory. Kaplan, Sadock & Grebb in (Fausiah Fitri, 2005) states that schizophrenia is divided into several types, such as paranoid schizophrenia,catatonic schizophrenia, disorganized schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia, residual schizophrenia and hebefrenik schizophrenia.

The characteristic of paranoid schizophrenia are hallucination and delution. The main characteristic of katatonik schizophrenia is psychomotor disorders which include: motoric immobility; excessive motoric activity, extrem negativism and mutism. The main characteristic of disorganized shizophrenia are scattered in talking, disorganized and inappropriate behavior. And hebefrenik schizophrenia is marked by acting like a child and whimpering. We can identify a person suffering schizophrenia


from their abnormal behavior. Their abnormal behavior can be seen from the two symptoms such as, positive and negative symptoms. Negative symptom is an action that does not bring adverse impacts to the environment, while positive symptom is an action that starts an impact on the environment.

a) Positive symptomps

Based on the explanation above, the writer know that the positive symptom of schizophrenia is the emergence of hallucinations and delusions. This happens to John Nash. He has hallucinations which can make sudden rages and imagine meeting with people or places that are not real. Hallucination is a false perception or assuming something is real when in fact it is only a fantasy. John Nash experiences hallucinations meeting with three people who actually does not exist, namely Charles Herman ( his roommate).

Charles: “The prodigal roommate arrives.”

Charles begins stripping as he speaks. Nash stares in wonder as off come his jacket and bow tie.

Nash: “Roommate?” (Goldsman, 2000:4) William Parcher (government agency).

Voice(over): “Professor Nash...”

Standing on the path is a single figure. Slim black suit. Man: “Big brother at your service.”

Nash inspects the Department of Defense photo ID and badge, embossed with a government seal. Meet William Parcher.

Nash: “So, what can I do for DOD?”

Parcher is leading Nash away from the main RAND building, deeper into the fenced off military compound.

Parcher: “Impressive work at the Pentagon.” (Goldsman, 2000:32) And Marcee (Charles Herman nephew).

Nash sits under a tree, marking up another magazine. A little girl (Marcee,9) walks up to him.

Marcee: “What ya doin?” Nash look up at her.


Nash: “I am attempting to isolate patterned recurrences across periodicals across time. And you?”

Marcee: “Chasin’pigeons. You talk funny, Mr. Nash.” Nash(frowning): “Do I know you?”

Marcee: “My uncle says you are very smart but not very nice so I should not pay you no mind if you are mean to me.”

Nash: “And who might that uncle be?”

Voice(over): “The prodigal roommate returns.”

Nash looks up and standing over him is Charles. Nash grins. (Goldsman, 2000:50)

There is also a secret lab, soldier and also the code number that is placed on his hands. It is found in the movie script page 33-37: ”They have arrived at a warehouse at the end of the row. New windows, a fresh coat of paint. A soldier standing guard salutes.”(Goldsman, 2000:33)

Technician: “This may be uncomfortable.”

The machine makes contact with John’s arms and hisses. Nash: “What the?”

The technician lifts the machine, shines a black light over John’s wrist. In a fresh welt above his wrist we see a series of numbers.

Because of his hallucination, John Nash almost kills his baby. He gives the baby to his hallucination figure because he wants to close the window. While in reality the baby has been sunk in the bathup.

Nash: “I have almost got it. Charles, hold the baby up. Make sure he does not slip into the bath.”

Follow alicia as she rushes into the room, past John’s startled expression, and freezes in the open bathroom door.

Alicia: “No!”

The baby is in the tub. Alone. The water is almost up to his chin, seconds from drowning. Alicia moves with lightning speed, grabbing her child up and into her arms.

Alicia: “Precious baby, precious boy.”

Nash: “Charles was watching him. He was okay. Charles was watching him.”

Alicia: “Do not you get it yet? There is no one here.” (Goldsman, 2000:96)


The dialogue above showed John Nash’s abnormal behavior, speaking to himself, is caused by his hallucination. This hallucination has impacts on his environment. That is why hallucination can be categorized as positive symptom.

In John’s case, there is also delusions. Delusion is an understanding which is strongly held but inaccurate, which continues to exist even though the evidence shows it has no basis in reality. John Nash has 3 delusions such as, delusions of persecution, delusions of grandeur, and delusions of influence. Delusions of persecution is the understanding that the individuals or certain groups are being threatened or are planning to harm him.

In the movie script, it is mentioned that there are some people who make John Nash always suspicious and scared of all things because he thinks he is being sought, followed and monitored. “The two men at the bar are watching Nash again. This time,when they catch his eyes, they move off.”(Goldsman, 2000:41).

John raises the drawn blind a bit and peeks out. Out the window. A black sedan. An identical car pulls up beside it. A shadow inside the first car points towards John’s apartment. A beat. John lets the shade fall again. He turns now to face his wife and wailing child.

Nash: “They are out there” Alicia: “Who is out there?”

John just stare at her. When his voice comes, it is soft. Nash: “Go to your sister’s”

Alicia: “John, what is going on? Please, you have got to talk to me.” Nash: (exploding) “Go. Now. Get out!”

John rises and slams the door. He sits back at his desk, peers again out the window, then hugs himself, rocking slighly. (Goldsman, 2000:61)

Because of this delusion, John Nash often locks himself in his room and turns off the lights due to his fear of people who are always watching him. He also ever yells at his wife because she turns on the lights.

Nash sits, his back to us, in the dark, staring into space. Alicia(over): “John”


She flicks on the light, standing now in the doorway, a three month old infant swaddled in her arms.

Nash(spinning): “Turn it off”.

We see his face now, unshaven, cheeks hollow, eyes wide. Nash(shouting): “Turn off the light”

He is up fast, slamming his hand on the wall, extinguished the light. His fast moves have scared the baby who has begin to wail. (Goldsman, 2000:61)

From the dialogue above it is known that John Nash angry at his wife as his wife turns the light on. He feels there is a group of people spying his house. He turns the light off to make them assume that he is not being home.

The second delusion is delusions of graunder. Delusions of grandeur is the understanding that they have an advantage and strength as well as being an important person. John Nash thinks he is the best secret code-breaking and spy or secret agent.

Nash actually smiles. Nash: “Constantly.”

Nash moved to the wall prepared with code. General: “We have developed several ciphers.”

But Nash raises his hand, silencing the officer. He stands still, just staring at the numbers. Then Nash begins to whistle.

Push in on Nash’s eyes. In the black ocean of his pupils, the reflected rows of code begin to move, forming shifting patterns.

Pull back on Nash, still staring at the wall. Hours have passed, folks sitting, jackets hanging on chair backs, coffe cups empty.

Nash-Pov. Series of numbers darken as others rise, a cascade of rapidly changing patterns, endless permutations until....

Nash: “There.” (Goldsman, 2000:26)

And the last is delusions of influence. This is the understanding that outside forces are trying to control your thoughts and actions. In the movie script showed that John Nash requires to kill his wife, indicate that he was a genius, and when he is convinced that he is a person who is not meaningful. This is all controlled by friends of his own hallucinations.

Alicia: “I am calling Rosen. You need help.” That is when William steps into the doorway. Parcher: “You have got to stop her, John.”


Nash: “What?”

Alicia(blood draining): “Who are you talking to?”

Parcher: “We can not afford to let her slow us down again.” Nash: “Alicia, please. Put the phone down.”

Alicia: “John, you are scaring me.”(Goldsman, 2000:98)

From the dialogue above the writer knows that Nash’s wife has witnessed the peculiarities of self-John Nash, so she wants to call the doctor to examine Nash, but the hallucinations of Nash said that his wife had to know all the secrets of Nash and will report it to the police and make Nash go back to the hospital. His hallucinations asks Nash to stop his wife. It makes Nash become confused and panicked.

b) Negative symptomps

The negative symptoms of this disease is the difficulty of the sufferer to feel and show their emotional feelings. The sufferers also becomes someone who is apathetic. In John case, his negative symptomps is seen through the motor symptoms which can be seen from the strange facial expressions and typical followed by movement of the hand, fingers and arms strange, and language disorder, emotional disturbance, the presence of social withdrawal and any pressing events that make John almost depression.

Nash is at the bar with Becky, the blond co-ed. The two stand there in awkward silence. The moment stretches on. Finally...

Becky: “Maybe you want to buy me a drink.”

Nash appraises her clinically. When he speaks now, his word have a deliberate quality that belies their speed.

Nash: “Look, I do not know exactly what things I am required to say in order for you to have intercourse with me. But could we assume I have said them? I mean essentially we are talking about fluid exchange, right? So, we could go right to the sex?”

Becky: “That was so sweet” She slaps him across the face.


Becky: “Have a nice night asshole.”(Goldsman, 2000:15)

The dialogue above showed that John have a language disorder. He wants to talk to the woman but the sentence of him makes her feel abused. So finally he gets a slap. In the next page also shows that John Nash has a strange facial expression. “Alicia is doing the dishes. John stands staring at the kitchen table. He lifts a napkin, toys with it curiously, like an alien come to earth for the first time”(Goldsman, 2000:87). In the movie sript page 17, showed the social withdraw of John Nash.

Van Neumann: “Human connection gives us perspective. Friends.... Nash: “I do not make friends.

Van Neumann: “Why not?”

Nash: “Apparently I am an asshole.”

The dialogue above showed that John Nash cannot interact socially as people in general, he does not like other people and assumes other people do not like him so that he only has a few friends. In the movie script page 11, it is showed that the event make John feel oppressed.

Nash does not answer, concentrates on his play. Milnor: “What if you lose?”

And with that Milnor makes a deft move and takes the game. Nash sits there. Stunned.

Nash: “You should not have won. The game is flawed.” Milnor: “Ah, the hubris of the defeated.”

Nash is furious, sweeps the board with his hand, rises and walks away. Milnor smiles, shakes his head.

From the dialogue above, John Nash is described as an arrogant man. He cannot accept his defeat while playing the game with his friend because he thinks he always be a winner. So when he loses, it makes him feel depressed and assumes that the game is wrong.


4.2.2. The Causesof Schizophrenia of John Nash

From the previous chapter, it is not clearly discussed the causes of schizophrenia, but from some previous studies, it is known that schizophrenia is often caused by genetic factors and environmental influences. According to Prof. Dadang Hawari: "Symptoms of schizophrenia cannot even show up at all, but if the condition of the environment it supports someone antisocial then schizophrenia find fertile land"(2009).

The movie script starts the story when John Nash studies in Princeton Unversity in 1947, the writer cannot know whether the causes of this disease is due to genetic factors or not. So the writer takes the data about his childhood from his biography. In his biography, John Nash tells that he is the first son of an engineer who loves science, John Nash Sr. and Virginia Martin, daughter of a physicist who works as a teacher in her hometown. John Nash’s parents do not carry disease schizophrenia. Not long after the birth of John Nash, his sister was born, Martha. Their childhood is different. Martha is friendly. She likes to play with her friends. Different with John who likes to play alone in his room. John is also often spacing out while in class.

In 1937 was published the bestseller of E.T Bell, Men of Mathematics, which

contains the stories of the mathematician who is able to attract the attention of John who was then aged 14 years. Not long after, the Japanese attacked pearl harbor and World War 2 arises. John imagines that the Japanese soldiers will attack their city, and blow up the train, and he is the only one who able to solve their password. In high school, in chemistry examination, the problems needs to be written by other children on the paper, but John just looks at the formula and find the answers that apparently already stated in his brain. Thanks to all this brilliance, John finally gets a scholarship.


It can be said the causes of John Nash got a schizophrenia is not affected from genetic factors. So what are the things that make him could have schizophrenia? The following discussion:

a) Id

Id is the most basic form of human desire. It consists of human desires which are still pure, unfiltered by logic, norms and regulations. The principle of the id, is carrying out a human from unpleasant circumstances into favorable circumstances.

This is also happened to John Nash. He lets his id to bring him from the state of which he is not fun by imagining and daydreaming alone. It makes him meet with hallucinations. In this case he imagined that he is a best code-breaking. So he is hallucinating works with the secret agent who asks him to cooperate in combating crime of Russian. It is found in the movie script page 80:

Nash: “I am going to tell you everything, now. I am breaking protocol. But you have got to know. You have got to help me get out of here.” John rubs his wrist.

Nash: “Damn implant (a beat) I have been doing top secret work for the government. There is a threat of catastrophic proportions. I think the reds must think I am too high profile to simply do away with. So they are trying to keep me here. So I can not do my work.”

Alicia is staring at him, fighting back the tears.

Nash: “Go to RAND. You have got to get in touch with William Parcher. He can-“

Alicia(too loud): “Stop! Just stop!”

Folks in the room stare. Nash sits back, stunned. Alicia gathers herself. Takes a breath.

Alicia: “John, I have been to RAND. There is no William Parcher.” b) Super Ego

Super Ego is the ideal of the human ego. It serves as a controller id, so that the form of the super ego is the more controlled action following the logic and the existing normative regulations. Since childhood, John Nash prefers to play alone in his room rather than with his friends, so he has difficulties to socializes with the surrounding environment. He does not understand how to socialize well, therefore, when he speaks


with his friends he always feels unwelcomed and finally he mentions the mistakes of them and then he starts to withdraw himself. It is found in the movie script page 3.

Milnor: “I will take a white wine.” Nash: “Excuse me.”

Milnor: “A thousand pardons. I simpy assumed you were the waiter.” Fox: “Play nice Milnor.”

Shapely: “Nice is not Milnor’s strong suit.”

Milnor: “An honest mistake. What with those war ration shoes...” Nash’s outfit does look off the rack compared to Milnor’s couture. Nash: “It is not your first mistake. I read your brief on Nazi ciphers” With that, Nash offers a slight nod, turns and walks off.

Fox: “Who was that masked man?”

Milnor: “Gentlement meet John Nash. The mysterious West Virginia genius. The other winner of the distinguished Carnegie scholarship.”

c) Ego

Ego is a combination of the id and super-ego. It is manifested through the attitude displayed by us everyday. The behaviour of ego depends on the supporting elements. It works by filtering the id and super ego, balances them in order to reach the midpoint of the "opposition" in both. In the case of John Nash, the embodiment of his ego can be seen from the behavior which is reflected as the result of psychological disorders received.

d) Compulsive Obsession

Obsession compulsive is a condition in which a person has the ideas and the desire to do something that is usually excessive and cannot be suppressed. John Nash is obsessed with mathematics. He thinks he can make discovery that will break the earlier theories. He also refused to learn in class, because he thinks learning in class only makes the brain becomes dull. He prefers to self-taught outside the classroom


because he thinks he can get the original idea and increase his creativity. It is found in the movie script page 9:

Horner: “My name is Lew Horner and I will be your teacher. Welcome to Mathematics in Thought and Action.”

He glances at the empty chair. Then at his roster. Horner: “Where the hell is...Nash?”

Milnor looks out the window. Follow Milnor’s gaze into... Milnor(over): “He is looking for his original idea”

Nash is on his bicycle riding around the courtyard in figure eights, eyes half-closed, students scattering as he goes.

Van Neumann: “We study games to study strategic behaviour in conflict...”

Fox pushes into the group.

Van neumann: “Thank you for stopping by Mr. Fox. Put simply, the study of games is the study of war...”

(over) a whistling rises, crystal clear. Beethoven’s moonlight sonata. All return to reveal Nash, walking backwards past them.

Van neumann: “Good day, Mr.Nash. Care to join?” Nash looks up, apparently startled by their presence.

Nash: “Classes dull the mind and destroy aunthentic creativity. No offense.”

Van neumann: “None taken”

Milnor: “John’s going to stun us all with his original idea.”

Nash is very obsessed with math, so he continues to study in his room. He even writes formulas in the glass window of his room and at the university library. He is very focused on his lesson, he forgets the time to sleep and eat. It is found in the movie script page 13:

Track past the librarian, past oak tables and green reading lamps, find Nash drawing on the large circular window over the campus.

Charles(over): “You have been here two days”

Nash turns to find Charles behind him. John looks exhausted.

Nash: “Milnor just published another brief. And I have come up with nothing”

Charles walks to the glass, appraises Nash’s work. Charles: “Hell, no. You invented window art” Nash gestures to the first pattern.

Charles: “When the last time you ate?” Nash stares at him blankly.


stop taking their medication. R. Whitaker wrote an article suggesting that recovery from problems like Nash's can be hindered by such drugs. Nash has said the psychotropic drugs are overrated and that the adverse effects are not given enough consideration once someone is deemed mentally ill. According to Sylvia Nasar, author of the book “A Beautiful Mind”, on which the movie was based, Nash recovered gradually with the passage of time. Encouraged by his then former wife, de Lardé, Nash worked in a communitarian setting where his eccentricities were accepted. De Lardé said of Nash, "it's just a question of living a quiet life".

Nash dates the start of what he terms "mental disturbances" to the early months of 1959 when his wife was pregnant. He has described a process of change "from scientific rationality of thinking into the delusional thinking characteristic of persons who are psychiatrically diagnosed as 'schizophrenic' or 'paranoid schizophrenic’ including seeing himself as a messenger or having a special function in some way, and with supporters and opponents and hidden schemers, and a feeling of being persecuted, and looking for signs representing divine revelation. Nash has suggested his delusional thinking was related to his unhappiness and his striving to feel important and be recognized, and to his characteristic way of thinking, saying, "I wouldn't have had good scientific ideas if I had thought more normally." He has also said, "If I felt completely pressureless I don't think I would have gone in this pattern".

He does not see a categorical distinction between terms such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nash reports that he did not hear voices until around 1964, and later engaged in a process of consciously rejecting them. He reports that he was always taken to hospitals against his will. He only temporarily renounced his "dream-like delusional hypotheses" after being in a hospital long enough to decide to superficially conform – to behave normally or to experience "enforced rationality". Only gradually on his own did he "intellectually reject" some of the "delusionally influenced" and "politically oriented" thinking as a waste of effort. However, by 1995, although he was "thinking rationally again in the style that is characteristic of scientists," he says he also felt more limited.



John Nash arrives at Princeton University as a new graduate student. He is a recipient of the prestigious Carnegie Prize for mathematics. Though he was promised a single room, his roommate Charles, a literature student, greets him as he moves in and soon becomes his best friend. Nash also meets a group of other promising math and science graduate students, Martin Hansen, Sol, Ainsley, and Bender, with whom he strikes up an awkward friendship. Nash admits to Charles that he is better with numbers than people, which comes as no surprise to them after watching his largely unsuccessful attempts at conversation with the women at the local bar.

Nash is seeking a truly original idea for his thesis paper, and he is under increasing pressure to develop his thesis so he can begin work. A particularly harsh rejection from a woman at the bar is what ultimately inspires his fruitful work in the concept of governing dynamics, a theory in mathematical economics. After the conclusion of Nashs studies as a student at Princeton, he accepts a prestigious appointment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), along with his friends Sol and Bender. Russell Crowe as John Nash. Russell Crowe as John Nash.

Five years later while teaching a class on Calculus at MIT, he places a particularly interesting problem on the chalkboard that he dares his students to solve. When his student Alicia Larde comes to his office to discuss the problem, the two fall in love and eventually marry. On a return visit to Princeton, Nash runs into his former roommate Charles and meets Charles young niece Marcee, whom he adores. He also encounters a mysterious Department of Defense agent, William Parcher. Nash is invited to a secret United States Department of Defense facility in the Pentagon to crack a complex encryption of an enemy telecommunication. Nash is able to decipher the code mentally to the astonishment of other codebreakers.

Parcher observes Nashs performance from above, while partially concealed behind a screen. Parcher gives Nash a new assignment to look for patterns in magazines and newspapers, ostensibly to thwart a Soviet plot. He must write a report of his findings and place them in a specified mailbox. After being chased by the Russians and an exchange of gunfire, Nash becomes increasingly paranoid and begins


to behave erratically. After observing this erratic behavior, Alicia informs a psychiatric hospital. Later, while delivering a guest lecture at Harvard University, Nash realizes that he is being watched by a hostile group of people. Although he attempts to flee, he is forcibly sedated and sent to a psychiatric facility. Nash's internment seemingly confirms his belief that the Soviets were trying to extract information from him. He views the officials of the psychiatric facility as Soviet kidnappers. Alicia, desperate to help her husband, visits the mailbox and retrieves the never-opened "top secret" documents that Nash had delivered there. When confronted with this evidence, Nash is finally convinced that he has been hallucinating. The Department of Defense agent William Parcher and Nash's secret assignment to decode Soviet messages was in fact all a delusion. Even more surprisingly, Nash's friend Charles and his niece Marcee are also only products of Nash's mind.

After a painful series of insulin shock therapy sessions, Nash is released on the condition that he agrees to take antipsychotic medication. However, the drugs create negative side-effects that affect his relationship with his wife and, most dramatically, his intellectual capacity. Frustrated, Nash secretly stops taking his medication and hoards his pills, triggering a relapse of his psychosis. While bathing his infant son, Nash becomes distracted and wanders off. Alicia is hanging laundry in the backyard and observes that the back gate is open. She discovers that Nash has turned an abandoned shed in a nearby grove of trees into an office for his work for Parcher. Upon realizing what has happened, Alicia runs into the house to confront Nash and barely saves their child from drowning in the bathtub. When she confronts him, Nash claims that his friend Charles was watching their son. Alicia runs to the phone to call the psychiatric hospital for emergency assistance.

Parcher urges Nash to kill his wife, but Nash angrily refuses to do such a thing. After arguing with Parcher, Nash accidentally knocks Alicia to the ground. Afterwards, Alicia flees the house in fear with their child, but Nash steps in front of her car to prevent her from leaving. After a moment, Nash realizes that Marcee is a figment of his hallucinations because she has remained the same age since the day he met her. He tells Alicia, "She never gets old." Only then does he accept that all three people are, in fact, part of his hallucinations. (It is important to note that in real life,


Nash suffered from auditory hallucinations and possible delusions, instead of visual hallucinations).

Caught between the intellectual paralysis of the antipsychotic drugs and his delusions, Nash and Alicia decide to try to live with his abnormal condition. Nash consciously says goodbye to the three of them forever in his attempts to ignore his hallucinations and not feed his demons. However, he thanks Charles for being his best friend over the years, and says a tearful goodbye to Marcee, stroking her hair and calling her "baby girl", telling them both he wouldn't speak to them anymore. Nash grows older and approaches his old friend and intellectual rival Martin Hansen, now head of the Princeton mathematics department, who grants him permission to work out of the library and audit classes, though the university will not provide him with his own office.

Though Nash still suffers from hallucinations and mentions taking newer medications, he is ultimately able to live with and largely ignore his psychotic episodes. He takes his situation in stride and humorously checks to ensure that any new acquaintances are in fact real people, not hallucinations. Nash eventually earns the privilege of teaching again. He is honored by his fellow professors for his achievement in mathematics, and goes on to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his revolutionary work on game theory. Nash and Alicia are about to leave the auditorium in Stockholm, when John sees Charles, Marcee and Parcher standing and smiling. Alicia asks John, "What's wrong?" John replies, "Nothing." With that, they both leave the auditorium.