Characterization through Dialogue Characterization through Action

17 granted but should be carefully examined for the connotations they communicate. 36 Some characters are given names that suggest their dominant or controlling traits. Others characters are given names that reinforce or sometimes are in contrast to their physical appearance. Names can also contain literary or historical allusion that aid in characterization by means association. 37

f. Characterization through Contrast : Dramatic Foils

One of the most effective techniques of characterization is the use of foils contrasting characters whose behavior, attitudes, opinions, lifestyle, physical appearance, and so on are the opposite of those of the main characters. The effect is similar to that achieved by putting black and white together-the black appears blacker and the white appears writer. The tallest giant and the tiniest midget might be placed side by side at the carnival sideshow, and the filmmaker sometimes uses characters in much the same way. 38

B. The Hierarchy of Human Needs Theory

Humanistic psychology pioneered by Maslow is a theory that is used to this research analysis and to see the characteristic of Marni Olivia Olsen in You Again Film. Before analyzing it, we must know about this theory. This theory is about Hierarchy of human needs. The writer will analyze the character and 36 Ibid., p. 66 37 James H. Pickering and Jeffrey D. Hoeper,op.cit., p. 28 38 Joseph M. Boggs and Dennis W. Petrie, op.cit., p. 64 18 characterization of Marni Olivia Olsen in chapter 3 with Maslow’s theory. Hierarchy is any system of persons or things ranked one above another. According to Maslow, there are five levels of hierarchy of needs; there are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs love and belonging, esteem needs and self- actualization needs. Hierarchy is any system of persons or things ranked one above another. According to Maslow, there are five levels of hierarchy of needs; there are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs love and belonging, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs also known as D-needs, meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. Maslow termed the highest- level of the pyramid as growth needs also known as being needs or B-needs. Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. 39 Maslow described a person who can reach a self-actualization as a person who can give the best from themselves and maximize all the talent that a person has. A person who can reach a self-actualization is a best example of a human. Maslow called this as “the growing tip”. 40 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs identifies the basic types of motivation; the basic needs are as follow: 39 Kendra Cherry, “Hierarchy of Needs, The Five Levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs”, www.About.comHierarchy-of-needs.htm accessed on 14 th Marc 2012 40 Goble, Frank. G. The Third Force: The Psychology of Abraham Maslow. New York: Washington Square Press. 1971. p. 48

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