A Main character analysis of the alchemist by paulo coelho using hierarchy of human needs of abraham H.Maslow's theory

A MAIN CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF THE ALCHEMIST BY
PAULO COELHO USING HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS
OF ABRAHAM H. MASLOW’S THEORY

Arranged by:
Siti Mawaddah
105026000955

ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ADAB AND HUMANITIES
STATES ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2010

A MAIN CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF THE ALCHEMIST BY PAULO
COELHO USING HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS OF ABRAHAM H.
MASLOW’S THEORY

A Thesis submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty
In partial of the Requirements for
Strata 1 (S1) Degree

Arranged by:
Siti Mawaddah
105026000955

ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ADAB AND HUMANITIES
STATES ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2010

LEGALIZATION

Name

: Siti Mawaddah

NIM

: 105026000955

Title

: A Main Character Analysis of The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho

Using Hierarchy of Human Needs of Abraham H. Maslow’s Theory
The thesis has been defended before the Letters and Humanities
Faculty’s Examination Committee on Thursday, June 24th, 2010. It has already
been accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Strata 1.

Jakarta, June 24th, 2010
Examination Committee

Signature

1. Dr. H. Muhammad Farkhan, M.Pd (Chair Person) __________
NIP: 19650919 200003 1 002

Date

_________

2. Drs. Asep Saefuddin, M.Pd (Secretary)
NIP: 1640710 199303 1 006

__________

_________

3. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum (Advisor)
NIP: 19781003 200112 2 002

__________

_________

4. Inayatul Chusna, M.Hum (Examiner I)
NIP: 19780126 200312 2 002

__________

_________

5. Drs. Asep Saefuddin, M.Pd (Examiner II)
NIP: 1640710 199303 1 006

__________

_________

iii

ABSTRACT

Siti Mawaddah, A main Character Analysis of The Alchemist By Paulo Coelho
Using Hierarchy of Human Needs of Abraham H. Maslow’s Theory. A Thesis :
English Letters Department, Faculty of Adab and Humanities, State Islamic
University (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, 2010.
In this research, the writer analyzed a novel titled The Alchemist and written by
Paulo Coelho. The purpose of this research is to know deeper the character of
Santiago and how he try to fulfill the hierarchy of human needs toward his
journey toward the treasure. The research focuses on two points are: first, how
does a Santiago characteristic describes in the novel The Alchemist by Paulo
Coelho? For the second, how does Santiago fulfill the hierarchy of needs views
from Abraham H. Maslow’s theory? The novel is carefully and accurately
analyzed using the theory of hierarchy of human needs by Abraham H. Maslow.
This research uses the qualitative method. The data are analyzed by reading,
underlining, understanding, and identifying.
In this research, Hierarchy of human needs’ theory of Abraham H. Maslow is
classified into five subsidiary sets of needs. The needs are Physiological needs,
safety needs, love and belongingness, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.
At the first level, physiological needs, Santiago can fulfill the needs easily. But at
the level safety needs, love and belongingness, and esteem needs, he gets the
challenge in fulfilling the needs because too many threats he had. The condition
gives him spirit to fulfill the needs. That spirit make him pass through the process
of life. So, he can fulfill the needs very well. As the conclusion, Santiago can
fulfill the needs from the lowest until the highest.

i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the most Gracious and the most Merciful

First of all, the writer would be especially grateful to Allah SWT, the Lord
of the Heavens and the Lord of the Earth, there is no God but Allah; and only in
Your mercy we seek succor. Peace and salutation to the Greatest Prophet
Muhammad SAW, the Messenger of God, to His family, His companions and His
adherents.
In this opportunity, the writer wants to express her heartfelt thanks to all
people who have been helped her. The writer really thankful for their help,
supports, suggestions, patience, and prays so that the writer can finish this thesis.
The writer would like to say her appreciation to:
1.

Prof.

Dr.

Komaruddin Hidayat, MA, The Rector of State Islamic University (UIN)
Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.
2.

Dr.

H.

Abdul

Wahid Hasyim, MAg, The Dean of Adab and Humanities Faculty.
3.

Dr.

Muhammad

Farkhan, M.Pd, The Head of English Letters Department.
4.

Drs.
Saefuddin M.Pd, The Secretary of English Letters Department.

v

Asep

5.

Elve

Oktafiyani,

M.Hum, The Advisor, thank you for her time and suggestion and also her
patience guiding the writer.
6.

And for all the
lectures, thank you for the share knowledge.
The writer’s special thank is dedicated to her parents who always

encouraged her to finish this thesis, especially for her beloved tough mother Hj.
Sutinah and her father H. Madinah, Murobbi ruhina Syarifa Ida Farida Aziz AlHabsyi, who advise the writer in her confusion. Her beloved sister Melly thanks
for share sis.., her brother Baydhowi. M.Psi ‘Pak Docen’ thanks for the advise
dos.., her nephew M. Maliq ‘Malka’ Deiandra. You always cheerful the writer in
her confused. I love you all...
For her 2bis family, Uwin ‘Rooney’, Dhian ‘Cole’, Prisca, Emma, and
Eiyk , the writer hope this sisterhood will everlasting ever after. I’ll miss you
girls. And also for all her friends in BSI B class. Thank you. Big thanks also
dedicated to Purwo Priyono, Thank you for his support motivation so the writer
can complete this paper.
For her friends. Fitri ‘Donal’, Arien, Hurry, Esha, Dini. Hope you’ll get
the best in your life girls. And for PMII and KM RAYA family. Thanks for
support me guys.

vi

For all people who have been helpful in the process of writing this paper
that cannot be mentioned one by one, thank you so much. May Allah bless them.
Amen.
Jakarta, 24 Juni 2010

The Writer

vii

TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................. i
APPROVEMENT ........................................................................................ ii
LEGALIZATION ........................................................................................ iii
DECLARATION.......................................................................................... iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENT................................................................................ vii
CHAPTER I- INTRODUCTION................................................................. 1
A.
B.
C.
D.

Background of the study............................................................... 1
The Scope and Limitation.............................................................. 4
Research Questions........................................................................ 4
Research Methodology .................................................................. 4
a. Research Objective ................................................................ 4
b. Research Methods ................................................................. 5
c. Data Analysis ........................................................................ 5
d. Research Instrument .............................................................. 5
e. Unit Analysis.......................................................................... 6

CHAPTER II-THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK........................................... 7
A. Character and Characterization .................................................... 7
a. Character ......................................................................... 7
b. Characterization............................................................... 8
B. Maslow’s Theory .......................................................................... 9
1. Physiological Needs ....................................................... 12
2. Safety Needs ...................................................................13
3. Love and Belongingness Needs ..................................... 13
4. Esteem Needs ................................................................. 14
5. Self-Actualization Needs ............................................... 15
CHAPTER III-RESEARCH FINDINGS...................................................... 17

vi

A. Analysis ........................................................................................ 17
1. Santiago Characteristics.................................................. 17
2. The Hierarchy of Needs in The Main Character ............ 28
a. The First Level ........................................................ 29
b. The Second Level .................................................... 31
c. The Third Level ...................................................... 33
d. The Fourth Level ..................................................... 36
e. The Fifth Level ........................................................ 37
CHAPTER IV-CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ................................ 40
BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................... 42
APPENDICES .............................................................................................. 43

vii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study
The Brazilian author Paulo Coelho was born in 1947 in the city of
Rio de Janeiro. Before dedicating his life completely to literature, he worked as
theatre director and actor, lyricist and journalist.
In 1982 Coelho published his first book, Hell Archives, which was
far from any kind of impact. In 1985 he contributed to the Practical Manual of
Vampirism, although he later tried to take it off the shelves, since he considered
it “of bad quality”. In 1986, Paulo Coelho did the pilgrimage to Saint James of
Compostella, an experience which then to be documented in his book The
Pilgrimage.
In the following years, Coelho published The Alchemist. Slow
initial sales convinced his first publisher to drop the novel, but it went on to
become one of the best selling Brazilian books of all time.
The Alchemist is one of the most important literary phenomena of
the 20th century. It reaches the first place in bestselling lists in 74 countries,
and so far it has sold for 35 million copies. This book also brought the author
in 2008 the Guinness World Record for the most translated book in the world
(67 languages) 1

1

http://www.paulocoelho.com/engl/bio/shtml., Accessed on 11 October 09
1

2

The Alchemist is a story about a dream that was first published in
1997. It tells about Santiago as the main character, a herd of sheep who follows
the sound of his heart taking a travel to get his dream. He often dreams of a
pyramid where there is treasure trove. Traveling to Tangier brings him to the
desert of Egypt, and in there he meets with Alchemist which will lead him to
the treasure, and teaches him about the soul of the world, life, love, patience,
and persistence. The travel also makes him finding his true love; Fatima, a
desert girl who is faithfully waiting for his return.
Before the journeys Santiago got some dreams repeatedly, and he
continues to wonder what it means. Santiago tries to understand his dreams. In
the middle of his search of his identity as a shepherd, he tried to decipher the
reflexions in his dream.
Along his way toward the pyramid, Santiago faces various
obstacles, like when he and Alchemist through the desert. They meet some
tribe members with blue apparel and brought to the tribe’s leader in some
military camp. The tribe leader accused Santiago and Alchemist as enemy spies
and take all their money. Alchemist told the tribe leaders that Santiago can
change him into a wind and can blew the tent away if he wants to. Santiago
was listening without any word came out from his mouth. Scared, Santiago
thinks how come he can change himself into the wind, he didn’t even
understand the language of wind. This thing pushed Santiago’s psyche to learn
how to become a wind so he and Alchemist can continue the journey to the
pyramid. Three days later he can understand the language of nature, he spoke

3

with the wind, sand, and sun. His ability makes the wind surround him and
cover him with blustery winds which also blow away some of the tents. That
thing saved them from death and also gets them under guard as far as they
want.
The main character in The Alchemist has the needs which must be
fulfilled in his life. Maslow argues that human needs are divided into five
clusters in hierarchy. The first level is Physiological Needs; the second level is
Safety Needs; the third level is Love and Belongingness; the fourth level is
Esteem Needs; and the fifth level is Self-actualization Needs as the peak of
hierarchy. At the first level, Physiological Needs such as: hunger, thirst, and
sex, the main character of The Alchemist can fulfill the needs without the
barrier and obstacle. It does not matter for him to fulfill the needs.
Furthermore, at the level Safety Needs, at the level Love and Belongingness,
and at the level Esteem Needs he gets the barrier and obstacle in fulfilling the
needs because his journey towards the Pyramids and he did not met Fatima yet
until he come to the Oases. The condition does not make him give up fulfilling
the needs. Because of his effort and his process of his life, he can fulfill when
he meets his affection, Fatima.
Therefore, the behavior that the main character appears in the
process of searching reveals the needs that he must fulfill. It is mentioned the
earlier that character in stories can be treated like human character. In order to
understand what needs he must fulfill, the writer applied the concept Hierarchy
of Human Needs of Abraham H. Maslow’s Theory.

4

B. The Scope and Limitation
In this research, the writer would like to focus the research on how
to understand the needs that must be fulfilled by the main character. Through
Abraham H. Maslow’s theory in the Paulo Coelho’s novel The Alchemist. This
discussion is meant to limit the research so that not going too broad in order to
get the target more clearly. The object that will be researched is the main
character named Santiago.

C. Research Questions
In this study the writer formulate the problems that will be appointed:
1. How is a Santiago’s characteristic described in the novel The Alchemist by
Paulo Coelho?
2. How does Santiago effort to fulfilling the hierarchy of needs viewed from
Abraham Harold Maslow’s theory?

D. Research Methodology

a. Research Objectives
Based on the background of the study and the focus of the study above, the
writer would like to classify the objective of the study into two categories
below:
1. To know the characteristic of the main figure in the Paulo Coelho’s
novel The Alchemist.

5

2. To describe the main character effort in fulfilling his needs viewed
from Abraham H. Maslow.

b. Research Methods
Method used in this research is qualitative method. By exposing
the figures out based on Hierarchy of Human Needs of Abraham H. Maslow’s
theory.
c. Data Analysis
The writer will explain the data qualitatively. The writer uses
Hierarchy of Human Needs of Abraham H. Maslow’s approach based on
critical study and sharp analysis to the qualitative data. First, the writer reads
the novel carefully for several times. This is aimed to learn the contents of the
novel intensively so it can prevent misunderstanding in the analyzing. Then,
the writer makes underlining, understanding, and identifying The Alchemist’s
novel carefully. Finally, the writer analyzes the related data according to the
human needs theory.

d. Research Instruments
The research instrument of this qualitative research is the writer
herself. The writer analyzes by reading the novel carefully. Then, the writer
marks the characterizations of the main character to find out the evidence of
the fulfillment hierarchy of needs viewed Abraham H. Maslow in The
Alchemist’s novel.

6

e. Unit of Analysis
Unit of analysis that is used in this research is the novel The
Alchemist by Paulo Coelho was published in 1998 by Harper Flamingo.

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Character and Characterization
a. Character
Character is the single most important intrinsic element in the
literary works. The things that characters do and say are more obvious than are
the logic and meaning of the pattern in which they say and do them. Character
is showing at perpetrator of presented story or the player of the story, whereas
characterization is portraying of clear picture about someone who present in a
story.
A character, then, is presumably an imagined person who inhabits
a story although that simple definition may admit a few exceptions. 2 The
major characters are usually Round characters; that is their personalities are
well developed and believable. Moreover, round character is a very complex
individual. Minor characters are often flat character: it can be seen only one
aspect of their personalities, presumably because the author does not need to
reveal more about them for the purposes of the story. Flat characters are
usually static characters. Those characters do not change. 3

2

3

X.J.Kennedy. Literature: An Introduction to fiction, poetry, and Drama (New York: Harper
Collins Publisher, 1991), third edition, p.47
Gloria mason Henderson, et al., Literature and ourselves: A Thematic Introduction for Readers
and Writers (United States: Pearson Education Inc, 2006), fifth edition, pp. 9-10.

7

8

b. Characterization
In every single time of our life, we never know that the characters
of someone was growing and changing. It could be seen because it was so tiny.
But it can be felt. The esthetics of character is known as characterization.
The characterization can be depicted through the use of name.
Names are often to provide essential clues that aid in characterization. Names
can also contain literary or historical allusions that aid in characterization by
means of association. Then, characterization can be depicted through
appearance. Although, in real life most of us are aware that appearance are
often deceiving, in the world of fiction details of appearance (what a character
wears and how he looks) often provide essential clues to character.
Characterization also can be depicted through by the author. By so doing the
author assert retains full control over characterization. The author not only
directs our attention to a given character, but also tells us exactly what our
attitude toward the character ought to be. Nothing is left to the reader’s
imagination. 4
Characterization can be depicted through the dialogue. Dialogue
can reveal the moods and personalities of the characters. The task of
establishing character through dialogue is not a simple one. Some characters
are careful and guarded in what they saw: they speak only by indirection, and it
must be inferred from their words what they actually mean. 5

4

James H. Pickering and Jefrey D.Hoeper.Concise Companion to Literature(New York:
Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc, 1981). Pp.28-29
5
James H. Pickering and Jefrey D.Hoeper.Concise Companion to Literature(New York:
Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc, 1981). p.32.

9

B. Maslow’s Theory
Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908- June 8, 1970) was an
American Psychologist. He was a leader in the development of Humanistic
Psychology, proposed an interesting way to classify human needs. 6 Maslow
constructed a hierarchy of needs. 7 Ascending from the basic biological needs
to the more complex psychological needs that become important only after the
basic needs have been satisfied.
The comerstone of Abraham Maslow’s understanding of
motivation is the proposition that human being posses urges or basic needs at
the organismic level. These basic needs, however, are weak needs, quiet
biological urges that are often confused and easily overlooked in day-to-day
affairs. 8 It means that the individual seem to satisfy successively the higher
needs that occupy a set of hierarchy.
Maslow had little interest in compiling a list of how many needs
human beings possessed. Rather, Maslow side-stepped the numbers issue and
proposed that one master need, the tendency toward growth, governs and
organizes all other needs. The growth/ actualizing need organizes all others
into a hierarchy featuring five clusters based needs. The arrangement of these
needs, Maslow felt, was best represented visually by a hierarchy. The first need

6

Ernest R. Hilgard, et al., Introduction to Psychology (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
Inc., 1981), p. 317.
7
Hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to
meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a hierarchy.
8
Johnmarshall Reeve. Understanding Motivation and Emotion (New York : Harcourt Brace
College Publishers, 2004), p. 311.

10

in Maslow’s hierarchy contains the set of physiological needs necessary for
bodily homeostasis, quiescence, and survival. All the other needs in the
hierarchy (safety and security, love and belongingness, esteem, and selfactualization) are psychological in nature of human needs. 9
Maslow argued that any comprehensive theory of Human
motivation must take into account the individual as a whole. One cannot hope
to understand the complexities of the human condition by reducing behavior to
specific responses in specific situations. The wholeness of behavior can also
serve several motive states at once.10 For example, the sexual behavior may
serve physiological as well as psychological needs of belongingness and
esteem.
Maslow argued that one must seek to understand the ultimate goals
of behavior rather than the superficial or apparent goals, because the apparent
goals for any observed behavior may be quite different from the ultimate
goal. 11 This implies, in fashion similar to Freudian theory that motivations
occur at an unconscious level. Unlike Freud, however, Maslow saw the
unconscious in positive terms. Like Rogers, Maslow also regarded the striving
for the protection self-actualization as the ultimate purpose of behavior.
Maslow argued that human motivation can best be studied by
observing human rather than animal behavior. His observations led him to the
conclusion that human needs can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of

9

Ibid
Herbert L. Petri. Motivation : Theory and Research (California: Wadsworth Publishing
Company, 2003), p. 289.
11
Ibid
10

11

needs. Needs lower on the hierarchy are proponent (i.e., stronger) and must be
satisfied before needs higher on the hierarchy will be triggered. Maslow did
not, however, regard the hierarchy as totally rigid: one can partially satisfy
lower needs, thus allowing higher needs to become partially active. Maslow
regarded the satisfaction of needs on the hierarchy in a probabilistic manner. If
a lower need is being satisfied most of the time (e.g., 85%), that need will have
little influence on behavior, while other, higher needs that are less satisfied will
have a larger influence on behavior. 12 The following diagram shows Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid below:

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid
consisting of five levels: the four levels are grouped together as deficiency
needs associate with physiological needs, while the top level is termed growth
12

Ibid

12

needs associated with physiological needs. While deficiency needs be met,
growth needs are continually shaping behavior. The basic concept is that the
higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus once all the needs that are
lower down in the pyramid are mainly or entirely satisfied. Growth forces
create upward movement in the hierarchy, whereas regressive forces push
needs further down the hierarchy. Maslow’s basic needs are as follow:
1. Physiological Needs
The first level of the hierarchy consists of physiological needs.
These are biological needs. They consist of needs for oxygen, food,
water, and a relatively constant body temperature. They are the
strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the
physiological ones would come first in the person's search for
satisfaction. 13 If needs such as hunger or thirst are not adequately being
met, the needs above them on the hierarchy are pushed into the
background in terms of controlling behavior. The individual is in an
emergency situation and his or her whole being is dominated by the
need. 14
Maslow felt that physiological needs are adequately met for
most people in our society. When these are met, the next need on the
hierarchy emerges as a dominant force in controlling and directing
behavior. 15

13

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm.
March 23th, 2010
14
Herbert L. Petri (2003), op. cit. 290
15
Ibid

13

2. Safety Needs
When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer
controlling thoughts and behaviors, the needs for security can become
active. Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in
times of emergency or periods of disorganization in the social structure
(such as widespread rioting). Children often display the signs of
insecurity and the need to be safe. 16 These needs represent a need for
safety or security in our environment. Like the physiological needs,
safety needs are primarily triggered in emergency situation. Higher
needs become unimportant when one’s life is daggered, and our
behavior reflects our attempts to remain secure.
Safety needs dominate our behavior primarily in times of
emergency. Maslow, however, felt that working of the safety needs can
also be seen in people’s preference for familiar surroundings, secure
jobs, saving accounts, and insurance. Safety needs are most evident in
or children, as shown when an infant cries it is dropped suddenly, are
startled by a loud sound, or a stranger enters the room. 17
3. Love and Belongingness Needs
When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are
satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness
can emerge. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of
16

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm.
March 23th 2010
17
Herbert L. Petri (2003), loc. cit.

14

loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving love,
affection and the sense of belonging. 18
These needs involve a hunger for affectionate relationship with
others, a need to feel part of a group, or a feeling that one “belong.” The
love needs are not equivalent to sexual needs (which are physiological),
though sexual intimacy can serve to satisfy ones need to belong. 19
Maslow argues that individuals seek to overcome feelings of loneliness
and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving love, affection
and sense of belonging.
4. Esteem Needs
If the love need have been adequately met, they too slip into the
background in relation to guiding behavior, and the esteem needs
become dominant. These are need for a positive, high evaluation of
oneself. This evaluation can be broken down into two subcategories a
need for self esteem and a need for esteem from other. 20
The need for self-esteem motivates the individual to strive for
achievement, strength, confidence, independence, and freedom. The
need for self-esteem seems to have at its core the desire to feel
worthwhile and appears highly similar to Roger’s concept of positive
regard. The related need of esteem from others involves desire for

18

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm.
March 23th 2010
19
Herbert L. Petri (2003), loc. cit.
20
Ibid

15

reputation, status, recognition, appreciation by others of one’s abilities,
and a feeling of importance. 21
When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the needs for
esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem
and for the esteem a person gets from others. Humans have a need for a
stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others.
When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and
valuable as a person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the
person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. 22
5. Self-Actualization Needs
When one has satisfied the first four level of need, the final level
of development, which Maslow termed self-actualization, can be
reached. At the self-actualization level, the person’s behavior is
motivated by different conditions than at the lower levels. 23 It means, at
this level, the individual differences are greatest.
The self-actualized individual has satisfied all the deprivation
needs of the first four levels of the hierarchy. The behavior of the selfactualized person is, as a result, motivates by new set of needs, which
Maslow termed the being needs (B-motivation, or metamotivation).
These B-motives are values such as truth, honesty, beauty, and
goodness, and they provide meaning to the life of the self-actualized

21

Ibid p.291
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm.
March 23th 2010
23
Herbert L. Petri (2003), loc. cit.
22

16

individual. 24 The clear emerge of these needs usually rest upon some
prior satisfaction of the physiological, safety, love, and esteem needs. 25
The picture Maslow gives us of the self-actualized person is a
very positive one. The self-actualized individual is no longer motivated
by deficiencies but is motivated to grow and become all that he or she is
capable of becoming. Self-actualization constantly stimulates people to
test their abilities and expand their horizons. 26
When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then
are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes selfactualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was
"born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a
poet must write." These needs make themselves felt in signs of
restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking something, in
short, restless. If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or
lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what the person is restless
about. It is not always clear what a person wants when there is a need
for self-actualization. 27

24

Ibid
C. George Boeree, Personality Theories. http://ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html Accessed on
March 23th 2010
26
Ibid
27
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm.
March 23th 2010
25

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH FINDINGS
A. Analysis
1. Analysis of Santiago’s characteristics
Santiago is a shepherd. As a shepherd he lived by keep moving
from place to place. He spent the night in a field, savanna or even more in the
ruined church. To protect himself from the extremely weather which is so hot
in the afternoon and very cold in the night, he always brings his jacket. To
cover himself from the sun light in the afternoon and to protect him from the
cold at the night. It also can be his pillow when he sleeps.
The heat lasted until nightfall, and all that time he had to carry his jacket.
But when he thought to complain about the burden of its weight, he
remembered that, because he had the jacket, he had withstood the cold of
the dawn. (Coelho 1997, 10)
He was grateful for having the jacket’s weight and warmth that can
protect him from the cold at night.
Before he became a shepherd he just a boy who lived in Andalusia,
his parents is a farmer and he live in modest family. His father wanted him to
be a priest, it cause if he become a priest it can makes his parents proud of him
and also can makes their social status higher than before. But Santiago refuses
him. Santiago has a dream to travel around the world. He wants to be a
shepherd. He tries to advise his father. He fights for keeps his dream. His
struggle to advise his parents makes his father agree with him. They let him to
follow his dream to travel around the world as a shepherd.

17

18

His parents had wanted him to become a priest, and thereby a source of
pride for a simple farm family...
One afternoon, on a visit to his family, he had summoned up the courage
to tell his father that he didn’t want to become a priest. That he wanted to
travel. (Coelho 1997, 10)
By the blessing his father also gives him a pouch, which held three
ancient Spanish gold coins inside. It can be his financial capital. He will buy
some sheep by its gold.
“Well, then I’ll be a shepherds.”
His father said no more. The next day, he gave his son a pouch that held
three ancient Spanish gold coins. (Coelho 1997, 11)
By his effort to tell his father about his dream, Santiago gets the
permission from his father. He knows that Santiago can reach his dream, and
he do not want Santiago to be like him, who buried his is dream to be a
shepherd. But it is still alive in his mind. Whether Santiago knows that his
parents really want him to become a priest, he keeps determined enough to
endure his dream.
And he gave the boy his blessing. The boy could see in his father’s gaze to
be able, himself, to travel the world. A desire that was still alive, despite
his father’s having had to bury it, over dozens of years, under the burden
of struggling for water to drink, food to eat, and the same place to sleep
every night of his life. (Coelho 1997, 12)
Along way his journey as a shepherd, when he slept at the night he
ever dream about when he was in the field with his sheep, when a child
appeared and began to play with the animals. He does not like people do that,
because he do really know about his sheep are afraid of strangers. But children
always seem to be able to play with them without frightening them. He does
not know why. Santiago is following his heart. He will try to understand what
his heart says to himself. It will show how to understand his dream. “I am

19

following my Personal Legend. It’s not something you would understand.”
(Coelho 1997, 13)
His curiosity makes Santiago try to find the meaning of dream he
had. He tries to understand his dream. He has been dreaming it for twice. He
wants to know what the meaning of his dream is. He tries to figure it by seeing
the gypsy. He knows from the people that gypsies can interpret the dream.
“You came so that you could about your dreams,” The old woman. “And
dreams are the language of God. When He speaks in our language, I can
interpret what He has said. But if He speaks in the language of the soul, it
is only you who can understand. But, whichever it is, I’m going to charge
you for the consultation.” (Coelho 1997, 14-15)
“I have had the same dream twice,” he said. (Coelho 1997, 15)
Santiago tells his dream to a gypsy woman. He tells her the whole
story about his dream. Santiago wants her to interpret his dream that makes
him easier to understand the meaning of it.
“I dream that I was in a field with my sheep, when a child appeared and
began to play with the animals. I don’t like people to do that, because the
sheep are afraid of strangers. But children always seem to be able to play
with them without frightening them. I don’t know why. I don’t know how
animals know the age of human beings.” (Coelho 1997, 15)
“The child went in playing with my sheep for quite a while,”... “And
suddenly, the child took me by both hands and transported me to the
Egyptian Pyramids.” (Coelho 1997, 15)
“Then, at the Egyptian pyramids,”... “The child said to me, ‘If you come
here, you will find a hidden location, I woke up. Both times.” (Coelho
1997, 15)
Every sign makes Santiago’s curiosity want to know about the
meaning of anything. When he is in the desert, he saw the sign that desert gave
to him. No matter how sleepy he is, he keeps learning about the meaning of the
sign that desert give to him.

20

He felt sleepy. In his heart, he wanted to remain awake, but he also
wanted to sleep. “I am learning the Language of the World, and
everything in the world is beginning to make sense to me... even the
flight of the hawks,” he said to himself. (Coelho 1997, 101)

Sleepy is not the reason can makes Santiago stop to learn about the
world. Even though just the hawk. His curiosity makes him cannot abandoned
anything. Santiago is the brave person also. It is shown by his struggle to attack
his fear when he gets the sign from the world about what might happen in the
oasis. He tries to tell the chieftain about it. Even though he does really know
the risk if the sign is false, he still lets the message to be known by the
chieftain. It is narrated bellow:
“Who is this stranger who speaks of omens?” asked one of the chieftains,
eyeing the boy.
“It is I,” the boy answered. And he told what he had seen. (Coelho 1997,
107)
He was alarmed by why had happens. He had succeeded in reaching
through of the Soul of the World. And now the price for having done so
might be his life; it was a frightening bet, but he had been making risky
bets ever since the day he had sold his sheep to pursue his Personal
Legend. (Coelho 1997, 110)

After telling that message to the chieftains he was not afraid about
what might happen. He thought that he has been saved oasis from the enemy.
He just wanted it to be happened or he would be killed by the chieftains if the
message not true.
Beside his bravery, Santiago also is a fearful person. It is shown
along his journey; he always faces many things that threaten his life. But with
his knowledge and his efforts, so he could pass all the things that are mattered.

21

The men fell into an animated discussion. They spoke in an Arabic
dialect that the boy didn’t understand, but, when he made to leave, the
guard told him to stay. The boy become fearful; the omens told him that
something was wrong. He regretted having spoken to the camel driver
about what he had seen in the desert. (Coelho 1997, 107-108)
Santiago has been afraid about something that can make he will be
killed. A long way toward the treasure he gets a lot of threatened from many
person. When the alchemist said to the chieftain that Santiago can change
himself into the wind, he felt afraid. It cause he did not know how to do that
thing. When they passed a number of armed tribesmen, Santiago feel afraid.
Santiago’s hearts surrounding about his fear. It is narrated below:
... The boy’s heart began to speak of fear. It told him stories it had heard
from the Soul of the World, stories of men who sought to find their
treasure and never succeeded. Sometimes is frightened the boy with the
idea that he might to find his treasure, or that he might die there in the
desert. At other times, it told the boy that it was satisfied: it had found
love and riches. (Coelho 1997, 130)

In the middle of his fear, alchemist said to Santiago. That if he
cannot change himself into the wind, not only he will be killed by the
chieftains, but also he would not be able to understand the soul of the world to
know the sign from the world to get the treasure that he searching for.“Don’t
give in to your fear,” said the alchemist, in a strangely gentle voice. “If you do,
you won’t be able to talk to your heart.” (Coelho 1997, 143)

Not all of the shepherds are fools. Is shown through Santiago’s
character, even though he is a shepherd, it’s not making him to be lazy to learn
by himself. He can read books. It makes people feel proud of him. “I didn’t

22

know shepherds knew how to read,” said a girl’s voice behind him. (Coelho
1997, 7)

The desert does not make stop Santiago to learn. He keeps learning
as long as it is useful for his life and his travel to his treasure. He realized: If I
can learn to understand this language without words, I can learn to understand
the world. (Coelho 1997, 45).

Even though he has knowledge about many things, it doesn’t make
him stop to learn. Santiago still learns about the Soul of the World. I’ve learn
things from the sheep, and I’ve learn things from crystal, he thought. I can
learn something from the desert, too. It seems old and wise. (Coelho 1997, 75).
Santiago knew that his knowledge not enough if he just read a
book. He learns from many things. Not only from his sheep, but also from the
crystal and the desert. It can be enriching his knowledge. That is the reason
why makes Santiago different with other shepherd.

Santiago knows that the Soul of the World exists. And he knows it
can help him. He will learn about it until he understands the Language of
things. He realizes that his Personal Legend will teach him to understand the
Soul of the World it can make him to meet Alchemist.

“I learn that the World has a Soul, and that whoever understands that soul
can also understand the Language of things. I learned that many alchemists
realize their Personal Legend, and wound up discovering the Soul of the
World, the Philosopher’s stone, and the elixir of life.” (Coelho 1997, 85)
“But, above all, I learned that these things are all so simple that they could
be written on the surface of an emerald,” (Coelho 1997, 85)

23

Even though he is sleepy he will not stop to learn about every sign
in the World. He tries to fight whatever it is. He wants to understand about the
Soul of the World. It makes him smart and he does many efforts in order to
understand about the Soul of the World.

He felt sleepy, in his heart, he wanted to remain awake, but he wanted to
sleep. “I am learning the Language of the World, and everything in the
world is beginning to make sense to me... even the flight of the hawks,” he
said to himself. (Coelho 1997, 101)
Feel sleepy cannot make Santiago stop learning. He tries to kill his
feel, he remains to awake. Until he know the meaning of the sign. Santiago has
a lot of vision about what might he face. He always gets the sign from
anything. He knows that the world needs him to translate the sign. In his
journey, he finds that the hawks give him the sign about what will happen in
the oasis. He tries to understand the meaning of it. He learns about the sign
until he really understands about it.
Suddenly, one of the hawks made a flashing dive through the sky,
attacking the other. As it did so, a sudden, fleeting image came to the boy:
an army, with its sword at the ready, riding into the oasis. (Coelho 1997,
101)
After knowing the meaning of the sign, He tries to tell the
chieftains about what will happen in their territory that and it is not save
anymore. And war will happen there. It is really dangerous.
He rose, and made his way back toward the palm trees. Once again, he
perceived the many languages in the things about him: this time, the desert
was safe, and it was the oasis that had become dangerous. (Coelho 1997,
102)
“An army is coming,” the boy said. “I had a vision.” (Coelho 1997, 102)

24

After meeting the guard of chieftains, he tries to tell the chieftains
by himself. And he wants them to listen what he wants to say. He wants to tell
what desert gives the omen to him. “I want to see the chieftain. I’ve brought
omens from the desert.” (Coelho 1997, 106). Santiago tries to makes the guard
believe him that he just wants to tell the sign from the desert. He does not want
it happen in there.
He tries to convince the chieftains about what he saw in his vision.
He translates the omen to them. Fortunately, they understand what Santiago
said. And they will do something in there. They said they will protect the oasis
from the enemy. The chieftains really know about what Santiago said. Desert
cannot lie. It will tell the truth. About what might happen in the desert.
“Because my eyes are not yet accustomed to the desert,” the boy said. “I
can see things that eyes habituated to the desert might not see.”
....
And also because I know about the Soul of the World, he said a third
chieftain.
....
“I can only tell you what I saw. If you don’t want to believe me, you don’t
have to do anything about it.” (Coelho 1997, 107)
After telling the truth to the chieftains, he meets with the man
riding the horse, and he asks him who is the man who dares to read the
meaning of the sign in the desert with the curved his into Santiago.“Who dares
to read the meaning of the flight of the hawks?” “It is I who dares to do so,”
said the boy. (Coelho 1997, 111). Deepest in his heart Santiago feels afraid.
The man pointing his sword into Santiago’s chin, but Santiago trying to be
brave. He is proud that he can interpret the flight of the hawks. He tries to save
the oasis from the enemy.

25

Santiago’s vision is Personal Legend will bring him to die. But he
realized that his destiny would bring him to face his enemy, meeting with
Fatima and all of the omens are going to be true.
... He felt strange sense of joy he was about to die in pursuit of his
Personal Legend. And for Fatima. The omens had been true, after all here
he was, face to face with his enemy, but there was no need to be concerned
about dying - the Soul of the World awaited him, and he would soon be a
part of it and tomorrow, his enemy would also be a part of that soul.
(Coelho 1997, 112)
Santiago does not know why he should follow his heart. But
Alchemist tells him that if he wants to get the treasure, he has to follow his
heart. It makes him understand about Soul of the World. By knowing the Soul
of the Word, can makes his search easier. It because he can understands more
about the sign from the desert. And he can get the treasure as soon as possible.
“Why do we have to listen to our hearts?” the boy asked, when they had
made that day.
“Because, wherever your heart is, that is where you’ll find your treasure.”
“But my heart is agitated,” the boy said. “It has its dreams, it gets
emotional, and it’s become passionate over a woman of the desert. It asks
things of me, and it keeps me from sleeping many nights, when I’m
thinking about her.” (Coelho 1997, 129-130)

By following his vision he has no longer fear about what might
happen in his life, in his journey. He just does what his heart said to himself.
Santiago follows the omen as his destiny.
The boy continues to listen to his heart as they crossed the desert. He came
to understand its dodges and tricks, and to accept it as it was. He lost his
fear, and forgot about his need to go back to the oasis, because, one
afternoon, his heart told him that it was happy. “Even though I complain
sometimes,” it said, “It’s because I’m the heart of a person, and people’s
hearts are that way. People are afraid to pursue their most important
dreams, because they feel that they don’t deserve them, or that they’ll be
unable to achieve them....” (Coelho 1997, 131)

26

Santiago has to understand what his heart says to himself. And
whatever his heart feeling, he represent it as the message from the World to his
destiny.
From then on, the boy understood his heart; he asked it, please, never to
stop speaking to him. He asked that, when he wandered far from his
dream, his heart press him and sound the alarm. The boy swore that, every
time he heard the alarm, he would need its message. (Coelho 1997, 133)
Santiago’s vision set him to know what will happen. Until one day,
he had a vision but Alchemist did not. It shows that his heart has understood
about the Soul of the World. He knows that the world wants him to understand
what they gave to him. Santiago tries to understand his vision. He also tries to
interpret it and tell the alchemist about the meaning of the vision he had.
The sun was setting when the boy’s heart sounded a danger signal. They
were surrounded by gigantic dunes, and the boy looked at the alchemist to
see whether he had sensed anything. (Coelho 1997, 140)
Toward his journey, Santiago has been met with many people. He
is the friendly person. He tries to make a friend with people he met. By having
a lot of friend makes his life more cheerful. Santiago knows that he will not
stay in one place for a long time. It cause he is a shepherd. Shepherd live is
moving from place to place. But it is makes Santiago have a lot of friend.
The sheep were at the gates of the city, in a stable that belonged to a
friend. The boy knew a lot of people in the city. That was what made
traveling appeal to him- he always made new friend. (Coelho 1997, 17)
But sometimes he wants to be alone. He does not want to disturbed
when he was read his book. It cause he really love to read. He thought by
reading he can increase his knowledge. But his father has been taught him how

27

to be respect the eldest person. He try to do not makes the old man feels
uncomforted with his read.
The boy was tempted to be rude, and move to another bench, but his father
had taught him to be respectful of the elderly. So he held out the book to
the man- for two reasons: first, that he, himself, wasn’t sure how to
pronounce the title; and the second, that if the old man didn’t know how to
read, he would probably feel ashamed and decide of his own accord to
change benches. (Coelho 1997, 19)
When he was following the caravan, he makes a friend with an
Englishman. Even though he does not like it, Santiago thought that he will be
his friend latter. Even though they are friend, Santiago just curious about what
the Englishman wants to do. He brought a lot of book which is Santiago know
it is so hard to understand the books. It makes he wants to talk with the
Englishman. He wants to know more about the chemical. Furthermore at the
first time the Englishman does not want to disturbed. But at least he makes a
friend with Santiago also.
Nearby was the Englishman, reading a book. He seemed unfriendly, and
had looked irritated when the boy had entered. They might even have
become friends, but the Englishman closed off the conversation. (Coelho
1997, 70)
From the analysis above, the writer can conclude that Santiago is
the bra

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