Characterization through Reactions of Other Characters Characterization through Choice of Name

18 characterization of Marni Olivia Olsen in chapter 3 with Maslow’s theory. Hierarchy is any system of persons or things ranked one above another. According to Maslow, there are five levels of hierarchy of needs; there are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs love and belonging, esteem needs and self- actualization needs. Hierarchy is any system of persons or things ranked one above another. According to Maslow, there are five levels of hierarchy of needs; there are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs love and belonging, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs also known as D-needs, meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. Maslow termed the highest- level of the pyramid as growth needs also known as being needs or B-needs. Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. 39 Maslow described a person who can reach a self-actualization as a person who can give the best from themselves and maximize all the talent that a person has. A person who can reach a self-actualization is a best example of a human. Maslow called this as “the growing tip”. 40 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs identifies the basic types of motivation; the basic needs are as follow: 39 Kendra Cherry, “Hierarchy of Needs, The Five Levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs”, www.About.comHierarchy-of-needs.htm accessed on 14 th Marc 2012 40 Goble, Frank. G. The Third Force: The Psychology of Abraham Maslow. New York: Washington Square Press. 1971. p. 48 19

a. Physiological Needs

The first needs that we have to be fulfilled are Psysiological needs. Physiological needs are the obvious needs for foods, water, air, sex, sleep. Etc. Satisfying those need is so important for human to survive. 41 A person who is lacking food, self-esteem, and love will demand food first and, until this needs satisfied, will ignore or push all other needs into the background. 42 For the man who is, extremely and dangerously hungry, no other interest exist but food. He dreams food, he remembers food, he think about food, he emotes only about food, he perceives only food, and he wants only food. 43 Physiological needs have a greater personal impact as motivating forces in cultures where basic survival remains an everyday concern. Because a need that has been gratified no longer serves to motivate behavior, the physiological needs play a minimal role for most of us. 44

b. Safety needs

After the physiological need has been fulfilled, we are driven to satisfy the safety needs. These need include security, stability, and freedom for fear and anxiety. 45 Maslow believed that the needs for safety and security typically are important drives for infants and neurotic adults. Emotionally healthy adults have usually satisfied their safety needs, a 41 Duane Schultz, op.cit., p. 91 42 Frank G. Goble. The third Force; The Psychology of Abraham Maslow New York: Washington Square press, 1970, p. 38 43 Abraham Maslow. Motivation and Personality New York: Harper Row, 1970, p. 37 44 Duane P. Schultz And Sydney E. Schultz. Theories of Personality: Ninth Edition Wadsworth: Cangange Learning, 2009, p. 305 45 Duane Schultz, op.cit., p. 91

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