Structural Approach The First Person Point of View. If the writer chooses this angle of

textbooks, not in literature. Some writers vary the tone as the situation in the story changes. A writer’s tone can be humorous, satirical, passionate, zealous, sarcastic, condescending, and so on. The tone can be anything the writer chooses. For instance, humor is an important tone in children’s literature. Types of humor used by writers include surprise, exaggeration, incongruity, absurdity, and parody. The writer’s choice of diction often reveals hisher tone. Tone is often expressed by the connotation of words. For instance, a certain expression might be interpreted as sarcasm. Another expression can be interpreted as vulgar. Tone is also about the effect the writing has on the reader.

2.2.2 Structural Approach

Structuralism in literature often sees as theory and or approach. It is not wrong, because either approach or theory is needed in literature. Structuralism approach will be a view of something that will show through literary work and the theory is the analysis. Actually, structuralism is ways of thinking about world, especially which related to comments and structures description. In this view literature is assumed as phenomenon that has structure which related each other. Junus 1990: 1 said that structuralism often understood as form. Literary work is form. A major principle of structuralism is subjective. It is because only based on the literary work, itself. Structuralism sees a literary work as an independent text Endraswara, 2008:51. Researches doing by analyze the intrinsic aspects objectively. Structuralism will see a literary work as an independent work without concern with extrinsic elements of literature. A good literary work can make a good relationship between the elements meaningfully. In structuralism intrinsic elements are important to analyze by readers. In structuralism approach analysis of theme is firstly done by looking for recurring idea of the story Endraswara, 2008:51. After analyzing the theme , the readers could analyze plot, conflict, point of view, style and tone, setting and characterization. By analyzing the intrinsic elements we can find the deep meaning of the story. It can be seen in the quotation: Structural approach is one of by which in analyzing the data, the writer focuses on the literary work itself. This approach is often called an objective or formal approach. What we need to discuss in the work of literature is the elements which built the literary work itself, such as plot, theme, characters and characterization, writing and language style, and the harmony of the relationship of each aspects Semi, 1990: 867. Structuralism is the main literary approach I employed in conducting this study. Structuralism sees a literary work as independent text. The researches do objectively by analyzing the intrinsic elements of literary work. The elements are ideas, plot, theme, setting, characters, style and tone. The relationship between the elements will build a wholeness of a text.

2.2.3 Gothic Tale and Its Characteristics